NUTR CH 1-5 STUDYGUIDE
NUTR CH 1-5 STUDYGUIDE NUTR 214 - 01
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NUTR 214 - 01
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samone Hodges on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUTR 214 - 01 at Radford University taught by Rachel Werkheiser in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Radford University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
INTRODUCTRION TO NUTRITION STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 15 CHAPTER ONE Food Choices Human Health week 1 1 Diet amp Health Connection aLIn uential Lifestyle Habits LTobacco use LAlcohol use mLNutritional choices ilL Substance abuse xLPhysical activity ViL Sleep ViiStress viii Environment chronic diseases having a connection w poor diet choices 2 GeneticsIndividualitv a Genetics and nutrition together play a role in your overall health i The two together determine your body s health 3 Obiectives for the nation a Eliminate food insecurity b Decrease amount of people with chronic diseases c Increase and strengthen mental health 1 Decrease low birth weight babies e Eliminate obesity numbers i Death rate from cancer other diseases 4 Nutrient Classes LWater LCarbohydrate mFat ilLProtein yLVitamins mMinerals 5 EnergyYielding nutrients LCarbohydrates 4 calories g bLFats 9 caloriesg cLProteins 4 calories g 6 VitaminsMinerals 7 Water 8 Supplements aLElemental diets LFor severely ill people bL real food gt supplements Lnutrient interactions QLPHYTOCHEMICALS compounds that give food color taste and other characteristics LPhysical contributions mPsychological contributions 9 Food types aLWhole foods b Fruits and vegetables c Fast processed functional stable 10 Nutritious diet a Contains i Adequacy ii Balance iii Calorie control iv Moderation V Variety 11 Common excuses for not eating well W solutions a No time to cook meal prep b Not high on priority list understand health importance c Cravings overpower moderation d Money bullshit 12 Science of Nutrition studies a Case personal individual 13 Six stages of changing nutrition behaviors a Precontemplation b Contemplation c Action d Maintenance e Adopting moving on 14 IMPOSTERS FROM REAL EXPERTS pg24 a Too good to be true b Suspicions about food supply c Testimonials d Fake credentials e Unpublished i Unpublished studies g Persecution claims h Authority not cited i Motive personal gain j Advertisement k Latest innovation timetested CHAPTER TWO Nutrition Tools week 2 1 Dietary reference intake DRI sets values for nutrient intake of healthy people a 5 categories 1 ii iii iv RDA recommended dietary allowance AI adequate intake UL tolerable upper intake level EAR estimated average requirement 1 Nutrients and policy 2 Forms a basis of DRI based off of population AMDR acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges values for carbohydrates fat and protein expressed as percentage of total calorie intake The brain and red blood cells use glucose for fuel 2 AMDR healthy balanced meal guide i Carbohydrates 50 ii Fat 25 iii Protein 25 Solid fat anything solid at room temperature DRI is based off of your demographic group pregnant breast feeding etc b Dietary guidelines i Science based 1 Balance calories to manage health 2 Increase intakes of certain nutrient dense food 3 Reduce intakes of certain foodscomponents 4 Build a healthy eating pattern ii IMPROVE ON 1 Choosing more amp fewer more nutrients less toxins 2 Decreasing alcohol intake moderate 3 Joys of eating iii Having a food group plan 1 Detrimental to people with diabetics 3 Nutrients in concern in the US a Kids iron deficiency b Pregnant women folic acid deficiency c Vegetarians Vitamin B12 deficiency 1 Fiber 6 Calcium f Potassium g Vitamin D 4 Food subgroups a Vegetables i Dark green ii Red amp orange iii Legumes iv Starchy V Other vegetables b Protein i Seafood ii Meats poultry eggs iii Nuts seed soy products 5 Discretionarv calories allowance a Weight maintenance vs nutrient supplies b Sources c Nutrient dense foods 6 Diet planning a USDA food patterns i Minimum amounts needed from each food group ii Achieve the goals of the Dietary Guidelines 7 Exchange systems a Useful for everyone b Estimate values for Whole groups of foods c Focus on energy yielding nutrients daily value used for comparing foods good source 1019 comparing foods 8 Structurefunction claims a no FDA approval b required label disclaimer c notification of FDA is sufficient Important Terms 0 Antioxidants compounds that protect other compounds from damaging reactions involving oxygen 0 Functional foods Whole or modified foods that contained bioactive food components 0 Phytochemicals compounds in plants that confer color taste and other characteristics 0 Probiotic good bacteria that confers a health benefit on the host O Prebiotic food for probiotics that promotes their growth CHAPTER THREE The Remarkable Body week 3 Body trillion cells 1 Cells a Need nutrients b Selfcontained living entities i Depend on one another ii Basic needs 0 Controlled by genes i Production of protein Instruction for structural components of cells Affects how body handles nutrients iL Complete set of genes in a cell V Gene variants cells I tissues I organs I body systems 2 bodily uids a supplyenergy oxygen nutrients water b delivers fresh supplies picks up wastes 3 Circulating uids a Blood i Arteries b Lymph c Plasma 0 Extracellular uid Surrounds the cells derived from the blood in the capillaries 0 Intracellular uid Inside cells gives cells their shape all cell reaction take place blood heart I heart 1 Blood pumped to the rest of the body blood through digestive I liver kidneys cleansing of wastes in uence red blood cells 2 Kidneys determine red blood cell life expectancy kidney failure causes 3 Uncontrolled diabetes a Type II genetic diabetes b Type 11 doesn t identify insulin 4 Uncontrolled hypertension 5 Drug abuse blood is sensitive to malnutrition 4 Hormones affect nutrition a chemical messengers b secreated amp released into blood by glands c stimulates organs to take action 5 Glands monitor conditions of the body a Pancreas i Insulin and glucagon 6 Nervous system plays a role in hunger regulation a Cortex amp hypothalamus 7 Fight or ight reaction stress response a Neurotransmitters b Metabolism speeds up c Organ response d Heart disease 8 Digestion a Mechanical i Mouth chewing ii Stomach amp small intestine peristalsis chime travels through pyloric valve iii Large intestine iv Digestion is virtually continuous 1 Determined by sleep amp exercise b Chemical i Digestive juices salivary glands stomach pancreas liver small intestine ii Hydrochloric acid kills microorganisms iii Intestine l Bile 2 Pancreatic juice 3 Digestive enzymes wall of intestine 4 Fiber Digestion cycle time spent Mouth less than a minute Stomach 12 hours Small intestine 78 hours Colon 1214 hours PP N Peristalsis muscular squeezing of esophagus stomach and small intestine pushes contents out M uid resulting from the actions of the stomach upon a meal Pyloric valve circular muscle of the lower stomach regulates the ow of partly digested foods Insulin hormone from pancreas helps glucose enter cells from blood Glucagon hormone from pancreas stimulates the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream Hvdrochloric acid strong corrosive acid produced by stomach to assist digestion CHAPTER FOUR The Carbohydrates week 4 Carbohydrates fuel for red blood cells made of mainly glucose a Sugar starch glycogen fiber b Ideal nutrients jobs i Support energy needs ii Feed brain nervous system iii Keep digestive system regular iv Keep body fit c Contains sun s radiant energy d Green plants i Glucose from photosynthesis 1 Sugar 0 Monosaccharidessingle sugars Glucose fructose galactose i Absorbed into blood stream ii No breaking bond 0 Disaccharidesdouble sugars lactose maltose sucrose i digested ose sugar 2 Starch plants storage form of glucose 0 packed in granules 3 Glycogen humans storage form of glucose 0 linked together to form chains 4 Fiber supporting structures of plants leaves stems 0 Bacterial fermentation 0 Pass through human digestive tract Without breaking down doesn t provide much energy 0 High fiber diet makes you feel full Carbohvdrates benefits 0 Critical energy 0 Nerve cells red blood cells brain 39Red blood cells can t run on anything else than glucose 0 Preferred dietary sources 0 Starchy Whole foods 39Complex carbohydrates brain or the central nervous system doesn t like to use fat for fuel 0 Vital roles in the functioning body Nutrition experts Fiber rich food 0 Soluble fibers okra citrus fruits jelly 1Forms gels 2 Not digested a Fermented good for bacteria 0 Insoluble fibers corn kernel and pea skins a Not Viscous doesn t dissolve in H20 bRetain shape and texture 0 For weight loss i Caloric contribution 1Conversion into fat a Refined sugars 2 Increase fiber rich Whole foods 3Reduce refined White our and increase added sugars 0 Lower cholesterol heart disease risk i Complex carbohydrates 1More than just fiber Viscous fiber 1Cholesterol synthesis Blood glucose control 1 Soluble fibers slow transit of food slow release of sugars into blood stream delay digestion blood glucose control 0 maintenance of digestive tract health i all kinds of fiber ii ample uid intake iii benefits of uid 0 Prevent DT cancer i research findings about intakes ii recommended dietary sources 1 supplements 2 other lifestyle factors a alcohol b fitness lack of ber in colon pouches develop on outside of colon that collects feces amp foods feces can back into the appendix causing infection 0 Healthy weight management i Makes you feel full ii Stabilizes weight gainloss US intake of Fiber 0 Requirements not meant by majority O 25 g per 1000 cal women 0 38 g per 1000 cal men 0Too much fiber 0 Dangers of excess 0 No tolerable upper intake 39Required high uid intake 0 Binders in fiber 0 Chelating agents Whole Grains at least half of daily grains should be whole based off USDA 1 US enrichment act 1942 only applies to wheat a Required additives 1 Iron ii Viben iii ReVi iV Nicen V Folic acid b Advantages of whole grains V enriched grains i Enriched grains lack fiber c Health effects of whole grain i Folic acid pregnant strong spine for baby Carbohydrates to Glucose Digestion and Absorption starch amp disaccharides from food into monosaccharides 1 Starch a Begins in mouth b Splits starch into shorter units c Digestion ceases in the stomach d Digestion resumes in small intestine e Resistant starch i Kind of fiber not digested 2 Sugar a Splits to yield free monosaccharides i Enzymes on small intestine lining 3 Fiber a Many of them can be broken down by bacteria in the colon b Lead to odorous gases Digesting Milk 0 lack ability to digest milk carohydrates O lactase made by small intestine 0 symptoms of intolerance O nausea pain diarrhea gas 0 milk allergy different than lactose intolerant 0 nutrition consequences 0 important in kids because bones need Vitamin D to grow Body s Use of Glucose 1 Splitting glucose for energy a Glucose broken in half b Converted to fat Fat CANNOT be converted to glucose i Ketosis 1 Shift in body s metabolism ii DRI minimal digestible carbohydrate 1 130 gday a 520 cals supposed to be 50 of nutritious diet makeup 2 Glucose Regulation a Safeguard activities i Siphoning off excess blood glucose ii Replenishing diminished glucose b Two hormones i Insulin 1 Signals to take up glucose from blood ii Glycogen 1 Helps release glucose from its glycogen nest 3 Excess Glucose and Body Fatness a Body tissue shift i Burn more glucose 1 Fat is left to circulate and be stored ii Carbohydrates stored as fats 1 Liver breakdown amp assembly 2 Costs of energy 4 Glycemic Index of Food a Elevation of blood glucose amp insulin i Food score compared to standard food b Diabetes i Glycemic load GL 1 Lower GL less glucose guild up amp less insulin needed c Nutrition concerns i Not able to be applied to every person 1 Everyone processes food differently based on their metabolism Diabetes 291 million people 93 of the population have diabetes 1 2Prediabetes a Fasting plasma glucose test checked glucose after fasting what s going on w blood sugar b HBAlc test checks how blood sugar has been running for months 3Common forms of diabetes a Type 1 auto immune childhood bType II 4 Dangers of diabetes a Increase risk heart disease kidney failure blindness in ammation leads to more risks toxic effects of excess glucose b circulatory problems i like your heart pumping 1 pushing pancake syrup through your veins ii wounds w uncontrolled diabetes 1 bacteria feeds off of glucose in blood c Warning signs i Excessive urinationthirst 1 Body tries to dilute sugar in blood ii Weight loss 1 All glucose eaten isn t being absorbed by cells iii Cravings sweets iv Frequent infection v Lethargy low energy 0 Type I need external source of insulin 510 of cases mostly children 0 Type II 9095 cases adults AND children d diabetes prevention blood glucose in normal range 80100 i physical activity ii weight management lose 57 of body weight if overweight iii DO NOT smoke iv Proper diet v Monitor glucose vi Medication e Manage diabetes i Medical nutrition therapy 1 Control carbohydrate intake a Amount rather than source is more realistic 2 Carbohydrates recommendations a Varies w glucose tolerance amp carbohydrate timing 3 Sugar alcohols a Advantages i Lower glycemic index b Nonnutrition sweeteners ii Type I diabetics have to focus on what they eat beforehand hypoglycemia Abnormally low blood glucose Cause 0 Poorly managed diabetes 0 Alcohol abuse 0 Overuse of insulin 0 Pancreatic tumors NUTRITION Li ids m CHAPTER 5 FATS OILS PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND STEROLS Diet moderate in fats 0 Lipids necessaryvaluable 0 Can harm health 3 classes 0 triglycerides 0 phospholipids phosphorous O sterols cholesterol Chief storage form of energy 0 Provides energy for body to work 0 Adipose tissue 39 Secretes hormones 0 Fat storage efficiency Purposes of fat 0 Shock absorbers insulation cell membrane 0 Transport Useful in food 0 Concentrated calorie storage 0 Fat soluble nutrients Vitamins fatty acids fat rich lt carbohydrate rich Continued 0 Sensory qualities 0 Satiety feeling of fullness slows food movement I Benefits diabetics slows the time it takes for nutrients to get into bloodstream Triglyceride fatty acidsglycerol saturated v unsaturated fatty acids 0 Saturated O Carries max possible hydrogen atoms 0 Unsaturated O Lacks some hydrogen atoms 0 Melting point 0 More unsaturated more liquid 0 Fat hardness O Softer healthier oil V butter 0 Sources of fatty acids 0 Fish fish oils Vegetable oils Animal fats saturated Vegetable oils monounsaturated rich in omega6 polyunsaturated O O O O Flaxseed fish oil rich in Omega3 Phospholipids and Sterols 0 Phospholipids O Glycerol 2 fatty acids phosphorous molecule 39 Soluble in water amp fat Ex mayonnaise never separates Vinegar oil eggs 0 Emulcifier keeps fat dispersed in water lecithin in egg yolk 0 Sterols 0 Rings of carbon side chains of carbon hydrogen oxygen attached 0 Cholesterol in body I Bile important to fat digestion 0 Plant sterols LIPIDS IN THE BODY 0 Nothing but starch digested in mouth I Fats starts digesting O Stomach kindof 0 Small intestine I Bile I Pancreas Process 1 Food is chewed then swallowed into the stomach 2 Droplets of fat separate from the watery components little fat digestion here empties into small intestine 3 Small intestines majority of digestion here faces how to thoroughly mix fats which are separated Lipids in body continued 0 Absorption 0 Fatty acids split from glycerol I Bile shuttles lipids across mucus layer I Efficiency of absorption process 0 Speed of digestion 0 Transport of fats 0 Transfer from place to place as lipoproteins 0 Major LPS 0 Fat not used stored as triglyceride put into fat depots 0 More energy breakdown of triglycerides I After glycerol runs out I Releases fatty acids into blood DIETARY FAT CHOLESTEROL AND HEALTH 0 Heart and artery disease 1 Saturated amp trans fat switch to trans fats 2 Beneficial fats trans fats 3 Refined carbohydrate not healthy to go low fat high carb 4 Not just a man s disease 0 Obesity 0 Overconsumption of calories RECOMMENDED INTAKE LIPIDS 0 Fat 0 DRI 2035 daily energy 0 Less than 10 of that from saturated fat 0 NO transfat 0 US compared 0 30 daily energy good 0 11 of that from saturated fat too high too little fat is bad LIPOPROTEINS MOVEMENT IN THE BODY liver 0 Types 0 Chylomicrons 0 Very lowdensity lipoproteins VLDL 0 Low density LDL 0 High density HDL carries cholesterol away from body cells disposal carries cholesterol amp triglyceride to body cells 0 LDLHDL difference 0 Size and density 0 Delivering and scavenging 0 In ammation 0 Heart attack risk 0 Cholesterol testing 0 Less LDL more HDL good LDL lousy cholesterol HDL healthy cholesterol Heart disease risk prevention 0 High HDL 0 Low LDL Blood cholesterol effected by saturated fats not solely cholesterol foods DIETARY CHOLESTEROL GUIDELINE 0 300 Mgday 0 sources 0 eggs chicken beef in moderation RECOMMENDATIONS APPLIED 0 Heart disease prevention amp suggestions 0 Lower LDL trim saturated trans fat 0 Raise HDL increase physical activity ESSENTIAL POLYUNSATURARED FATTY ACIDS O Linoleic amp linolenic acid Regulate bodily functions eicosanoids 0 Serve as raw material that body makes other things out of 1 Linoleic a Omega6 fatty acid b Arachidonic acid 2 Linolenic a Omega3 fatty acid b DHA amp EPA i Regulates heartbeats blood pressure reducing blood clot formation reducing in ammation ii Prevent Heart disease OMEGA3 FATTY ACIDS 0 Seafood 0 Special populations critical need for EPA and DHA I Children pregnant lactating women also more susceptible to toxins mercury 0 Omega3 enriched food recommendations 0 8 12 oz per week 0 young children 36 oz seafood a week 0 pregnant women 812 oz a week 0 Mercury toxin I Tilefish shark swordfish king mackerel 0 Meats O Pasture fed higher omega3 content 0 Omega3 and omega6 nuts and seeds EFFECTS OF PROCESSING UNSATURATED FATS 0 Hydrogenation 0 Oxygen damage of unsaturated oils 0 Hydrogenation of oils 0 Benefits 0 Makes spreading easier 0 Easy to handle store 0 Replace lost nutrients extending shelf life refrigeration chemical preservative FORMATION FATTY ACIDS Polyunsaturated fats change chemical structure 0 Essential fat 0 20 of calories from unsaturated fat 0 replace instead of adding 0 be careful W Visible amp inVisible fats FATS PROTEIN FOODS four categories meat 0 limit intake 57 ozday choose low fat meats 0 ground turkey chicken White meats over beef milk milk products hidden fats Whole grains can have added fats red meats higher in fat than white meat ground poultry may have added skin for moisture ground options may be healthier but lower fat content still detrimental
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