So much better than office hours. Needed something I could understand, and I got it. Will be turning back to StudySoup in the future
History 105 Final Exam Study Guide
Republic of Letters: A system of long distance communication that connected all the intellectuals of the west. Late 17th and 18th Centuries, helped the spread of enlightenment and is thought to have brought on the enlightenment period. People could share their knowledge and build off each other’s knowledge work together. This was a big contributor for why the west was able to advance in certain areas of knowledge and technology faster than China.
Vernacular: The most commonly spoken language in a specific area, the language that is ‘indigenous’ of the land. The vernacular language in China was not transcribed, only spoken. This made it so that not everyone could communicate with each other on a national scale. They weren’t able to send letters to each other if there wasn’t a transcribed dialect that they both understood, thus they weren’t able to advance as a country as quickly. One area that the west had an advantage
The Thirty Years War: Early/mid 1600s. Ferdinand II, the Holy Roman emperor of Bohemia initiated it. This was basically a religious war, there had recently been the Protestant reformation so there was division in Europe between Protestants and Catholics. Ferdinand II was Catholic and tried to stop religious protestant activities, brought on a big war that lasted 30 years, got many powerful countries involved like Spain, France, Sweden, and Austria. The result of the thirty years war was that religion was no longer involved in politics as much, helped the advancement of Europe. We also discuss several other topics like in which celery stalk was the water column broken?
White Lotus Rebellion: This was a movement that enacted a series of rebellions. One in 1774, the big one lasting from 1796-1804, and one more in 1813. The White Lotus society was a group that had been around since sometime in the Song dynasty and they weren’t happy when the Manchu came in and took over declaring the Qing dynasty in 1664. This is why they rebelled, the mission of the 1796-1804 rebellion was to restore the Ming dynasty. The icon of the White Lotus rebellion was Wang Lun, who was thought to be the Buddha Maitreya and was a martial arts and healing expert. The White Lotus rebellion attracted a lot of diverse underprivileged people that were suppressed in the contemporary society. White Lotus inspired new belief systems (could call them religions), separate from traditional beliefs.
If you want to learn more check out easa pronunciation
Cuius Regio, Eius Regio: A Latin phrase that translates to “Whose realm, his religion.” There was unrest in Germany having to do with
split religions. Catholics and Protestants were fighting and military was getting involved. The Peace of Augsburg took place in 1555 where this rule was established to help create peace. The rule was this phrase “Whose realm, his religion.” This gave the ruler of a specific area in the power to choose the religion for that area. This method of peace doesn’t last for long as the 30 years war follows half a century later.
Fiat Wealth: This is money that the government declared as the currency for a country. Our dollar bills and coins are the fiat currency here in America. Fiat wealth like cash and coins isn’t backed by an actual commodity, the value of it is dictated by supply and demand rather than how much the physical object is worth. This puts fiat wealth at risk for inflation. Fiat is Latin for “it shall be.”
Jia: This is the Chinese family or “kin.” Jia includes everyone that you’re related to by blood, adoption, or marriage. Jia can be very big because they include all the grandparents and cousins, they tend to live altogether in one big compound. This is very different from the European nuclear family that is just a father, mother, and a couple children living together. Jia is a patriarchy with the males being the dominant ones. Here is a possible image ID that shows a Chinese Jia.
Don't forget about the age old question of ma 180 uab
Heliocentrism: Prior to this, everyone had believed in Ptolemy’s concept of Geocentrism for about 1500 years. Geocentrism is the idea
that the earth is at the center of the universe and everything revolves around it. Copernicus (1473-1543) came up with the idea of Heliocentrism in 1543, challenging what everything believed to be true. Heliocentrism is the concept that the sun is at the center of the universe and the earth actually rotates around the sun. Church wasn’t completely with this view at first because it challenged their view that we are the reason for the universe itself. We also discuss several other topics like chemstudy
If you want to learn more check out bilian lin ualbany
Tennis Court Oath: June 20th, 1789. The beginning of the French Revolution. The deputies of the 3rd estate meet on a tennis court named Jeu de Paume. The 3rd estate was basically the lower clergy and the common people, they demanded that a new constitution be instated. King Luis XVI assembled the national assembly that represented the 3 estates, the nobles, the clergy, and the common folk. The common folk had by far the most representatives so they won and King Luis XVI was forced to give up. However, after that he came back at them with his military in defiance and the French revolution broke out. Here is the image ID associated with this showing the national assembly in the tennis court. Don't forget about the age old question of policy makers face trade-off between equality and efficiency.
Hungry Ghost: In China it was customary to venerate your ancestors by going to their graves and making sure was kept clean and giving them offerings. They believed that you needed your family to do this
for you when you die or your earthly spirit will not be happy. A hungry ghost is what you get when the family dies or fails to venerate the dead. Also happens from violent or unhappy/unjust deaths. Lowest degree of rebirth. Hungry ghosts are unhappy souls that haunt and terrorize people because of their emotional longing. Below is the image ID that shows a hungry ghost.
The Bank of England: The Glorious Revolution had just taken place in England in which William III of Orange overthrew King James II and took the throne in 1688. The bank was started in 1694 using 1.2 million dollars in loans at 8% interest obtained by investors. It was a limited liability corporation and issued bank notes to England. The Bank would take coins and give out paper bank notes for them, first European paper bank notes ever. This made a lot of money, funded the expansion of the English Navy for the war with France.
Qi: The Chinese believed Earth and everything on it to be an organism with energy running through it all. This eternal energy is called Qi (pronounced Chi). Qi is the energy that flows through our bodies keeping us alive and drives the forces of nature. There is believed to be 12 Qi meridians that run through the body in which Qi flows through. If one of these pathways is blocked and Qi flow is disrupted then you will get sick. Chinese medicine revolves around this belief. Martial arts involves the summoning of one’s Qi.
Confessionalization: This took place between the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 and the Thirty Years war which started in 1618. The Peace of Augsburg started the Cuius Regio, Eius Regio rule which gave rulers
the decision for which religion would be the religion of that land. This caused a severe mixing of politics and religion which led to confessionization. Since the Catholics and Protestants were now separated into different places they could work on enforcing their religions on other people instead of fighting each other. Confessionalization was when Protestant states and Catholic states were both “confession-building” during this time, or when they were competing to push their religions more firmly. This occurred through social discipline and the citizens would face punishment if they didn’t obey religious law. Monarchs and rulers liked this because they could exercise their own beliefs and power.
The Seven Year’s War: Occurred from 1754-1763 in Europe. This was a major cause of France’s bankruptcy and French Revolution that occurred not long after. The Seven Years’ War was a war that involved many of the major European nations that started because the Austrian Habsburgs were trying to get their land in Silesia back from Frederick II of Prussia. Another part of this war was the struggle between Great Britain and France for territory in North American and India. That aspect the war is sometimes referred to as the French Indian War. France lost all New World holdings, lost Louisiana to Spain. Britain becomes major sea power and taxes on new world colonies go up to pay for war. This contributed to the American Revolution.
Protestant Work Ethic: This is basically the concept that Protestants value hard work and good moral. They value this so highly because part of the Protestant faith is that you can find salvation from God through good works in life. They also valued living simply and humbly and not being excessive with their possessions and desires. This culture spread throughout Europe after the Protestant reformation to the point where even non-religious people still valued hard work. This is another contributor to why Europe was able to advance quickly technologically.
Potosí: Potosí is a city in Bolivia that contains a big mountain called Potosí Mountain, now covered in mines this mountain had a vast amount of silver on it at one point. Once the Spanish found silver there in 1545 it became the biggest city in the New World at that point in time exceeding 150,000 people. Many African slaves and Bolivians died from the poor work conditions in mining the silver out of the mountain. Once the silver ran out everyone left, the harvesting of that much silver caused the value of silver to fall in Europe with the Spanish economy being hit the hardest. A lot of the silver wound up in China because Europe could trade that with China and they really wanted it. Here is an image ID of the mountain.
MacCartney Expidition: In 1792, Great Britain headed by George McCartney made their first diplomatic mission to China. Goals were to create trade ports out of China so that they could trade goods with China freely, get a permanent embassy in China, the cession of a small island off China’s coast for British use, and for the Chinese to relax their trade restrictions on British merchants. Upon meeting the emperor, McCartney refused to bow down to him which gave a very poor presentation to the Chinese. The Chinese also thought that all the technology that Europe had was pretty useless except for the clock.
Commodity Wealth: This is the opposite of fiat wealth, commodity wealth is currency in a society that has its value determined by consumers or market demands. This is wealth that is determined by the people rather than the state. The price of a watermelon is dependent upon how much the seller thinks it is worth and how much the buyer thinks its worth. Watermelons would be commodity wealth. Commodity wealth is usually in the form of raw materials.
Geomancy: This was a Taoist idea that is basically the art of designing houses and cities a certain way. The main part of geomancy is Feng Shui. The Chinese had to maintain a balance in everything and maintain their Feng Shui so they built everything accordingly. Cemeteries had to be on a hill with a source of water running underneath to maintain the balance. Cities had to be built running north to south. There always had to be a balance of light and dark in a room, same with nature and water. Geomancy is the concept of arranging things in this manner.
Maitreya: The Buddha Maitreya is a person that is the new embodiment of the Buddha by Chinese beliefs. In the White Lotus Rebellion, Wang Lun was thought to be the Buddha Maitreya because
he was leading his country into a revolution and causing change. If you claim to be the Buddha Maitreya you have a lot of power, it is necessary to obey and follow the teachings of the Buddha Maitreya in order to achieve nirvana and end the rebirth cycle. Similar to the mandate of heaven of emperors but not quite the same.
Taiping Rebellion: Professor Furtado stated he would not include the Taiping rebellion on the final.
Part 2: Reading Identifications:
Questions that Readings Address: Just stating a possible answer for these questions, you could really go pretty in depth and analyze a lot of different angles when answering these. I’m just doing a brief overview.
1, If the Chinese Imperial System was centralized and the many states of Europe politically fragmented, what consequences did that have?
Talk about how political fragmentation in Europe led to growth. Since they had to compete against each other in Europe they were pressured to invent new things and to grow intellectually and technologically. Since China had no pressure to advance really fast because they had a centralized government they didn’t advance as quickly.
2. How did China’s many religions coalesce around the Emperor, and how did Europe's many states coalesce - or not - around one religion?
China’s emperor always had the mandate of heaven which applied to all the Chinese religions, the emperor had divine right. For a long time in Europe the whole continent was pretty much centered around the Holy Roman Empire and Catholicism. Then there was some unrest and a lot of sub-religions came out of that. Protestantism came from Lutheranism which came from Catholicism. There was definitely unrest
in Europe and they did not all have the same exact religion, in fact they fought quite a bit amongst themselves about that.
3. If Europeans families were nuclear and Chinese extended, what consequences did that have?
European families were a lot more mobile than Chinese families since nuclear families were small and the Chinese extended families that lived together were huge. You couldn’t really just decide to go migrate somewhere if you lived in an extended Chinese family. This is a reason that the west was able to colonize the New World so quickly.
4; How did non-metallic wealth develop in Europe and how was it used in our period?
First paper bank notes issued by the Bank of England, offered this paper currency to citizens if the citizens gave the bank their coins. This paid for the English naval expansion during their war with France. Started from that and expanded.
5. Why did china abandon paper money in favor of silver and what consequence did that have?
China tried out paper money for awhile but abandoned it because of hyperinflation and metal had intrinsic value. Metal was a much more reliable source of wealth and that’s why they demanded silver from all these other countries for trade. The consequence of this was that Europe couldn’t really trade with China unless they had silver which made most of the silver in the world go to China.
6. If China had the Examination System and Europe the Republic of Letters, what consequence did that have?
Europe’s Republic of Letters allowed them to communicate over long distance and sort of united Europe on an intellectual basis; sped up there technological growth. Chinese examination system was very rigorous memorization of the same books. Studied old traditional stuff and weren’t as innovative as people in Europe. This could be a reason that the west advanced faster than China.
8. How did the language of mathematics objectify nature, and how can it help us to understand the dominance of the west at the end of our period?
Math helped the Europeans to understand nature on a different level than the Chinese, a level that they could manipulate and invent things with that knowledge. Helped technological advancement of the west.
9. If there was a Chinese focus on harmony with nature and an objectification of it in Europe, what consequences did that have?
Europe was more willing to harvest the earth of raw material for profit and to disrupt nature, China didn’t do that as much (although they built the Great wall of China which went against that harmony, so the care for harmony didn’t actually act as a deterrent for the Chinese to advance.)
10. How does Prof. Pomerantz’ theory of Great divergence explain the dominance of the West at the end of our period?
He argues that the reason for western dominance is because we had coal and the ability to transport it and use it. Coal burned a lot better and produced more energy than wood. They wound up needed to invent pumps to get the coal, by inventing that they came up with a
bunch of other inventions like the Steam engines and locomotives. This was a great boost for the advancement of the west
11. How do the differences between revolutions in China and Europe help us to understand the eventual dominance of the west in our period?
Revolutions in the west were in an attempt to advance society and make it better in a lot of ways, the revolutions in China were in an attempt to get the new guys out and restore the old ways of thinking. This is the complete opposite and is a reason that the west advanced quicker than China.
Comprehensive Goldstone Question:
Was Western dominance the result of accidental developments in England after 1650, as Goldstone argues, or the product of longer-term advantages Europe had gained over China since Columbus’ voyages – or even earlier?
This is a very broad question and you could talk about a lot of different topics and come up with many different reasons for your argument. Here I am just throwing out some ideas but don’t just stick to these, think deductively about everything we’ve learned over the course and put things together to formulate an argument. You could argue with Goldstone, highlighting all the points he makes in his article. Or you could argue against Goldstone and talk about how it wasn’t really an accident because China didn’t need to go anywhere but they definitely could if they wanted to. That seems pretty purposeful if they had the power to expand but didn’t because they chose not to. Also talk about Europe’s state competition and how that led to quick technology advances. Talk about how education systems in Europe and China favored European advancement because China had their minds centered more on tradition not innovation. Could talk about protestant work ethic and how that drove Europe. Talk about conflict in Europe and how that drove advancement. Talk about family and how European families were more mobile because they’re smaller. Many more things you could talk about.
Some Visual IDs: (Not all of them!)
1. This is a sycee, a Chinese silver form of currency. Talk about Chinese silver
2. These are Protestants, talk about Protestant work ethic and the hypocrisy in that paintings are extravagant but they claim to be humble. They have an extravagant painting showing how humble they are.
3. East India Company
4. King William III of Orange. Took England From King James II in the Glorious revolution
5. Satire on Tulip Mania. Everyone at the time was going crazy or tulips because they were making people so much money. Painting is of monkeys going crazy over tulips because the people doing that didn’t realize it would all crash.
6. (above) The MacCartney Expedition
7. (above) The Opium War of 1842
8. Chinese compounds (where they lived with their Jia)
9. (above) Nuclear Family in Europe
10. Chinese footbinding (showed wealth if you didn’t have to walk anywhere so they deformed their feet)
11. (above) the human Qi meridians, channels that Qi flows through in the body
12. Catholic Carnival, do whatever you want right before lent. Everyone goes crazy in the streets
13. Qingming festival
14. District Exam
15. Prefectural Exam
16. Provincial Exam
17. Metropolitan exam
18. St. Augustine (invented theology)
19. Universitas (talk about the importance of Republic of letters and what all came out of that)
20. René Descartes. Created Mind Body Dualism , talk about Republic of letters.
21. Vaucanson’s Duck
22. Geocentrism, earth at center of universe (Ptolemy)
23. Heliocentrism (sun at center of universe) (Copernicus)
25. American Revolution
26. French revolution
27. Storming of the Bastille 1789
28. Napolean Bonaparte, became emperor of French for awhile