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Nutrition 20403

by: Jazmine Morales

Nutrition 20403 NTDT 20403

Jazmine Morales
GPA 3.7
Dr. Powell

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About this Document

This study guide covers chapters on Protein, Metabolism, and Weight Management
Dr. Powell
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jazmine Morales on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT 20403 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 03/16/16
Exam Review 3 Nutrition 20403 1 Chemical structure of protein Compound of C H O N Nitrogen arranged into amino acids and linked in a chainl l varies by side chain Amino acids building blocks of proteins 3 proberties connected to central carbon gt Amino group Mgroup Hvdroqen gt AAH There are 20 AA 9 are considered essential AA connected by peptide bonds Shape folded amp tangled gt depends on speci c AAs amp se uence Dipeptide 2 AA Tripeptide 3 Oligopeptide 410 Polypeptide greater than 10 2 Positive and negative nitrogen balance 0 N2 balance in growth amp pregnancy N2 balance during sickness trauma muscle atrophy starvation kidney disease exception 0 N2 balance or unused AA is cleared by liver amp converted to urea gt ltered by kidneys and excreted bv urine EX astronauts with no gravity 3 Essential and nonessential amino acids do not have to know the names Nonessential AA we can make 0 Essential AA we have to get from food 0 Body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts 0 Min food provides for the body to make its own PRO 4 Functions of proteins Enzymes gt proteins that facilitate chemical reactions wo being changed synthetase builds body structures Hydrolyze breaks down compounds as in digestion Fluid balance gt uids flow between body spaces PRO amp mineras proper distribution Acidbase balance gt acts as m preventing acidosis amp alkalosis proteins protect each m by releasing H2 if too much or if too little is released Antibodies gt PRO that act on foreign organisms amp protect body Hormones gt messenger molecules in response to changes in internal environment EX Insulin amp glucagon control blood glucose Thyroxin controls metabolic rate Blood clotting gt formation of of M stringy insoluble mass of PRO Vitamin K amp CA involved Transport gt moving of nutrients in amp out of cells EX Lipoproteins can be controlled by hormones Structural gt Collagen PRO material formino connective tissues amp formations of bones amp teeth EX forms amp mends lean tissues such as lioaments amp tendons Visual pigments Opsin PRO changes shape in response to light 5 Calculate protein requirements 0 Recommended intake PRO 08g kg body weight day 0 1520 of kcals should come from PRO 0 10 to 35 of daily energy intake o If pregnant 10g per day 0 Burn patient 15g per day EX Someone weighs 150D divide by 22 which is about 68 kg then do 68 times 8 which is 54g per day 6 Enzymes location involved in protein digestion HCL causes pepsinooen inactive enzvme to convert to pepsin active 0 Larger polypeptides broken down to smaller polypeptides amp AA Pancreatic amp intestinal proteases in the S gt split polypeptides further tripeptides dipeptides AA 0 Cells absorb hydrolyzed enzymes on surface of SI ces EX intestinal tripeptidases amp dipeptidases gt AA absorbed In the stomach HCI denatures PRO structures 0 Acid denatures PRO Activates pepsinooen to pepsin Pepsin cleaves PRO to smaller polypeptides Inhibits pepsinogen synthesis 7 Limiting amino acids o All or none law of protein svnthesis If there39s one missing from essential AA then that s the limiting AAI39I can39t use for w Dietmust supply ALL essential AA in adequate amounts 0 Availability simultaneously Protein synthesis Transcription DNA template to make mRNA 0 mRNA carries code to ribosome PRO factories Translation amp tRNA gt mRNA specifies sequence of AA Sequencing errors Kwashiorkor and marasmus characteristics Kwashiorkor inadequate PRO deficientD KID HAS ENOUGH KCALS Sudden amp recent food deprivation Common 18mon to 2 year ods Edema bulging belly imbs amp face 0 Loss of appetite Dry brittle hair loses color Sores that don39t heal Marasmus inadequate in ALL essential nutrients Very thin gt children look elderly 0 Most common 618 months Muscles waste amp weaken Impaired brain development Decreased body temp PRO used for brain heart amp lungs GI tract atrophies 8 What is the preferred source of energy if CHOS are not available 0 Only AA39s that are converted to pyruvate o Glucose amp fattv acids are primary energy sources 9 BMR RMR TEF PA BMR Basal Metabolic rate gt enerov output of the body at rest after a 12 hour fast gt about 23 of energy expended in a day Factors affecting BMR lean mass body surface area fever temperature starvation hormones thyroxin smoking drugs activity level RMR Restino Metabolic rate gt no fasting TEF Thermic effect of foodlj digestion Physical activity How many kcals you burn in a day 10Calculate and evaluate BMI BMI Body Mass lndex gt person39s weight in relation to their height BMl weight kgheight 2 m gt weight in lbs divided by 22 then divide that by height divided by 3937 WT in htquot htquot X 703 11 12 13 Underweight below 185 Healthy weight 185 249 Overweight above 25 Obese 30 Anabolic and catabolic reactions Anabolism reactions in which smaller molecules are put together to build larger ones consumes energy EX Glucose to olvcooen dlvcerol amp fattv acids to T6 AA to PR Catabolism larder molecules are broken down to smaller ones release enerdv EX Glycogen to glucose T6 to glycerol amp FA PRO to AA reversed from anabolism 6 words glycolysis gluconeogenesis glucogenic glycerol Glycolysis 2 pyruvate molecules H atoms carried to electron transport chain Pvruvate can be converted back to dlucose Glucogenic AA that can be used to make glucose Gluconeogenesis glycogen is depleted glucose from a nonCHO source 0 Body tissues used somewhat even when PRO provided in diet Urine monitoring amp ketosis Glyceroll TG backbone Where do proteins enter the cycle AA that are converted pyruvate are glucogenic make glucose AA that are converted to Acetyl coA are ketogenic Enter TCA cycle directly AA to glucose 0 We don39t need PRO to enter the cycle for energy rather for functions of PRO 14LowCHO diet 0 Brain amp nerve cells need glucose Metabolism similar to fasting gt uses glycogen stores 15 t 0 High PRO low CHO diet weight loss is water Side effects nausea fatigue constipation low blood pressure elevated uric acid stale foul taste in mouth 0 pregnant women fetal harm stillbirth iLactic acid 0 Burning sensation in muscles from exercising olucosel l pvruvate Builds up when you39re doing intense exercises Can go back to glucose 16Aerobic and anaerobic reactions Anaerobic quick energy needs gt Pyruvate to lactate Aerobic slower energy needs gt Pyruvate to acetyl CoAD Need oxygen to go 17Excess CHO PRO fat Converted to fat for storaoe AA to pyruvate to acetyl CoA to fatty acids to TG gt CANNOT be stored as PRO does NOT build muscle but FAT CHO PRO amp Fat all convert to fat for storage Excess PRO more urea amp ammonia 18lnsuf cient CHO pro fat 0 If energy is not available the bodv switches to wastino metabolismH losino weioht Draws on reserves of CHO Fats PRO amp eventually vital PRO tissues EX glycogenlj glucose used up in few hours TGD fatty acids then glycerol 0 Body PRO breaks down during starvation D 90 of needed glucose Appetite decreases ketosis may occur Metabolism slows to conserve energy body tissue 19Ketones Alternate enerov source when glucose is NOT available low CHO diets As the level rises pH of the bloods drops gt body goes into ketosis Spill into urine 0 Fruity odor on breath acetone 20Wt loss recs 21 22 intake expenditure 0 Eating slowly Exercise 0 Components of energy expenditure gt Basal metabolism activity thermic effect of food adaptive thermogenesis Calculate wt loss Basal metabolism is the largest component of enerov expenditure gt thermic effect of food is the smallest 3500 kcals per pound IBW determination Female 100 pounds for every 5 feed if 5 6 then multiply 6 times 530 130 IBW Male 106 pounds for every 5 feet 6 each inch Height amp weight tables re ect longevity correlation in a certain population Limited usefulness 1020 over IBW is overweight 20 over IBW is obese 10 under IBW is underweight 23Leptin and Grehlin gt both are PRO amp hormones Leptin acts as a hormone in hypothalamus decreases appetite amp increases energy expenditure Research Mice with the obesity gene quotobquot do NOT produce leptin amp weigh 3 times as much have 5 times as much body fat Fat cells selfdestruct when subjected to leptin Action of leptin gt food intake decreases activity increases hypothalamus diminishes appetite Grehlin enhances appetite amp decreases energy expenditure Promotes weight gain triggers desire to eat 24Body fat distribution ldeal amount of body fat depends on person Optimal fat distribution gt pear v apple shape How much of weight is fat Where is fat located Excess abdominal fat increases risk of diseases Bodv composition is more important than bodv weight for assessing health Central obesity apple shape common in men amp in women after menopause Consequences increased risk of heart disease stroke diabetes hypertension amp cancer Waist circumference in women greater than 35quot Waist circumference in men greater than 40quot Lower body fat pear shape common in women low risk of disease


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