PHIL 240 Study Guide for the Final
PHIL 240 Study Guide for the Final T PHIL240
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeremy Dao on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to T PHIL240 at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO ETHICS (VLPA/I&S) in Art at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
Study Guide for PHIL 240 Final Exam Plato: Euthyphro: Establishes the separation between morality and religion. o Can’t use religion as a basis for morality (Divine Command Theory) because makes morality seem arbitrary. Why do god(s) choose what they choose? How do we interpret gods will? o If we make morality independent, then there is no need for religion or gods Virtue Ethics: Being virtuous leads to Eudaimonia (the good life) o We should act justly because it is rational to do so. Being just is acting from the rational part of our soul o Justice comes from psychic harmony, reason ruling over our desires Aristotle: Nichomanean Ethics: Happiness is the ultimate aim of humans’ lives o Happiness is exercising rationality because that is our unique function. o There are virtues of intellect (traits or part of the sould with which we reason) and virtues of character(traits of desiring part of soul). o Virtues and vices are established by the “doctrine of the mean” (finding the mean for each trait). Neither deficient nor excess Thomas Hobbes Leviathan: Humans are not naturally good o The state of nature has no government, everyone fends for themselves. Very brutish life, war of all against all, expect others to attack you o We leave the state of nature by giving up all of our rights and forming contracts. We give all of our rights to an impartial arbiter, who will uphold all of the contracts o Morality is simply instrumentally rational. We should be moral because it helps us attain our goals David Hume Morality is felt, not judged o Passions are above reasons, because passions are what cause us to act. Reason is simply how we achieve the ends that our passions choose o Moral Sentiment: the sense of virtue is “nothing but to feel a satisfaction of a particular kind from the contemplation of a character” o Calm pleasure of moral approval o Uneasy feeling of moral disapproval Immanuel Kant Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: o Deontological Ethics: Actions are right or wrong if they are in accordance with a rule o We have a moral duty, because being moral is intrinsically rational o This moral duty is conforming to the moral law o Good will is the only unconditionally good thing o We should always act in such a way that we wish everyone would act (universalizing our actions) o Categorical Imperative: Moral law that is always true regardless of our ends o Hypothetical Imperative: Something that is only true for a specific end o Moral laws are categorical imperatives: Even if we don’t want to be moral, the moral laws still hold on us o Perfect duties are above imperfect duties. o Perfect duties will never conflict o We are bound to the moral laws by rationality John Stuart Mill Utilitarianism: o Greatest Happiness Principle: Actions are right if they promote the most amount of happiness o Happiness/pleasure can be quantified and compared Quantity: Intensity and Duration Quality: Exercise higher faculties o Need to consider everyone’s happiness that is affected by the action impartially o Impartial spectator: view the action and consequences from the view of an impartial spectator o Act Util: Consider every action separately, every action requires a utility calculus o Rule Util: Follow general rules that tend to produce the most amount of happiness o Freedom to pursue our own ends is the key ingredient of happiness, how util. account for liberty o Get people to follow the greatest happiness principle by external sanctions (hope of favor/fear of disfavor) and internal sanctions (feeling acquired through moral education) Peter Singer: Famine, Affluence, and Morality o Greater Moral Evil Principle: If we can prevent something bad from happening without sacrificing something of comparable moral significance, then morally we ought to do it o If a kid is drowning in a puddle, you out to save them even if you are wearing a fancy suit. Your fancy suit pales in comparison to the value of the child’s life o We have a negative responsibility: we are responsible for the state of affairs that we fail to bring about o Effective Altruism: We should do the most good that we can Not enough to simply obey the moral rules A minimally ethical life involves fulfilling the duty to aid o Suffering and death from lack of food, shelter, and primary goods is bad. This happens a lot around the world, and by the greater moral evil principle, it is our duty to donate to eas it. o Should aid all that need it, distance is not a factor
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