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Exam 1 Review Sheet

by: Michael Leone

18

1

6

Exam 1 Review Sheet AST 100

Michael Leone
SUNY Oswego

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Both the lecture notes and the textbook reading notes up to Exam 1.
COURSE
Astronomy
PROF.
Kenneth Eric Mauser (P)
TYPE
Study Guide
PAGES
6
WORDS
CONCEPTS
astronomy, space
KARMA
50 ?

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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michael Leone on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to AST 100 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Kenneth Eric Mauser (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Astronomy in Astronomy at State University of New York at Oswego.

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Date Created: 03/16/16
Michael Leone Exam 1 Cheat Sheet AST 100 TEXTBOOK Ch. 1-4, 7, 8 Chapter 1  Rotation – Spin  Orbit – Revolution  Earth > Milky Way > Local Group > Local Supercluster > Universe  Universe began with the Big Bang.  Ecliptic Plane – The plane of Earth’s orbit around the Sun.  Axis tilt – The amount by which a planet’s axis is tilted with respect to a line perpendicular to the ecliptic plane.  Doppler Effect/Shifts – The effect that shifts the wavelengths of spectral features in objects that are moving toward or away from the observer.  Copernican Revolution – Showed us that geocentric theory is false. Chapter 2  Celestial Equator – Projection of Earth’s equator in space.  Angular Size – Of an object is the angle it appears to span in your field of view.  Local Sky – The sky seen from where you are.  The altitude of the celestial pole in your sky is equal to your latitude.  Longitude vs. Latitude  Zodiac – Constellations along the ecliptic.  Summer and Winter solstice, Spring and Fall equinox.  Precession – A gradual wobble that alters the orientation of Earth’s axis in space.  Lunar Phases – The Moon’s appearance in our sky changes as it’s position relative to the Sun changes.  Synchronous Rotation – The rotation of an object that always shows the same face to an object that it is orbiting because its rotation period and orbital period are equal.  Node – Two points in each orbit at which the Moon crosses the surface.  Umbra – Sunlight is completely blocked.  Penumbra – Sunlight is only partially blocked.  Apparent Retrograde Motion – The apparent motion of a planet during the period of a few weeks or months when it moves westward relative to the stars in our sky.  Stellar Parallax – Objects seem to “jump.” Michael Leone Exam 1 Cheat Sheet AST 100 Chapter 3  Archaeoastronomy – Study of archaeology and astronomy.  Scientific Model  Geocentric – Earth centered.  Ptolemaic Model – One form of a geocentric model.  Tyco Brahe – Danish astronomer, begged Kepler at his death bed to finish his work.  Aphelion – Point in orbit when FARTHEST from Sun.  Perihelion – Point in orbit when CLOSEST to Sun.  Foci – 2 focus points in an ellipse.  Eccentricity – Describes how much an ellipse is stretched out compared to a perfect circle.  Pseudoscience – False science. Chapter 4  Speed – How far in a certain time.  Velocity – Speed and direction.  Acceleration – Change in velocity (UP OR DOWN).  Acceleration of Gravity – Acceleration of a falling object (g).  Momentum – Mass x Velocity  Net force – Overall/total force.  Torque – Type of force that can change an object’s angular momentum.  Mass – Amount of “stuff” of an object.  Weight – How much gravity is being enacted on you.  Free-Fall – Falling without any resistance.  Kinetic Energy – Energy of motion.  Potential Energy – Stored energy.  Radiative Energy – Energy carried by light.  Thermal Energy – The collective kinetic energy of the many individual particles.  Escape Velocity – An object with escape velocity has enough orbital energy to escape Earth completely (40,000 km/hr). Chapter 7  All information in Chapter 7 is found in Lecture 7. Chapter 8  Solar Nebula – Interstellar cloud of gas from the beginning of our solar system. o Heating, Spinning, and Flattening of the Solar Nebula.  Hydrogen is the #1 most abundant gas in beginning, Helium is #2.  Accretion – Process by which small “seeds” grew into planets. Michael Leone Exam 1 Cheat Sheet AST 100  Planetesimals – Pieces of planet.  Solar Wind – Stream of charged particles continually blown outward in all directions from the Sun.  Heavy Bombardment LECTURES 1 - 7 Lecture #1  Defining Astronomy: science that deals with the material universe beyond Earth's atmosphere  Scientific Method: systematic observation, measurement and experiment and the formulation, testing and modification of hypotheses.  Scientific Notation: exponents  Scales and units of the Universe: meters, km, AU, Lyr, mass, L (luminosity) Lecture #2  Prehistoric Astronomy: demarcation of time, religious significance, navigation/location, signs and portents, sentience/curiosity  Celestial Sphere: imaginary sphere of the night sky where celestial bodies appear to exist and move  Daily Motion/~15⁰/hr  Yearly Motion=~1⁰/day  Zenith, Horizon and Meridian  Geocentric: `Earth centered'  Angular Size; minutes, seconds;  Constellations: group of stars in a region of the celestial sphere to which names have been given  Asterisms: a group of stars, which may be part of one or more constellations  Right Ascension(RA): angle east of the Sun's apparent position on the March Equinox  Declination(Dec.): angle of celestial object above or below celestial equator, measured in positive notation (above) and negative notation (below)  Solstices and Equinoxes: Winter, Spring, Summer and Fall Lecture #3  Cycles of Time; seconds, minutes, hours; days, months, years Michael Leone Exam 1 Cheat Sheet AST 100  Sidereal Time: one revolution of a star’s position in the night sky; ~23h56m  Lunar Time; orbit of Earth ~29.53d; lunar sidereal time ~27d  Lunar Phases: a cycle of phases divided into two groups (waxing and waning)  Lunar Orbital period = Lunar Rotational Period (same side faces Earth all the time)  Lunar Eclipses: Earth's shadow on the Moon, in part or in whole; only during Full Moon phase, 2 kinds called Partial or Total; Earth's double shadow (umbra and penumbra)  Solar Eclipses: Moon comes between a location of Earth and the Sun; unique in the Solar system as Suns angular diameter = Moons angular diameter (½ degree); New Moon phase only; Total, Partial and Annular  Seasons: direct result of Earth's 23.5 degree axial title to its orbital plane Lecture #4  Aristotle: 2 realms (Earth and Heavens)  Aristarchus: Determined relative sizes of Earth, Sun and Moon; used Small Angle Equation (W = θd/57.3).  Eratosthenes: determined true size of Earth ; presumed all rays from Sun were parallel  Ptolemy; `nested spheres' theory; epicycles to explain retrograde motion  Geocentric Model; Earth centered, Sun, Moon and planets drift against a fixed pattern of stars  Galileo: observations refuted geocentric model; sunspots, mountains on Moon, phases of Venus, Moons of Jupiter  Heliocentric Model: Sun at center; all planets revolve around the Sun; Moon revolves around Earth; stars fixed at great distance  Kepler's 3 Laws of Planetary Motion: (1) planetary orbits are ellipses around the Sun; (2) Equal area in equal time in planet orbits (3) fixed ratio of all planetary orbits between square of period and cube of semi- major axis (p2=a3) Lecture # 5  mass: amount of matter in an object  velocity: an objects speed and direction  acceleration: any change in velocity with time  Newton's 1st Law of Motion: velocity of object is unchanged unless acted upon by a net external force Michael Leone Exam 1 Cheat Sheet AST 100  Newton's 2 ndLaw of Motion: f=ma, where F is net force, m is mass and a is acceleration  Newton's 3 Law of Motion: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (F=-F)  Newtons Law of Gravity: F=Gm1m2/R2, where F is the force of gravity. G is gravitational constant, m1 is mass of object 1, m2 is mass of object 2 and R is the distance between objects  Weight of an object can change, its mass cannot (unless acted upon)  Negating atmospheric effects, objects falling toward an object have equal accelerations Lecture # 6  Orbits; an object orbits another object when its velocity equals its centripetal acceleration (Pv=Pca)  Gravitational Tidal Force: differences in force exerted across an object  Earth/Moon Tides: Neap and Spring  Tidal Force Effects in the Solar System: Moon/Earth orbit resonance, ocean tides, Earth day getting longer, rings of outer planets, heating of Jupiter and Saturn moons  Dichotomy of planets: rocky, solid inner planets (terrestrial), large, gaseous outer planets (Jovian), MVEMJSUN  Origin of the Solar System:, collapsing spinning cloud of gas and dust, flattening of cloud  Exceptions: Venus spins clockwise, Uranus spins `side-ways' Lecture # 7  Comets: nucleus, ion tail, dust/debris tail, coma, H-envelope  Ion tail always points away from Sun  Dust/debris tail is a function of the comets orbit  Comet nucleus contains H2O and CO2 ice, gases, ammonia, `dirt', carbon molecules/compounds  Long period Comets: >200 years, originate in the Oort Cloud  Short Period Comets: <200 years, originate from the Kupier Belt  Meteors: dust/debris left by a comet pulled in by Earth's gravity  Meteoroid: object in space  Meteor: streak of light seen when a meteoroid enters Earth's atmosphere  Meteorite: surviving remains of a meteor on Earth's surface  Types of Meteors: Iron, Silicated, Stony-Iron, and Stone  Asteroids: metallic, rocky bodies with no atmospheres orbiting Sun in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter  Types of Asteroids: Carbonaceous, Silicates and Metalics Michael Leone Exam 1 Cheat Sheet AST 100

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