Exam 1 Study guide
Exam 1 Study guide Soc 111
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 111 at Brigham Young University taught by Erik L. Bond in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Social Sciences at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
SOCIOLOGY UNIT 1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 2 amp 7 GENDER VOCAB CH 2 Research Methods Set of standard approaches to follow when investigating a question Deductive approach Theory Hypothesis Empirical Observations Analyze con rmreject Inductive approach Empirical Observations Work to form a Theory Correlation Association Causality Change in one factor causes a change in another Reverse Causality Think A is causing B when B is actually causing A Operationalization Assigning precise method for measuring a term being examined for a study Validity Measures what you intended it to Reliability How likely to obtain the same result Generalizability extent we can claim ndings inform us about a larger group than studied Feminist Methodology Treat women39s experiences as legitimate theoretical resources Case Study an indepth look at speci c phenomenon in a particular social setting Historical Methods Collect from journals reports news artifacts from period we want to study Comparative Research Researcher compares two or more entities to learn about factors that differ between them usually countries or cultures Experimental Methods Alter social landscape in speci c ways compare to a control group Content Analysis Systematic analysis of content written work speech lm CH 7 Strati cation Structured social inequality systematic inequalities between groups of people intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships Social Equality No differences in wealth power prestige status Dialectic Two way relationship mutually dependent on each other Ontological Equality Everyone is created equal at birth resources on earth do not matter we are all children of God Equality of Opportunity Everyone has an equal chance because of 39rules of the game39 Bourgeois Society Society of Commerce maximization of pro t is primary business incentive Equality of Condition Everyone should have an equal starting point Equality of Outcome Everyone ends up the same in the end Free Rider Problem incentive for individuals to shirk responsibility in a group effort Contradictory Class Locations People can occupy locations between the two 39pure39 classes Meritocracy Society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes and ability Socioeconomic Status an individual39s position in a strati ed social order Income money received for work Wealth family or individual39s net worth Social Mobility movement between positions within a society Structural Mobility mobility that is inevitable from changes in economy Exchange Mobility Mobility where people trade jobs in a way that balances out Statusattainment Model Ranks individuals by socioeconomic status specifies attributes of people who end up in more desirable occupations CH 8 Feminism Awareness movement women and men should have equal opportunity and respect Sex Biological Differences of males and females Sexuality Sexual preference identity and behavior Gender Social position set of social arrangements built around norms Biological Determinism Explains social behavior in terms of who you are in the natural world Hegemonic Masculinity When men are dominant and privileged invisible Gender Roles Sets of behavioral norms attached to ones status as male or female Patriarchy subordination of femininity to masculinity Structural Functionalism Tradition every society has certain structures that ful ll a function Sex Role Theory Nuclear family is ideal men and women perform their sex roles Con ict Theories Claimed that gender not class was the driving force of history Microinteractionist Theories Gender is not a xed identity put the product of interactions Postmodern Theory emphasis on fragmented identity blurring of sex and genderboundanes Homosexual person who has sexual attraction to other persons of the same sex Sexism When a person39s sexgender is the basis for judgmentdiscriminationhatred Glass Ceiling invisible limit on women39s climb up the occupational ladder Glass Escalators Promotional ride men take to the top of a work organization especially in feminized jobs NOTES CHAPTER 2 METHODS Measures of Center Mean Median Mode Mean is affected by outliers not always the best measure of center Two Categories Quantitative and Qualitative Provide a way to establish causal relationship between social elements Goal of Sociology see how individual lives are related to and effect social forces beyond us Deductive Approach theory Form Hypothesis Observations Analyze Inductive Approach Empirical Observation Form Theory It is very dif cult to assume causality exact effect 0 Requires correlation time order and ruling out other explanations Independent variable affects dependent variable Ethical Guidelines for Sociologists Do no harm Informed consent Voluntary participation Validity vs Reliability Accuracy vs Repeatability Measures what is it intended for vs how likely you are to obtain the same result 0 Something can be reliable but not valid Ideally we want measures to be both valid and reliable but sometimes there s a tradeoff Experimenter Effects Social research can39t have placebos and doubleblind studies 0 White coat effect effects researchers have on the study by being there 0 Strive to remain neutral and impartial often impossible Creating and Testing Theory Good research is guided by theory How you gather samples is one of the most important steps of research Case Study indepth look at speci c phenomenon in particular social setting Data Collection Qualitative Data Participant Observation and Interviews Quantitative Data Surveys and Historical Methods CHAPTER 7 STRATI FICATION Structured social inequality Systematic inequalities among groups of people intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships Views of Inequality JeanJacques Rousseau Social problems develop through building society and repressing natural character Two forms of Inequality 0 Natural Inequality certain amount will always exist born with these Ex individual ability to kick a ball 0 Social Inequality Lead to social problems is a catalyst for social con ict can cause people to act differently privileges and uneven access to resources Ferguson and Millar Inequality is also good some people get ahead generates more for society Thomas Malthus Inequality is necessary and result of surplus only way people can conserve and increase 39bounty39 personal incentive motivation to work 0 Inequality keeps the population in check necessary to avoid massive overpopulation Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Dialectic twoway relationship mutual dependency believed history would move to more equality Standards of Equality o Ontological Equality Created equal at birth equal children of God 0 Equality of Opportunities Equal chance at the start fair rules 0 Equality of Condition Compensate for inequalities from the start 0 Equality of Income Everyone ends up with the same amount Forms of Strati cation Age Gender Race Ethnicity Strati ed society groups are ranked hierarchally Deals with how inequalities overlap interact with and reinforce each other Four Types of Social Strati cation Estate System Based on Politics and Law You are what your parents were littleno ability to move up Caste System Based on Religion and Birth littleno ability to move up Class System Based on Economic position Cohesive oppositional groups loose social mobility EliteMass Dichotomy System Based on Prestige lifestyle occupation Governing Elite holds most of the power 0 C Wright Mills negative system not bene cial for society hurts democracy consolidates power in the hands of few Socioeconomic Status lndividual39s position in strati ed social order Three Measures Income wealth Education OccupationPrestige Upper Class top of the food chain 0 Associated with income wealth power prestige Middle Class no consensus on de nition 0 US considered a middleclass nation 0 Different income growth changing nature of available employment change in educational expectations of potential employers Poor Day to Day survival focused on the present Family of 4 22350 0 Many families move in and out of poverty Underclass nonworking poor those who can work but don39t Global Inequality Globalization one of main reasons for rising incomes and inequality Social Mobility Sorokin important to examine both individuals and groups Social Mobility can be horizontal or vertical 0 Horizontal transition from one status to another on same level 0 Vertical Rise and fall from one social stratum to another Structural Mobility change in the distribution ofjobs Exchange Mobility individuals trade jobs in way that ultimately balances out CHAPTER 8 GENDER The Biological Categories of sex strongly in uence the social dynamics of gender however the social categories of gender can sometimes determine the biology of sex Gray Men and women differ fundamentally in their values attitudes thought processes preferences and behavior patterns Sex and Gender most dif cult areas to remember that what seems natural is often not Feminism Gender matters because it structures relations between people Unequal ground real powers and privileges at stake Sex Sexuality and Gender Sex Biological differences Sexuality desire sexual preferences sexual identity behavior Gender Social position set of social arrangements Gender a collectively de ned guidebook humans use to make distinctions among themselves 0 Separate one being from another Social Construction so deeply rooted it seems natural organizes our everyday lives goals desires bodies 0 Social Institution not natural but is a crucial part of how we de ne ourselves Lorber Gender is a social institution establishes patterns of expectations for individuals 0 Built into social organizations of society economy ideology family politics Sex We refer to biological differences to make sense of variations between men and women 0 Behavioral consequences of hormones physical strength brain structure chromosomes Study of Gender seeing how nature and nurture overlap penetrate shape each other Biological Determinism what you do in the social world should be a direct result of who you are in the natural world GENDER DIFFERENCES TODAY ldealized Standards for feminine beauty in US De nitions of femininity are always changing Hegemonic Masculinity ideal of young man who is married white urban northern heterosexual father fully employed good at sports good complexion etc Gender Roles sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one s status as a male or female 0 Differences between men and women often arise as result of different positions men and women occupy 0 Gender is a major building block in social order and everyday life 0 All social institutions and practices are in some way tied up with gender norms Parsons Sex Role Theory Nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies because it ful lls the function of reproducing workers 0 Workorientated father and domesticorientated mother
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