History 10 Final Study Guide Winter 2016
History 10 Final Study Guide Winter 2016 Hist 10
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History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Jan 7: Greek Polis The Archaic Age was a period of dramatic recovery for the Greek world after the Dark Age. Before the Archaic Age the main metal used was bronze • bronze armor for war + bronze weapons for war BUT the Greek gov’t didn’t pay for any of the soldiers’ armor IF a man wanted to be a soldier he had to be able to purchase his own armor and it was EXPENSIVE because of this Greek armies were small • During the Archaic Age Greece was introduced to iron giving birth to a new soldier called the Hoplite (Hoplite: soldier armed with iron armor + iron weapons) Iron is cheaper than bronze = larger military bc more people can afford it • In Greek History there is ALWAYS a connection with military service & political power All of the Hoplites now want a political say (it isn’t just the bronze armor soldiers who can have power) and because there are THOUSANDS of hoplites and they all have armor they get a political say J leading to the creation of the polis By the end of the Archaic Age there were ~1000 Polises in the Greek World • 1000 Independent “Countries”, each a separate city/state, all are basically run t he same way: Governed by an Assembly of Citizens Who is a Citizen/What can a Citizen do? § Had to be MALE § Aliens (anyone from outside the Polis) are NOT allowed to be citizens § Citizens had: 1) Right to Freedom of Speech, 2) Right to attend assembly 3) Right to make proposals in the assembly 4) Right to join debate in the assembly 5) Right to vote in the assembly • TWO Types of Polises: 1) Oligarchy 2) Democracy 1) Oligarchy: much more common, “rule by the few” § women, aliens, and slaves had no political rights § poor male citizens had no political rights § most famous oligarchy was Sparta ú 10% of the population actually had political rights 2) Democracy: rare, “rule by the many” § most famous was Athens § if you were too poor to be a Hoplite, you row boats in the navy § males involved in the military had political rights 1 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 ú 20% in Athens had political rights Citizens LOVED the polis because they were freemen • led to patriotism • willingness to fight/die in the name of there country 2 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Jan 12: Persian War Persian War: attack by Persians on Greece Back Story: • Cyrus II AKA Cyrus the Great was the one who conquered the Persian Empire, the Persians were successful because: o they had great leadership, good/large army, a complex empirical administration in which they divided empire into satrapies (24 provinces) & each had a satrap (governor) Satraps: ran provinces on behalf of the King § collected taxes, enforced law, kept people under control (had to keep conquered people under control bc a lot of them weren’t Persian SO they paid taxes & FORCED to participate in the army) • Persia had a tie between religion and military expansion, the whole “God wanted me to do it” • Ionia (populated by Greeks) was conquered by the Persians in 540 BC, the Greeks were NOT happy under the Persian rule and they wanted to revolt o SO they asked Greece for help but everyone said no bc they were scared EXCEPT Athens who decided to help IONIAN REVOLT FAILS & rebellion leaders are executed Sparking the start of the Persian War Darius I was the King of Persia during the revolt & he decides to punish Athens for helping Ionia • Darius gathers an army and send them across the see where they arrive in Marathon (26 miles from Athens) Athenians vote and decide to fight the Persians, but they are out numbered ATHENIANS WIN THE BATTLE OF MARATHON despite the fact that they were completely out numbered by the Persians because 1) they were fighting to preserve freedom 2) home field advantage 3) most of the Persian soldiers aren’t actually Persian meaning they are not motivated to fight o Darius was MAD so he plans to invade Greece but dies before he actually can and his son Xeres takes over the plan § Xeres gathers 200,000 soldiers (HUGE army), gathers a navy, and arrives in Greece § Greeks join together once Xeres arrives and form the Hellenic League 3 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Greeks want to stop the Persians at Thermopylae because it was a narrow plain between the mountains and the sea • Greeks sent 300 Spartans, a force led by Leonidas o Greeks hold off Persians for a few days thanks to the hoplite armor (Persians didn’t have any armor) BUT a Greek traitor tells Xeres of a secret path through the mountains § Spartans stay & fight to the death (prophecy said that Greeks would win if Sparta lost a King) BATTLE OF THERMOPYLAE WAS A DEFEAT FOR THE GREEKS • Persians make it through and burn down Athens • all Greeks fled south except for the Navy that stayed in the Island of Salamis o Xeres told his men to go into the Salamis Channel at fight the remaining Greeks, except the channel was narrow and confined SO the slow Greek ships have the advantage& destroy the Persian ships Xeres panics and flees, he leaves 70,000 soldiers behind GREEKS WIN THE BATTLE OF SALAMIS • At the Battle of Plataea Persians made the mistake of fighting uphill GREEKS WIN THE BATTLE OF PLATEA because: 1) Greeks were free men 2) Home field Advantage 3) Greeks had hoplite armor Results after the war: Since Persia Never returned the Greeks did not become subjects of the Persian Empire and they were able to develop a unique civilization, sparking the beginning of Greece’s Golden Age 4 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Jan 19 & Jan 21: Alexander the Great Alexander was the son of Phillip II (Remember: King of Macedonia, unified Macedonia, introduced a long spear, improved army, etc.) • Due to Alexander’s abilities (in regards to military) he was Phillip II’s right hand man so everyone though he would be king, but when Phillip has another son this causes controversy • Soon after Phillip is assassinated by Pausanias • Alexander eliminates all possible competitors to the throne and becomes King of Macedonia Once Alexander becoming King all of the people that were conquested start rebelling because they thought that Phillip was the greatest and Alexander would be no match so in their minds they could regain freedom, they were wrong because Alexander was more ruthless Alexander decides to conquest Persia which was under the rule of Darius III • Darius III knew Alexander was invading, but he doesn’t think Alexander is that much of a threat so he lets the satraps in that in Turkey to take care of him o BIG Mistake, why? Satraps are mere governors and they do not have as many resources/soldiers to be able to fight ALEXANDER WINS THE BATTLE OF GRANICUS (1/3) because the Persians do not have a lot of soldiers of hoplite armor L Persians flee, this means Alexander gains territory & is able to proceed using propaganda “I am here to free you from Persia” • Darius III realizes he has to stop Alexander and they meet in Issus o Issus is a great place for Alexander, it’s a narrow plain in between the ocean and mountains so #’s don’t matter AND the Persians are forced to hit from the front BUT they can’t because of the length of the spears o Alexander wants to capture Darius in hopes that the rest of the army will flee since most of them aren’t actually Persian and are fighting against their will SO Alex breaks through the right side & Darius flees, leaving behind his wife, mother, kids, money, etc. ALEXANDER WINS THE BATTLE OF ISSUS (2/3) Alexander then goes to Egypt and he gets a letter from Darius saying: “Why can’t we be friends? I’ll give you the Western Part of my Empire, my daughter’s hand in marriage, and I’ll make you my successor!” To which Alexander responds: “LOL I already have the Western Empire & your daughter! Pick the time and place you want to fight, and this time do not run away.” 5 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 • Darius III and Alexander meet in Gaugamela o Gaugamela is a huge open plain so Darius III hopes here he can hit Alexander from the sides and back o Alexander orders his men to shift right (they stay in formation) SO Darius orders his men to go left (they lose their formation) o Alexander goes in through the gaps to get Darius and Darius runs away, again § Darius’s men lose faith in him & assassinate him ALEXANDER WINS THE BATTLE OF GAUGAMELA (3/3) Alexander is now the King of Persia Alexander decides he is far too young to retire and he wants to conquer the entire world • Alexander travels to India, fights many more wars because propaganda doesn’t work any more and eventually his men are DONE They had fought for 8 years, they began to hear rumors that India was a lot bigger than previously anticipates, AND that there were war elephants SO they said they wanted to go home Alexander pouted, cried, and threw many fits but he was forced to turn back After two years they finally arrived in Babylon • Alexander wanted to make Babylon the capital of his new empire (aka no Greece) He continued to plan his take over of the world J BUT one night he went to a party, got VERY drunk, was sick for a week aaaaaand died. 6 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Jan 28 & Feb 2: Roman Revolution Back Story: Breakdown of the Roman Republic: • Centuriate: elected officials/senators, composed of the wealthy, ran Rome • Tribal: made major decisions, passes laws, are supposed to represent the poor but usually did everything the senate wanted because they wanted to move up the political ladder T. Gracchus was elected a tribune, he cam from a wealthy family and wanted to fix Rome’s problems: 1) Rome needed more soldiers to fight 2) There was a large & growing number of poor people in Rome T. Gracchus decides that the solution is to take the land owned by the state amongst poor so the poor can farm, raise money for themselves and their family, and be able to get armor to join the military Proposed to the Senate: Says No T. Gracchus does NOT accept defeat (a big WOW at this time) Proposed to the Tribal Assembly: Says Yes J T. Gracchus decided to run for Tribune again but members of the Senate stab him to death because the senate is afraid it will become obsolete, but it was already too late The people have already realized that you do not need the senate J J C. Marius was elected consul, he is not a noble • Marius was given a war to fight in Africa BUT he didn’t have enough soldiers SO he accepts poor volunteers to go fight & the state purchases their armor Senate thinks he’s going to fail anyway so they don’t stop him o HOWEVER Marius is victorious in Africa and in Greece, when he comes back he asks the senate to give his men land Senate says: No ú So he moves on to the Tribal Assembly Tribal Assembly says: Yes J and because they’re all armed the senate doesn’t kill Marius Marius did what would end the Republic, soldiers were now more loyal to their general NOT the state (because the state never did anything for them) The 1 Triumvirate: Political Alliance was formed between 1) Pompey Magnus- Rome’s most successful General 2) Licinius Crassus- Rome’s wealthiest man 3) Julius Caesar 7 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 o Pompey and Licinius joined together to get Caesar elected because they thought he would get things done, pass laws to favor politicians, etc. But then Caesar starts to worry about his future and makes himself governor of South France and North Italy (strategically located to he could conquer territory and gain military glory) § Caesar conquers Gaul = very rich, most popular general, has a well trained & experienced army Blows to the Alliance leading to its end: 1) Julia (Julius’s daughter), who was married to Pompey, died during childbirth 2) Crassus became jealous of Caesar & Pompey’s military glory so he goes and fights the Battle of Carrhae where he is defeated and killed 3) Pompey becomes jealous of Caesar § Pompey joins with the senate to bring Caesar down by taking away his army and provinces ú Caesar is NOT okay with this so he starts a Civil War & leads his army into Italy CAESAR WINS THE CIVIL WAR, Pompey and Senate flee to Greece § A year later Caesar goes to Greece to confront Pompey and they fight the Battle of Pharsalus CAESAR WINS THE BATTLE OF PHARSALUS, Pompey & Senate flee to Egypt ú Once Pompey gets to Egypt the King (Ptolemy XIII) assassinates Pompey in attempt to get in Rome’s good graces since it is more powerful than Egypt BUT Caesar is not happy with this and kicks Ptolemy off the throne and put Ptolemy’s sister Cleopatra on it Caesar and Cleopatra become lovers and have a baby boy names Caesarian • Caesar eventually leaves, goes fights a civil war (wins) and returns to Rome where he declared himself dictator for 10 years, a while later he proclaims he will be dictator for life • Rumors start circling: o It is said that Caesar is going to divorce his Roman wife, marry Cleopatra, and leave the world (Egypt and Rome) to their son Senate didn’t want this SO Brutus and Cassius decide Caesar needs to die, so at the next senate meeting Brutus, Cassius and all the other senators stab Caesar to death BUT the people weren’t happy, so they all flee Rome making room for Antonius and Augustus 8 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Antonius: Caesar’s right hand man, received all of Caesar’s military power and loyalty Octavius(Augustus): No political or military experience BUT he was Caesar’s closest male, relative • received most of the money from Caesar’s will and in the will he was adopted as Caesar’s son Antonius and Octavius join together, and seize control of the Western Empire • Then they fight the Battle of Philippi, Antonius + Octavius VS Brutus & the others ANTONIUS AND OCTAVIUS WIN THE BATTLE OF PHILIPPI & the others commit suicide o Octavius: West | Antonius: East BUT Octavius is not satisfied, he wants to conquer the whole empire, so he needs to find a way to start a war & luckily Antonius messes up: 1) Antonius fell in love with Cleopatra so he divorced his Roman wife (Octavius’s sister) and married Cleopatra 2) It is frowned upon to marry an outsider 3) He said that when he died his Roman Empire would be given to his Roman/Egyptian kids o Octavius says that Cleopatra is a witch, and gets people on the West riled up and declares War on Egypt NOT directly on Antonius J So they fight the Battle of Actium • Octavius’s navy destroys that Antonius and Cleopatra so they flee to Egypt OCTAVIUS WINS THE BATTLE OF ACTIUM o Antonius commits suicide o Cleopatra commits suicide The Roman Republic has now seized to exist Egypt now becomes part of the Roman Empire Octavius becomes the first Emperor of the Roman Empire 9 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Feb 11: Beginnings of Islam Muhammad: • Born in Mecca, he was raised by his uncle who owned a caravan business and when he was old enough Muhammad started driving the caravans as well Through the caravans he met his very rich wife, because of her he was able to retire early and spend a lot of time traveling to the desert While he was in the desert he said that the Angel Gabriel came to visit him and told him that he was chosen by god to reveal a new religion to the world o SO he went back and forth from Mecca to the desert & began to spread the religion & began to gain more followers BUT this made the leaders of Mecca worry because tourism would die down if Muhammad’s new religion was adopted to they kicked out Muhammad and his people and they fled to Yathrith (Medina) (Hejira: trip Muhammad and his followers took to Medina) The people in Medina begin to convert, Muhammad becomes the military, religious and political leader Islam: the religion that Muhammad creates Muslim: a person who practices Islam • Muhammad begins his conquest of all of Arabia, Mecca was conquered (ruling family converted) After Muhammad’s death his followers elected a successor named the Caliph • Caliph: political, religious, military leader • Second Caliph: Caliph Omar I o During his rule Islam transformed into a major world religion because the Muslims went out to conquer a huge empire, successful because: 1) Rome and Persians were exhausted from fighting each other so the Muslims were able to come in and conquer territory easily 2) Muslim people were tolerant of other people’s religion, they weren’t forced to convert and left alone if they paid a tax 3) Jihad: Holy War, Muslims didn’t fear death because if they were killed they would go straight to the Garden of Paradise Muawoya VS. Ali: Muslim’s first civil war • Ali said he should be caliph because he was related to Muhammad • Muawoya said there shouldn’t be a hereditary monarchy and the best man should be elected MUAWOYA WINS THE CIVIL WAR However, the civil war brought upon the rising of two groups: 1) Sunni: 90%, accepted Muawoya 10 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 2) Shi’ite: 10% Rejected Muawoya and continued to worship Ali • As soon as Muawoya wins he establishes a ruling dynasty known as the Ummayyad Dynasty (a hereditary monarchy) & continues to expand o Muslims gather an army and go to try to conquer Constantinople but cannot, why? 1) Byzantines knew an attack was coming, so they built an incredible under water system 2) Constantinople is a peninsula, surrounded by water 3) City is surrounded by walls 4) Byzantine’s secret weapon is some kind of liquid they would fire through tubes that would ignite 5) Religion: Eastern Orthodox Christianity ú believed they were the only real religion so God would protect them (virgin mary on the wall) 6) Attack was during a harsh/freezing winter BYZANTINE WINS THE BATTLE AT CONSTANTINOPLE o Muslims try moving in to France § CHARLES MARTEL DEFEATS THE MUSLIMS AT THE BATTLE OF TOURS Due to their many failures Abu al-Abbas overthrows the Ummayyad Dynasty and established the Abbasid Dynasty • During this time Muslim Empire reached a huge success • Muslims fought the Battle of the Talas River o Muslims defeated the Chinese, reaching their greatest territorial extent MUSLIMS WIN THE BATTLE OF THE TALAS RIVER Harun al-Rashid will rule after Abu al-Abbas, but after him the great empire will begin to fall apart 11 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Feb 18 & Feb 23: Mongols Mongols, typical barbarian tribe: 1) Did not practice agriculture, everything they need they get from their animals, because their animals were so valuable they were constantly moving to their animals could graze (nomads) 2) no settled homes 3) owned little property 4) not advanced in reading & writing BUT excelled at war and developed superior military technologies and tactics Temujin unified the Mongol people and in his honor he was given the title of Genghis Khan, he then decided the Mongols needed to go conquer territory, why? 1) he believed Mongolia was too small for the amount of people they had 2) he knew the mongols loved war, and if they didn’t have an enemy to fight they would just fight among themselves 3) he though war was fun J SO he decides to go out and conquer o Temujin Genghis Khan led the mongols to a conquest of a big empire, successful because: 1) Mongols had great leadership 2) Genghis Khan was not a typical barbarian leader, he had strategies in warfare like sending in spies 3) Mongols had a large army, all were cavalry (had horses), soldiers had to grow up training so they had amazing endurance 4) Mongols had a unique horse that had the great power of endurance 5) Mongols developed a superior bow that could fire 350 yards 6) Mongols used terror as a weapon Battle of Kalka River: Mongols VS. Russians (Prince Mstislav) • Mongols sent spies in to learn about Mstislav’s army • Mongols sent in 20,000 spies, Msti sent 80,000 o Mongols pretended to be scared and ran away for week, once they saw the Russians were getting tired they turned around and attacked MONGOLS WIN THE BATTLE OF THE KALKA RIVER GK didn’t want a civil war to break out once he died to he chose Ogedi to be his successor • Mongols conquer Germany and Hungary Odegi dies L so all of the important mongols come back to elect a new leader, then they leave and continue fighting BUT THEN another leader dies so they have to go back to Mongolia, but they decide to leave 10,000 men stationed at Ain Jalut 12 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 • Egypt hears that most of the Mongols let so they march over and attack the mongols EGYPTIANS WIN THE BATTLE OF AIN JALUT o for the first time people realized that the mongols weren’t invincible Back in Mongolia, they couldn’t agree on a new leader so Civil War breaks out • Eventually GK’s grandson Kubilai Khan wins and becomes the new leader, but by this time Mongolia had already divided into 4 provinces o Mongols never conquered more territory because they lost their military edge o When Kubilai Khan died the mongols rule began to break down because 1) Bad Leadership (lazy, mean, ineffective leaders) 2) Lack of gov’t = dramatic raise in crime 13 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Feb 23: Ming Dynasty Chu Yuan-Chang is born into a poor peasant family, and he endures a lot of hardship so he decides to join a Buddhist Monastery where he remained for 8 years gaining an education BUT he left at 24 to become a part of Kuo Tsu-hsing’s gang J • Kuo was able to conquer territories and become the gov’t over those small areas When Kuo dies Chu eliminates all of his rivals and takes control of Kuo’s small area in Central China o Chu Yuan-Chang then conquers all of China, drives out the Mongols and becomes the Emperor of China As the Emperor of China Chu Yuan-Chang established the Ming Dynasty and changes his name to Hung Wu • Hung Wu restored peace and brought order to China (population begins to rise and economy recovers Hung Wu was a successful emperor • Hung Wu needed to find a successor so civil war wouldn’t break out when he was gone and he decided to establish primogeniture J o This meant when Hung Wu dies his oldest son’s son (his grandson because his eldest son died) Chu Yun-Wen became the second Ming Emperor BUT his uncle Chu Ti was NOT happy because he already had military and political experience so he needs to find a way to rebel § Chu Yun-Wen has Chu Ti’s sons as hostages in Nan-King, so Chu Ti has to figure out a way to get them back to Beijing Chu Ti suddenly becomes very, very ill L and as his dying wish he requests that Chu Yun-Wen sends his children to Beijing to say good-bye ú As soon as the sons arrive Chu Ti’s health dramatically improves and it becomes very clear that Chu Ti was lying SO THEN Chu Ti says that he is rising up in rebellion against his nephew Chu Yun-Wen because he dishonored him by accusing him of planning to rebel LOL CHU TI WINS THE CIVIL WAR Chu Ti is now Emperor Yung Lo Goals: 1) Wants to show the world that China is back, the bad time is over 2) Wants to demonstrate that China is the most powerful country in the world and the history of the world 3) Wants to demonstrate that he, Yung Lo, is the most powerful ruler on earth and in history He achieved ALL of his goals, how? 14 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 o Yung Lo established a tribute system & there were two ways it could be expanded: 1) By Land: Yung Lo expanded the Chinese Army, he would send ambassadors to states in Asia and they would politely ask the ruler to come and participate in the tribute system This meant the ruler would have to bring tribute to Beijing (gold, silver, etc.) and come before Yung Lo, kneel and Kow Tow as a sign of submission & acknowledgement that China and Yung Lo were greater than they • usually the rulers would always comply but if not Yung Lo would send his army and the ruler would be forced to come anyway and then be killed 2) By Sea China became a great naval power, ships were able to carry huge armies and literally blow anything out of the water China sent out 7 great voyages all led by Cheng Ho • Wherever the Chinese went they asked people to participate in the Tribute system and when people saw the fleet they would say yes • In one voyage they arrived in Africa where they saw a creature that only appears in Chinese Mythology when the Heavens were happy: a giraffe J (good sign) • Yung Lo was successful, but after his death the Chinese decided the voyages were a waste of time, willingly giving up naval supremacy Leaving the door wide open for the Europeans 15 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 March 1: Aztecs Aztec Origin Myth: Aztecs were told that they had to leave their current home, Aztlan Island, and continue wandering until they saw the sign: an eagle sitting on a cactus eating a snake o Aztecs eventually end up on a tiny island in the middle of lake Texcoco where they see the sign and build their capital city, Tenochtitlan, a good location because: § landfill would allow them to expand the island § there was an endless supply of fresh water § there was an endless food supply § being on the island was great defense 1400s Aztec Empire began to expand, Aztec Empire was conquered during the reign of 3 Aztec Kings: 1) Itzcoatl: during his reign Aztecs moved off the island and began to conquer territory in the Valley of México 2) Montezuma I: during his reign Aztecs completed the conquest of the Valley of México and conquered lands beyond the valet 3) Ahuitzotl: during his reign Aztecs completed they conquest of territory o Aztecs were successful because: 1) they had a number of great leaders: ú they had a unique system where when a ruler died all the important Aztecs would get together and choose the next King this ensured that someone qualified would always be appointed there wasn’t civil war, it was just accepted=peaceful transition 2) they had a very large and very good army ú at a young age boys were trained to fight, to get anywhere in Aztec society you had to do well in war based on how many enemies you captured 3) Aztecs believed their Gods wanted them to capture a vast Empire ú Aztecs wanted to keep the Gods happy through conquering more territory and Human Sacrifice After Ahuitzotl, Montezuma II becomes King • Montezuma II is very worried about the future because there were a number of bad omens, he was getting strange reports from the Eastern Coast of México that there were strange white men arriving (Spanish) and a tax collector said they had seen tiny hills moving along the ocean Hernan Cortes led an expedition to make contact with the Aztecs 16 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 • Cortes discovers he has superior military technology (guns, cannons, horses), and that most of the people in the Empire aren’t Aztec (might make political allies) Eventually Cortes gets to the Valley of México where he is met by Montezuma II • Cortes is welcomed and treated like honored guests meaning they can steal all they want • Aztecs realize these guys are bad and need to be driven out but suddenly Montezuma II dies and Cuitlahuac takes over Cuitlahuac begins to plan an attack on the Spanish • Cortes and his men realize something is wrong and decide to flee in the middle of the night, half way through the bridge that takes them inland the Aztecs appear and fight THE AZTECS WIN THE BATTLE OF THE NIGHT OF SORROWS o Cortes escapes but he wants revenge so he begins to recruit native soldiers to his army By the end of the year the Spanish return and attack, the Aztecs hold out for months but they are forced to surrender because: 1) Spanish had superior military technology 2) The natives had joined the Spanish’s Army 3) Spanish were infected with disease, like small pox, and the people in the Americas had no immunities, as a result 90% of the population died When Cortes gets back to Spain he is praised for his “accomplishments” and now everyone wants to be like Cortes 17 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 March 3: Incas Inca Origin Myth: Inca’s Ancestor Mano lived in a Tiny Island, but one day the Sun (his father) told him that he had to leave and find a new home Eventually Manco ends up in Cuzco, the capital of the great Inca Empire Huayna Capac was the High Inca when the Inca Empire reached the high point of power, why were they successful? 1) Incas had a series of great leaders 2) Incas believed they had been chosen to rule the world 3) Incas had a large and very good army 4) Incas had a unique empirical administration o Incas forced subjects to become Incas, people were forced to: § learn the Inca language § worship the Inca gods § wear Inca clothing § more to different places so they could mix up the populations § participate in a census so the Incas knew who lived where and how much to tax § Incas built thousands of miles of roads to more around and be able to send armies quickly § Incas developed an elaborate messenger (runners stationed all around the empire) to move information quickly SO Rebellion was difficult • Huayna Capac is concerned about the future because during his reign there were a lot of natural disasters Led by Pizarro, Spanish first arrived in the Inca Empire at the city of Tumbes • the Spanish don’t stay long, they just kidnap some people to act as translators and they leave o Unfortunately, that was enough to infect the population with their diseases o Huayna Capac also becomes infected and dies, so his son Huascar takes over but then his brother Atahualpa rebels and sparks a civil war ATAHUALPA WINS THE INCA CIVIL WAR The Empire is now severely weakened because the diseases are wiping out the population, the civil war just ended, AND the Spanish return • Pizarro returns to Tumbes and requests a meeting with Atahualpa, he agrees and they are set to meet in Cajamarca 18 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 o Pizarro decides he is going to kidnap Atahualpa, he has his men hide in buildings at the plaza o Atahualpa doesn’t really take any precautions because he doesn’t know about the Aztecs, he didn’t know Empires could be destroyed, and since he is the descendent of Manco as long as the sun is shining all will be okay § During the meeting Pizarro sends a priest to tell Atahualpa about the Christian God, and that he has to acknowledge the Christian God and surrender Atahualpa refuses and throws the bible on the ground, so the priest declares that the Spanish soldiers are absolved from all sin if they kill the Incas because they rejected the Christian God Atahualpa is captured • Pizarro tells Atahualpa that all he wants is gold and silver and he’ll leave, but when the ransom is paid the Spanish to not leave, rather they but Atahualpa on trial for treason for rebelling against his brother, he is found guilt o Atahualpa can either be burnt and the stake or convert to Christianity and be strangled He converts and is executed Pizarro then declares Atahualpa’s brother Manco the new High Inca • Mano begins to plan an attack and the Incas rebel but they lose because: 1) Spanish had superior military technology 2) Spanish have the horse 3) Spanish have lots of reinforcements 4) diseases were still killing off the Inca population § psychological impact: because the diseases only affected the Incas they believed the Spanish God was greater than theirs so there was no point in fighting 5) Many Incas lost faith and fought with the Spanish Against Manco Incas fled into the Andes and established a new Inca Empire in exile but eventually they are discovered and executed 19 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 March 8 & March 10: Japan Feudalism/Feudal Pyramid: • Emperor: No real political/military authority • Shogun: Only one at a time, held political and military power, Shogunate was like a hereditary monarchy so when he died the son would take the title o shogun claimed to run on behalf of the emperor but in reality it was the shogun making all of the decisions o below the shogun there are two ranks of nobility: the daimyo and samurai • Daimyo: # varied through Japanese history, during this period 120 o Japan was divided into 66 provinces, a daimyo ruled all or a part of a province on behalf of the shogun o the daimyo completed certain tasks for the shogun: 1) collected taxes 2) enforced laws 3) performed jobs like building roads/bridges/harbors 4) serves in the shogun’s army 5) recruited soldiers • Samurai: thousands within Japan, each samurai worked for a daimyo o each samurai controlled a small amount of land for the daimyo, samurai performed the same actions for the daimyo that the daimyo did for the shogun All nobles lived by The Bushido Code which stated: 1) All Japanese owed their highest loyalty to the Emperor 2) All Japanese were expected to obey their immediate superior 3) All Japanese must exemplify bravery in battle 4) NEVER were you to flee from a battle 5) NEVER Were you to allow yourself to be captured IF you DID NOT live up to the code you would dishonor yourself, your family, your ancestors, and your decedents If you were born a noble yay you J, if you were a commoner you would be a commoner your entire life: • commoners are usually under the direct control of a noble (samurai or daimyo) • commoners had to work on the lands of the nobles whenever called • commoners were completely at the mercy of their local noble • commoners are not considered to be equal before the law, a noble can kill a commoner w/o any repercussions Feudal System only works if the Shogun can keep the Daimyo and Samurai under control, which is why the Feudal system broke down and instead there were a ton of smaller city states Eventually a new Japanese would be created thanks to 3 famous leaders: 20 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 1) Oda Nobunaga: o Oda was the daimyo of Oari which neighbored another powerful daimyo, Imagawa Yoshimota o One day Imagawa decided to conquer Oda but the didn’t take the campaign too seriously and was drunk most of the time he never took the necessary precautions to ensure his success SO one night Imagawa and his men decide to get drunk and Oda decides to attack (you can’t attack at night according to the Bushido Code but Oda didn’t care) ODA DEFEATS IMAGAWA Oda continues to conquer various territories allowing him to gain a lot of power, he was successful because: 1) great military leader 2) ruthless 3)Oda was one of the first Japanese leaders to use guns and cannons Oda controlled almost half of Japan when he decides to conquer more territory and attack Mori Terumoto: • Oda holds a conference with all the important generals and he send Hideyoshi to begin attacking Mori • Oda then order the rest of the generals to return home and bring their armies to go fight Mori BUT Akechi (one of the generals) decides to take advantage that Oda only has 50 samurai to guard him and attacks! Once Oda realizes he is going to be captured he commits suicide Akechi then decides to send a letter to Mori telling him that Oda is dead and asks him to become his alliance, except the letter never reaches Mori because it is intercepted by Hideyoshi: • Hideyoshi stops fighting Mori, takes his army and races back to Kyoto to take Akechi by surprise • Hideyoshi is victorious and Akechi is killed • Hideyoshi moves quickly to conquer all of Oda’s old territory o Hideyoshi eliminates all possible threats and in 6 years is able to conquer all of Japan Hideyoshi becomes really concerned about who is going to take the empire after him, and then he finally has a son J but by the time his son, Hideyori, is 5 years old Hideyoshi becomes very ill • In hopes that his son will rule one day Hideyoshi establishes an elaborate system to permit it, but the system fails soon after Hideyoshi dies because Tokugawa (powerful Daimyo) wants to take power o There were a lot of Daimyo who wanted to stop Tokugawa from taking power and they were led by Ishida 21 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 o In 1600 the Battle of Sekigahara takes place (Tokugawa VS. Ishida+Daimyo) § Ishida had a plan to be able to defeat Tokugawa but he plan fails when it turns out that half of his army was conspiring with Tokugawa and they betray him TOKUGAWA WINS THE BATTLE OF SEKIGAHARA Tokugawa established the Tokugawa Shogunate so that he and his decedents could rule • period of peace and prosperity, because after the Battle of Sekigahara Tokugawa was able to conquer a lot of fertile land • to encourage Daimyo to be loyal and not rebel, the daimyo’s families were required to live in Tokyo with Tokugawa • all major roads in and out of Tokyo had check points Now, Hideyori is growing up and the older he gets the more he reminds people of his father Hideyoshi • SO Tokugawa wants to get rid of Hideyori but he needs an excuse and he eventually finds a ridiculous one: o 1615 Hideyori was living in the city of Osaka and he has a big bell made and on this bell Hideyori has inscribed the name of all the great men that have ruled japan including Tokugawa o Unfortunately Tokugawa’s name was misspelled and Toku says he cannot live through this dishonor so Toku attacks o Hideyori realizes there is no way he will survive so he send Toku a letter asking him to spare his life and his family’s Hideyori thinks this might work because his wife is Toku’s granddaughter BUT Toku says, “No, please kill yourself’ and they do So 1615, the last Japanese threat to Toku’s power is eliminated Right before Oda took over Europeans had arrived for the first time in Japan • The Spanish did not hesitate to conquer native people, but when they get to Japan they realize they won’t be able to take advantage of them how they did with the Aztecs and Incas, why? 1) The Japanese also had steel armor & weapons 2) The Japanese already had the horse 3) The Japanese did not have guns or cannons, but they had steel and gun powder so they figured out how guns and cannons worked and started manufacturing them 4) The Japanese already had the same diseases as the Europeans, so disease would no decimate the Japanese population SO the Spanish soon realized they wouldn’t be able to conquer Japan militarily, so instead they would try to conquer Japan religiously 22 History 10 Final Exam Study Guide | Winter 2016 Christian Missionaries began to show up in Japan and began to convert the population to Christianity, they were successful ú Toku was becoming really concerned with the growth of Christianity because he feared Japanese Christians would be more loyal to the pope and their God than to the Shogun ú Toku decided to act against the Spanish when Will Adams was an English sailor who was shipwrecked in Japan tells Toku about all the bad stuff the Spanish did in the Americas to the Aztec and Inca Empires o As a result Toku decides to close Japan, so no foreigners will be allowed in the country and no Japanese can leave § Japanese Christians were given a choice: 1) Give up your new religion 2) Die SO Toku and his successors were able to stamp out Christianity, Japanese had the power to kick out the Europeans and keep them out Through most of the Tokugawa Shogunate Japan would be closed to the outside world HOWEVER, Japan had now been unified, it was a peaceful and wealthy country Which is why when Japan was finally forced open (1853 the Americas forced it open) it quickly became one of the world’s greatest super powers and that is all J good luck! 23
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