Exam 2 study guide
Exam 2 study guide SFL 210
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SFL 210 at Brigham Young University taught by David Nelson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 173 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Child and Family Studies at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT EXAM 2 REVIEW CHAPTER 4 Infancy Early Learning Motor Skills and Perceptual Capacities 1 Why pediatricians test newborn re exes Re exes are critical to understanding how the baby is doing quotnormalquot Primitive Stepping Tonic neck Babinski Palmar grasping o Primitive disappear and then reappear later Instinctual Breathing Blinking Sucking to get sustenance 0 These exist for survival 2 Characteristics of the infant states of arousal Alert inactivity baby is calm eyes open inspecting environment Waking Activity baby s eyes are open seem unfocused uncoordinated movement Two other states Crying and Sleeping 3 Cultural variation in infant sleeping arrangements Swaddling used in many cultures around the world Western baby to shoulder walkrock sing lullabiespaci er 4 How poor sleep organization is related to children s behavior when awake 80 of the hormone that stimulates growth is secreted while children sleep Affects cognitive processes and adjustment to school Adolescents usually go to bed later and start school earlier sleepy kid Children who gradually sleep less symptoms of depression drop in selfesteem 5 Causes and patterns of infant crying and how parents can help reduce crying Spend 23 hours a day crying for different reasons and sound different Basic Cry Starts soft gradually more intense hungry or tired Mad cry more intense version Pain cry begins with sudden long burst of crying long pause and gasping 6 Questions regarding SIDS sudden infant Death Syndrome This is when a healthy baby dies suddenly for no apparent reason Don t know the exact causes of SIDS but risk factors have been identi ed 7 De nitions of habituation and dishabituation recovery operant condition and classical conditioning and how they are manifest in infant s early learning and long term Classical Conditioning neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with meaningful stimulus neutral stimulus begins to trigger same response as meaningful stimulus o Underlies some fears phobias and attitudes Operant Conditioning Voluntary acts become more or less probable depending on the consequences 0 Positive and negative reinforcements and punishments Habituation and Dishabituation simple form of learning stop responding to stimulus that is repeated over and over seen it before not new to us 0 Helpful because we can sort out what s quotoldquot and focus on the quotnewquot of our environment allows us to always be learning 0 quotLearning to be bored by the familiar Reinforcement 0 Continuous best to establish habit o Intermittent best to maintain established habit o Extinction learned responses may disappear 8 Fine motor development de nitions of prereaching ulnar grasp pincer grasp and at what ages these milestones occur Prereaching Newborn Ulnar Grasp 34 months grasp with whole hand palm Transfer object from hand to hand 45 months Pincer grasp 9 months Grabbing things between your ngers 9 What sounds newborns prefer most Infants begin life prepared to respond to sounds of any language eventually lose sensitivity to sounds foreign to their own language 10 How well developed the various senses are at birth Newborns begin life with everything out of focus Newborns have a keen sense of smell can distinguish different musical sounds Have a highly developed sense of taste respond re exively to touch Newborns can only perceive a few colors can see full range by 3 months Touch helps stimulate physical growth in preterm infants 0 Touch is a major means for the infant and toddler to explore the world 11 How babies perceive faces and show preferences for different kinds of faces Human face is particularly important object to infants Infants prefer high contrast features Babies enjoy watching more animated faces 12 Central focus of the Gibson s differentiation theory Perceptual learning is learning to extract information out of the sensory data of the environment 13 Effects and timing of early deprivation on Romanian orphans When they were adopted their cognitive development progressed rapidly but they did not completely catch up to quotnormalquot development The longer they were in the orphanages the greater the cognitive defecits Showed that the brain is not completely plastic because they were not completely compensated later in life 14 Effects of quotearly learning centersquot on infant and toddler development CHAPTER 5 Physical Growth 1 The pattern of physical growth during puberty including sex differences Girls typically start at 1 1 and mature by 15 Boys usually start at 13 and mature by 17 Growth is slow during elementary school years then there is a peak for a few years 0 2 year difference in growth spurt girls faster than boys Bones become longer and more dense during puberty bers fuse together Development starts at the head and proceeds gradually downward 2 The best way to estimate a child s physical maturity Most obvious way to measure physical growth is in terms of size 0 Changes in height and weight 3 Characteristic sex differences in grossmotordevelopment Girls ovaries uterus and vagina changes growth of breast widening of pelvis Boys scrotum testes penis appearance of facial hair broadening of shoulders 4 Hormones and parts of the brain that are responsible for physical growth patterns Pituitary regulates pubertal changes Timing of pubertal events is regulated by genetics 5 Latest information on secular trends in physical growth 6 Brain Development know functions of neurons synapses synaptic pruning glial cells neuronsneural bers myelinization and programmed cell death Neurons basic unit of brain and nervous system receives and transmits information Synapse gap between one neuron and the next Synaptic pruning soon after rapid neural growth synapses begin to disappear gradually Glial cells a supportive cell in the central nervous system surround neurons and provides insulation and support Neural bers very thin transmission lines that run from nerve cells to receptors in the rest of the body Myelinization myelin forms a sheath around the axon of the glial cell production of myelin sheath during infancy it happens quickly leading to child s fast development walking crawling Programmed cell death death of a cell in any form carried out in a regulated process to usually confer advantage cells between ngers die digits separate 7 How different parts of the brain show differential sensitivity or plasticity to environmental in uences and input Brain has plasticity because it has exibility in light of atypical experiences Young children recover more skills after brain injury than older children because functions are more easily reassigned in the young brain 8 The teenage brain and behavior 9 Experienceexpectant and experiencedependent brain growth Experience Expectant environmental input evolution human infants are typically exposed to some forms of stimulation Experience Dependent changes in the brain not linked to speci c points in development and that vary across individuals and across cultures 10 Importance of nutrition during various developmental stages Fuel for growth In infants 40 of energy is devoted to growth require a large amount of calories 11 Advantages of breastfeeding and recommendations Breastfeeding ensures the baby gets the nourishment they need 12 Ill less often less prone to diarrheaconstipation typically make transition to solid foods more easily How parents can encourage healthy eating in children and adolescents 13 Give healthy options Allow eating in whatever order Offer new foods one at a time and in small amounts Continually offer rejected food over several meals Don t force cleaning the plate Talk about topics other than food Never use food as a reward or punishment Obesityoverweight statistics for US children and adolescents 14 In 61 1 yearolds increased from 127 to 206 In 25 yearolds climbs from 84 to 158 Overweight being too heavy for their height Heredity sets a basal metabolic rate rate the body consumes calories Number of overweight children has doubled and number of overweight adolescents has tripled The impact of infectious disease on child mortality worldwide 15 16 girls an 17 Around the world nearly 10 million children die before their 5th birthday Nearly half come from Africa Leading killers pneumonia diarrhea measles malaria malnutrition Most of these can be prevented with proven treatments Why immunization rates are falling in the US Effects of pubertal timing early vs late maturation for d boys For boys it s better to be early or on time For girls it s better to be on time or late Onset of eating disorders Girls generally worry more about appearance than boys 0 Girls who mature early often lack selfcon dence are less popular more likely to be depressed What is behind teen pregnancy rates over the course of historical time CHAPTER 6 Cognitive Development Piaget Core Knowledge Vygotsky 1 Basiccomponents of Piaget s CognitiveDevelopmental Theory including equilibration organization adaptation accommodation assimilation and schemes and how they all interrelate Equilibration back and forth between equilibrium and disequilibrium Scheme cognitive structures we create to represent organize and interpret our experiences Organization inborn tendency combineintegrate available schemes into coherent knowledge Adaptation building schemes through direct interaction with environment 0 Assimilation make experience t current schema 0 Accommodation modify current schema to account for new experiences 2 Attributes of Piaget s sensorimotor substages From Re exive to Re ective Re exive schemes rst month Primary circular reactions infant discoversrepeats non re exive actions that satisfy basic needs Secondary circular reactions child begins to differentiate self from environment Coordination of SCR planned responding coordinate two or more actions Mental Representation Internal mental exploration make believe play Baby learning from TV and video General trends in the development of makebelieve play Purpose and implications of Piaget s threemountain problem Limitations of preoperational thought Egocentrism Animism Inability to Conserve Transductive Reasoning Class inclusion problems Why young children struggle with Piagetian conservation and class inclusion tasks Importance of abstract thinking to the formal operational stage Able to create solutions to problems not already faced before can contemplate situations not in the moment Differences between concrete operational thought and formal operational thought as manifest in Piagetian tasks like the pendulum problem Concrete Operational Thought Child think in more organized logical fashion 71 1 years old Formal Operational Thought capacity for abstract thinking 10 propositional thinking imaginary audience and personal fable 11 12 13 14 15 Piaget s concepts of hypotheticodeductive reasoning Hypotheticodeductive reasoning when faced with problem begin with a theory of all possible factors deduce hypotheses and then test them in orderly fashion How Piaget s theory has inspired further research Theory has had in uence on education childrearing and business toys Piaget and Vygotsky in how they viewed language Characteristics of private speech in young children Comments intended to help children regulate their own behavior Instruct themselves by speaking aloud Intermediate step toward selfregulation of cognitive skills Vygotsky s theory important to pay attention to private speech in children helps you understand their anxieties and the things they are trying to gure out Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory zone of proximal development cooperativelearning reciprocal teaching inter subjectivity guided participation and scaffolding Piagetian vs Vygotskian approaches to education CHAPTER 7 Cognitive Development Information Processing 1 2 Basic elements of information processing theory Cognition relies on mental hardware and software Basic components of the store model Stimulus input sensory register pay attention working shortterm memory holds limited amount of information Storage Longterm memory stores information permanently Strategies for storing and retrieving information such as rehearsal organization elaboration recognition recall and reconstruction Storing Rehearsal repeating information to self Organization grouping information into meaningful chunks Elaboration Creating relationship between seemingly unrelated information Retrieving Recognition quothave I seen this before Recall Mental images of absent stimuli Reconstruction Information is selectedinterpreted in terms of our existing knowledge I think it happened this way 4 Unique aspects of Case s neoPiagetian theory 5 Developmental trends in selective attention 6 What underlies ADHD symptoms Hyperactivity children are unusually energetic dgety and unable to keep still especially where they need to limit their activity Inattention Skip from one task to another do not pay attention in class and seem unable to concentrate on schoolwork Impulsivity Often act before thinking may run into a street before looking for traffic or interrupt others who are speaking Media multitasking and learning Fundamentals of fuzzytrace theory Concepts related to memory scripts autobiographical memory gists episodic memory semantic memory verbatim memory automatization 10 Concepts related to attention cognitive inhibition production de ciency control de ciency utilization de ciency LDOQQ 11 How a lawyer can increase a child s accurate reporting in court testimony 12 Development and characteristics of metacognition Thinking about thinking 0 Awareness and understanding of various aspects of thought 0 Constantly evaluating what needs to be done in order to improve processing 13Differences between low and middleincome families in how much parents read to children
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