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Test #1 Study Guide

by: Rachel Notetaker

Test #1 Study Guide HD 101

Rachel Notetaker
Intro to Human Development
Dana Harmon

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About this Document

This is the study guide for test #1. Under each chapter I listed some of the things I thought to be most important to know for the test.
Intro to Human Development
Dana Harmon
Study Guide
test 1, first test, Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dana Harmon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Development in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 1 Tom human development tries to understand how and why people of all ages change over time or remain the same over time goal is to help all people ful ll their potential it is a science gt depends on theories data analysis critical thinking demographics help to understand individual differences theory while there are proven patterns of behaviors all children are different and are affected by different things many factors affect development one course vs many courses development is multidirectional over time human characteristics change in every direction continuous vs discontinuous several major theorists describe discontinuous stages of development major ups and downs Freud Erickson Piaget others view development as a continuous process smooth gt no major life events nature vs nurture 0 nature general term for the traits capacities and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception o nurture general term for all the environmental in uences that affect development after an individual is conceived evaluating theories 0 developmental theories group of ideas assumptions and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth 0 theories produce hypotheses 0 theories generate discoveries o theories offer practical guidance Human development framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older research methods scientific observation case study a process or record of research in which detailed consideration is given to the development of a particular person group or situation over a period of time observation requires the researcher to record behavior systematically and objectively may be done in a naturalistic environment such as a home school or other public place may be done in a laboratory survey questionnaire includes information collected from a large number of people by interview questioner some other means 0 challenges acquiring valid survey data isn t easy some people lie some change their minds answers are in uence by the wording and sequence of questions Likert scale psychometric scale involved in research that employs questioners experiment research method in which the researcher tries to determine the cause and effect relationship between 2 variables variables independent dependent person 0 independent variable introduced to see what effect is has on the dependent variable 0 dependent variable variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds operationalization process of strictly defining variables into measurable factors correlation eXists between 2 variables if one variable is more or less likely to occur when the other does 0 positive correlation both variables tend to increase or decrease together 0 negative correlation 1 variable tends to increase while the other decreases 0 zero correlation no connection is evident research designs crosssection longitudinal crosssequential cohort effect sampling data statistics mean median mode ethics consent assent Freud Proposes five psychosexual stages during which sensual satisfaction is linked to developmental needs and conflicts Suggests early con ict resolution determines personality patterns Personality has three parts id ego and superego unconscious unconscious drives and motives often originating in childhood underlie human behvaior psychoanalytic theory classical conditioning Demonstrates that behaviors can be learned by making an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus operant conditioning Proposes that reinforcement or punishment may be used to either increase or decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again in the future Chapter Z Tom chromosomes molecules of DNA DNA molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins genes passed down from generation to generation monozygotic and dizygotic twins 0 monozygotic identical originate from 1 zygote that splits apart very early in development incomplete split results in conjoined twins same genotype but slight variations in phenotype are possible due to environmental in uences 0 dizygotic fraternal result from fertilization of 2 separate ova by 2 separate sperm dizygotic twins have half their genes in common and occur twice as often as monozygotic twins incidence is genetic and varies by ethnicity and age alleles 0 variation of a gene or any of the possible forms in which a gene for a particular trait can occur effects of variations vary greatly from causing lifethreatning conditions to having no detectable effect at all dominantrecessive traits physical traits passed down from your parents dominant traits override recessive traits genotype 0 an organism s genetic inheritance or genetic potential unique for each organism phenotype the observable characteristics of an organism including appearance personality intelligence and all other traits biological and environmental in uences how your genetic makeup affects you vs how your environment effects you sperm and ovum combine to produce a new individual with 23 chromosomes from each parent zygote conception when the sperm meets the egg prenatal development how the baby develops while still inside the mother Mgm harmful substances to the baby before it is born wig how the mother gives birth different positions water breaking how the mother knows she is going into labor breech baby a baby is right side up in the mother not normal cesarean section are controversial involve surgical birth vary by rates and reasons for use present advantages for hospitals more complications after birth Complications during Birth 0 when a fetus is at risk birth complications become likely EX cerebral palsy o Anoxia related damage related to varied factors such as genes birth weight gestational age drugs in bloodstream APGAR 0 quick assessment of newborn s heart rate breathing muscle tone color and re exes completed twice 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth score of 01 or 2 in each category desired score 7 or above Chapter 3 Tom senses response of a sensory system eyes ears skin tongue nose when it detects a stimulus essential for the visual corteX to develop normally gross and ne motor skills Motor Skills Gross Motor Skills 0 physical abilities involving large body movements such as walking and jumping o 3 interacting elements underlying motor skills muscle strength brain maturation practice 0 the entire package of sensations and motor skills furthers 3 goals social interaction comfort learning Motor Skills Fine Motor Skills 0 physical abilities involving small body movements especially of the hands and fingers such as drawing and picking up a coin 0 shaped by culture and opportunity SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS o situation in which a seemingly healthy infant usually between 26 months old suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep 0 Beal studied SIDS death in South Australia and concluded factors related to increased risk sleeping position back is best maternal smoking bedding type brain development Developmental Cortex 0 frontal cortex assists in planning selfcontrol and selfregulation very immature in the newborn 0 cortex crinkled outer layer of the brain is the cortex 0 auditory cortex hearing is quite acute at birth the result of months of eavesdropping during the fetal period 0 visual cortex vision is the least mature sense at birth because the fetus has nothing to see while in the womb 0 Some areas of the cortex such as those devoted to the basic senses mature relatively early Others such as the prefrontal cortex mature quite late Chapter 4 Topics socialemotional development 0 synchrony coordinated rapid and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant 0 secure attachment relationship in which infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver 0 insecureavoidant attachment pattern of attachment in which infant avoids connection with the caregiver as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver s presence departure or return 0 insecureresistant ambivalent attachment pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident as when an infant becomes very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reunion 0 Mganized attachment type of attachment that is marked by an infant s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver s departure and return temperament inborn differences between one person and another in emotions activity and self regulation temperament is epigenetic originating in the genes but affected by childrearing practices selfrecognition Mirror Recognition 0 classic experiment M Lewis and Brooks 1978 0 babies aged 924 months looked into a mirror after a dot of rouge had been put on their noses 0 none of the babies younger than 12 months old reacted as if they knew the mark was on them 0 15to25 month olds showed selfawareness by touching their own noses with curiosity basic emotions Infant Emotions 0 fear emerges at about 9 months in response to people things or situations 0 stranger wariness infant no longer smiles at any friendly face but cries or looks frightened when an unfamiliar person moves too close 0 separation anxiety tears dismay or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves if it remains strong after age 3 it may be considered an emotional disorder Toddler Emotions o anger and fear become less frequent and more focused o laughing and crying become louder and more discriminating o temper tantrums may appear 0 new emotions pride shame embarrassment disgust guilt 0 early emotions high emotional responsiveness reactive pain and pleasure to compleX social awareness 0 crying typical excessive Colic smiling and laughing social smile 6 weeks evoked by viewing human faces gt daughter 3 to 4 months often associated with curiosity gender roles 0 mothers use a variety of eXpressions vocalizations and gestures to convey social information to their infants 0 mothers do more caregiving and comforting 0 synchrony attachment and social referencing are all apparent with fathers sometimes even more than with mothers 0 fathers elicit more smiles and laughter from their infants than mothers engage in more intensive play and teach appropriate emotional eXpressions


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