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Exam 3 book notes

by: Lauren Maddox

Exam 3 book notes Bio 214

Lauren Maddox

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Notes from the textbook for exam three
Molecular and Cell Biology
Dr. Doyle
Study Guide
Biology; Cell Molecular Biology; BIO 214
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Maddox on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 214 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Doyle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cell Biology in Biology at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 03/16/16
Chapter 8 The Lac operon is controlled by both the Lac repressor and the CAP activator. It encodes proteins required to import and digest the disaccharide lactose. In the absence of glucose, the bacterium makes cAMP, which activates CAP to switch on genes that allow the cell to utilize alternative sources of carbon. The lac repressor shuts off the operon in the absence of lactose. The operon is highly expressed when glucose is absent and lactose is present. Transcription regulators can coax various differentiated cells to de-differentiate into pluripotent stem cells that are capable of giving rise to all the specialized cell types in the body. Chapter 13 OVERVIEW: STAGE 1: enzymes convert the large polymeric molecules in food to simple monomers. Called digestion. Occurs outside of the cell or in specialized organelles. The small organic molecules enter the cytosol. STAGE 2: chain of reactions called glycolysis splits each molecule of glucose into 2 smaller molecules of pyruvate. Glycolysis is in the cytosol, and produces pyruvate, NADH, and ATP. The pyruvate then goes to the matrix. A enzyme complex converts each pyruvate molecule into CO2 plus acetyl CoA. Large amounts of acetyl CoA are produced from the oxidation of fatty acids. STAGE 3: all in the mitochondria. The acetyl group from acetyl CoA is transferred to an oxaloacetate molecule to form citrate, which then goes to the citric acid cycle. The transferred acetyl group is oxidized to CO2, with the production of NADH. The high energy electrons are then passed along a series of enzymes within the mitochondrial inner membrane called an electron transport chain. Energy released is used to drive oxidative phosphorylation, which produces ATP and consumes O2. Electron transport chain- At specific sites in the chain, the energy released is used to drive H+ (protons) against the inner membrane, from the mitochondrial matrix to the innermembrane space. This movement generates a proton gradient across the inner membrane, which serves as a source of energy. At the end, the electrons are added to molecules of O2 that have diffused into the mitochondrion, and the resulting oxygen molecules immediately combine with protons (H+) from the surrounding solution to produce water. Chapter 14 Most of the ATP is produced from oxidative phosphorylation. In eukaryotic cells, oxidative phosphorylation takes place in the mitochondria and it depends on an electron-transport process that drives the transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The membrane process consists of two linked stages Stage 1: high energy electrons are transferred along a series of electron carriers- electron transport chain. These electron transfers release energy that is used to pump protons, derived from the water that is ubiquitous in cells, across the membrane and generate an electrochemical proton gradient. Stage 2: protons flow back down their electrochemical gradient through a protein complex called atp synthase, which catalyzes the energy-requiring synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. The inner mitochondrial membrane serves as a device that converts the energy contained in the high-energy electrons of NADH and FADH2 into the phosphate bond of ATP molecules-oxidative phosphorylation. The source of high energy electrons that power the proton pumping in cell respiration- sugars or fats. For photosynthesis- chlorophyll. Photosynthesis occurs only during the daylight hours, producing ATP and NADPH. These activated carriers can then be used, at any time of day to convert CO2 into sugar inside the chloroplast- carbon fixation. Chloroplasts have a highly permeable outer membrane, and a much less permeable inner membrane—chloroplast envelope. The inner membrane surrounds the stroma. The light-capturing systems, electron-transport chain, and atp synthase that produce ATP during photosynthesis are in the thylakoid membrane. Stage 1 of photosynthesis: electron transport chain in the thylakoid membrane harnesses the energy of electron transport to pump proteins into the thylakoid space; the resulting proton gradient then drives the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase. The high energy electrons donated to the photosynthetic electron transport chain come from a molecule of chlorophyll that has absorbed energy from the sunlight. The high energy electrons go to Nadp+ making nadph Stage 2: ATP and nadph are used to drive the manufacture of sugars from co2. Begin in the stroma, makes 3-carbon sugar, exported to the cytosol, produces sucrose. Chlorophyll molecules are held in multiprotein complexes called photosystems. Consists of antenna complexes and reaction center. When the first photosystem (II) absorbs light energy, its reaction center passes electrons to a mobile electron carrier called plastoquinone. This carrier transfers the high energy electrons to a proton pump, which uses the movement of electrons to generate an electrochemical proton gradient. The electrochemical proton gradient then drives the production of ATP by an ATP synthase located in the thylakoid membrane. Photosystem I passes its electrons to reduce Nadp+ to NADPH. Photosystem I serves as the final electron acceptor for the electron transport chain that carries electrons from photosystem II. Electrons removed from water by photosystem II are passed, through a proton pump, to a mobile electron carrier called plastocyanin. This carries these electrons to PSI, to replace the electrons lost by its excited chlorophyll special pair. When light is again absorbed by the PS, this electron will be boosted to the very high-energy level needed to reduce Nadp+ to nadph. Chapter 11 The most abundant lipids in cell membranes are the phospholipids, which have a phosphate-containing, hydrophilic head linked to a pair of hydrophobic tails. Many membrane proteins extend through the bilayer, with part of their mass on either side. These transmembrane proteins are amphipathic. Their hydrophobic regions lie in the interior of the bilayer, nestled against the hydrophobic tails of the lipid molecules. Their hydrophilic regions are exposed to the aqueous environment on either side of the membrane. Other membrane proteins are located entirely in the cytosol and are associated with the cytosolic half of the lipid bilayer by an amphipathic a helix exposed on the surface on the protein. Some proteins are outside of the bilayer, attached to the membrane by covalently attached lipid groups. Other proteins are bound to one or the other face of the membrane, held in place only by their interactions with other membrane proteins. Chapter 12 Na+ is most abundant on the outside, and K+ is most abundant on the inside. The net force driving a charged solute across a cell membrane is therefore a composite of two forces, one due to the concentration gradient and the other due to the membrane potential.


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