Wine and Beer in Western Culture
Wine and Beer in Western Culture FDSCTE 170
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Axel Gottlieb on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to FDSCTE 170 at Ohio State University taught by Jeff Culbertson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/209976/fdscte-170-ohio-state-university in Food Science & Technology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Study Guide 1 Worldwide Alcohol Use and Tasting Basics 1 Which traditionally has a larger production region wine or beer Why Grains tolerate colder weather than grapes larger region for beer production 2 By the gallon who are the top 5 world producers of wine Who is number 1 France is number 1 then italy spain usa and argentina 3 What country has the highest per capita consumption of wine luxembourg 6 By the gallon who are the top 5 world producers of beer Who is number 1 lnbev 7 What percent of the world beer supply is produced by the top 10 beer producers 60 8 What country has the highest per capita consumption of beer Czech republic 9 How many drinks on average does a light drinker consume A moderate drinker A heavy drinker Light lt5 moderate lt2 heavy gt5 10 What percent ofthe adult population in America is responsible for drinking 90 of the nation s total alcohol consumption 13 12 Who drinks more males or females Which has a higher percentage of light drinkers Which has a higher percentage of heavy drinkers Males drink more and have more heavy drinkers and females have more light 13 Today are more heavy drinkers employed or unemployed employed 14 What area of the US has the highest percent of heavy drinkers North central US 15 What area of the US has the highest percent of nondrinkers What is a likely reason for this regional difference South Bible belt 16 What area of the US has the highest percent of wine drinkers What is a likely reason for this regional difference West coast because wine grows well there 17 Is it true that ifyou cook with alcoholic beverages all the alcohol will burn off during cooking yes 18 When receiving a bottle ofwine the server should show you the bottle What should you be looking for Unopened and look at label 19 When receiving a bottle ofwine the server should hand you the cork What should you do with it Smell and look if moist 20 When receiving a bottle ofwine the server will give you a small pour to sample What should you be looking for as you taste it No vinegar note color and transparency Study Guide 2 Sensory Evaluation and Food Pairing 1 When drinking a glass ofwine or beer what sensations are stimulated Smell taste chemesthesis physical sight sound 2 What are the characteristics of taste compounds Odor compounds Taste is water soluble relatively small molecules and smell is air and oil soluble relatively large molecules 3 Where do taste compounds interact with humans to elicit a taste sensation The taste buds 4 Is there an anatomical basis of four basic tastes No that is a myth 5 What is often described as the fth basic taste unami 6 Where do odor compounds interact with humans to elicit an odor sensation The olfactory bulb 7 What is chemesthesis Other physical sensation elicited by chemicals temperature burn and cool drying tingling 9 What factors can influence interpretation of sensations Color genetics system state enviroment temperature 10 What factors should be considered when selecting a wine Drink what you like and try new things 11 When pairing a wine and food what should be matched Season ofthe year type of food price objective 12 When serving multiple wines in a meal what factors should be considered in determining serving order Young before old white before red low alcohol before high exception is dessert wine or ice wines last 13 What are the general rules for pairing beer with foods Light beer with light flavored foods ale is heavier drink what you like History of Beer and Vl ne Study Guide 1 What evidence has been used to determine the history ofwine and beer Burial goods archeological findings linguistic patterns oral traditions written records 2 According to this evidence how long ago were wine and beer first made Where 8000 years ago for wine in Middle East and beer came after in Middle East 3 Which is harder to make wine or beer V ne is simple beer is a multi step process 5 What were the earliest containers for holding wine and beer Amphorae 13 What contributions did the Church make to wine making Kept wine making technology from disappearing and had records and improved quality 14 What contributions did the Church make to beer making 15 How did wine making spread to the New World British and german wine to east coast and Spanish brought it to west coast 16 What impacted the landing ofthe May ower at Plymouth Rock They were running out of beer and needed to land 17 What were known as the Cradles of liberty Alehouses that were created by early colonists 18 How was the Whiskey Rebellion the rst trial of the federal government over the state They placed a tax over distilled spirits 19 Who was Carrie Nation 20 What two organizations from Ohio were major contributors to the temperance movement Womens Christian temperance union and british association and john adams presidency 21 What was the name ofthe act that ushered in Prohibition What act ended it The Volstead act started it 22 What amendment began Prohibition What amendment ended it 18th started it and 21St ended it 23 How did Prohibition impact drinking patterns What did Prohibition increase lncreased distilled spirits and criminal activity with federal prison costs 24 What was the major motivation for the end of Prohibition Taxes and depressions wealthy took heavy burden Study Guide 4 Grape Growing 1 Why is it important to understand what in uences grape composition Because nished wine can be no better than the starting grape 2 What is the scientific name for European grapes Vitis vinifera 3 How does North American grape species differ from the European species It is resistant to phylloxera 4 What are the common characteristics of FrenchAmerican hybrids Developed in france vinifera and labrusca grape hybrids phyllozera resistant 5 Why are wine grapes usually grafted Can grow v vinifera using resistant rootstock no need for hybrids 6 What are some factors to consider when selecting grape varieties to plant 7 What climatic characteristics are favorable for growing grapes Sunshine heat accumulation length ofgrowing season cold dormant absolute minimum temp humidity rainfall during growing season 8 Which of these is typically the biggest challenge in Ohio Length ofgrowing season and frost 9 As the ratio of skin to pulp increases what happens to the avor 10 What are the advantages ofgrowing grapes in a dry climate rather than one with a wet growing season 11 What are growing degreedays Why are they calculated with a base of 50 F the number of days needed to grow different grapes and it s the number of days over 50 degrees 12 Why are grapes trellised Supports the vine and allows training and gets vines off the group away from pests improves ventilation and influences sun exposure of grapes 13 What is veraison 14 What is mesoclimate What is microclimate The climate of a vineyard site in uenced by precailing winds proximity to water and micro is the climate ofthe grapevine canopy 15 When are vines pruned Why Done when plants are dormant and removes canes from previous year and allows light to penetrate and maintains vine balance 16 What are common grape diseases Downy mildew powdery mildew black rot botrytis 17 What insect pest is especially problematic in Ohio Why is it such a problem 18 Why is sunlight important to the leaves buds and fruit on a grape vine Photosynthesis heats fruits accelerates ripening fruitful buds helps dry foliage and fruit reduces disease 19 Why is it dif cult to grow wine grapes in areas with extremely cold winter temperatures The vines will die Study Guide 5 Vl ne Classification Systems 1 What basis does the government use to classify wines Alcohol content 2 What is the alcohol level of table wine Dessert wine Forti ed wine V ne spirits Table is 914 Dessertforti ed is 1522 Distilled is excess of 22 3 What is a crackling wine Small amounts of 002 producing mild zziness in the mouth without having visually noticeable bubbles 5 What kinds of colors can be added to wines Arti cial colors cannot be added to wine 6 What does a brown tint in a wine indicate Considerable age or temperature abuse 8 How much residual sugar does a dry wine have A semidry or offdry wine A semisweet wine A sweet wine Dry has no residual sugar semidry means a small amount is left semisweet even more left sweet indicates sugar or grape juice has been added after fermentation 10 lfyou add flavorto a wine can it still be sold as wine Becomes avored wine like vermouth 11 What are the four naming systems for wines Generic varietal proprietary geographic 12 What is the varietal naming system Where is it used What are its advantages and disadvantages over other naming systems Most often used in the US good indication ofwine characteristics does not emphasize regions qualities and most often used with hybrids 13 What is the geographical naming system Where is it used What are its advantages and disadvantages over other naming systems System most used in Europe good indicator in stable regions factors in weather requires more consumer knowledge regulates regions names 14 What is the proprietary naming system What are its advantages and disadvantages over other naming systems Most often used in small wineries may have limited recognition works good where people know about the wines and good for blended wines 15 What is the generic naming system What are its advantages and disadvantages over other naming systems Trades on a famous regions name usually used for cheap wines may trigger litigation in international courts 16 What are the recognized geographic regions in the USgt known as What agency regulates them BATF regulates them 17 What are the 5 recognized growing regions in Ohio Lakes erie OH river valley isle st george grand river valley and loramie creek 18 What is a varietal wine Named forthe main gt75 in US grape in the wine 19 How did Prohibition shift alcohol consumption patterns Shifted to distilled spirits 20 What is the French Paradox aging population and perceived health bene ts 21 What type of wine do Americans drink the most of red white or pink Used to be red but now its white 22 Which on average has more alcohol red or white wine Why Red has more cause they are on vine longer 23 Which tends to keep longer red or white wine Why Red keeps longer cause of higher alcohol content Basic Wine Making 2 Which type ofgrapes produce sugars at less heatdegree days red or white white 3 On average which type of grape red or white is lower in sugar What are the average briX levels of each White are lower at 21 23 briX and red 2224 briX 4 What happens to sugar and acid levels in grapes as they begin to ripen Grapes are high in acid and low in sugar until ripening then they switch 5 How does rain near the harvest impact the grapes and the wine made from them Rain at harvest dilutes the juice lower levels of sugar avor and alcohol 6 How does high temperature at harvest impact the grapes Increases bacterial spoilage and oxidation 7 Why might grapes be picked while still low in sugar and high in acid Because of cold weather and early frost 8 How can the nal alcohol level ofa wine be predicted from the sugar level of the must How is the original level of sugar in the must predicted from the alcohol level of a wine Sugar content in must degree brix X 55 nal alcohol content can go backwards by dividing 9 What are the basic steps to make a wine Crushing pressing sulfating fermentation 10 Which is harder to crush l Vhfera or l Labrusca Why Labrusca because of their tough skins 11 Why would one leave the stem in after crushing Why would one remove them Removing stems early lowers tannin content in wine stems are sold for feed leaving stems in gives bitter taste but helps preserve 12 What does pressing do When is it done for white wines When for red wines Releases juice done right away for whites and after fermentation for reds 13 What does length of contact with skins especially during fermentation impact in wines Impacts the color extraction but bacteria can grow in skins so punch down skins 14 How are pink wines made Pink wine can be made by brief fermentation on skins or by blending red and white wines 15 What are the four basic types presses from gentlest to least gentle Which type gives the highest quality ofjuice Which is favored for large production of lower quality wines Which is often used to crush l Labrusca grapes Basket press bladder press best wine quality rack and cloth press often needed for labrusca grapes and continuous press used in large scale wineries but does not give the best wine quality 17 Why do most winemakers use commercial yeast to make their wines It gives consistent results and full fermentation 18 Why are the skins punched down during fermentation To get off bacteria and improve color extraction 21 Why is sulfite added during the wine making process Prevent growth of bacteria and wild yeast cause the grapes are never washed and to prevent oxidation and browning 22 What is volatile acidity How can its level be controlled Are the legal limits for it higher in red or white wines It is acetic acid vinegar made by bacteria and preventable by good practices and they are lower for white wine than for red 23 What is xed acidity How can its level be adjusted What is total acidity ls naturally occurring in the grapes it is high in grapes picked early and can be xed by malolactic fermentation total acidity xed acidity volatile acidity 24 What type of bacteria is responsible for malolactic fermentation What is metabolized and what are the byproducts of malolactic fermentation Reduces xed acidity by converting malic acid to atic acid which is less acidic and adds a buttery flavor 25 Why is sorbate added during wine making Used in controlling unwanted yeast growth in wines with residual sugar when broken down by atic acid it stinks like a nigger 26 What techniques are used to clarify wines Which ofthese is used only for white wines Racking and cold stabilization white only 27 What is ning What type of agents can be used in ning What type of ning is not legal in the US adding agents to promote precipitation
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