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Cellular Neurobiology

by: Theresa Emard

Cellular Neurobiology BMS 325

Theresa Emard
GPA 3.65


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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Theresa Emard on Monday September 21, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 325 at Colorado State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/210046/bms-325-colorado-state-university in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
lof2 udy Guide hupzllwebctcolostateeduCVMBSBS325Su1dyGuideExaml PARTIN EXN M ST 00M blUIDE 9 Know the contributions of Gall Galen Vesalius Descartes and Broca 2 What is experimental tissue ablation useful for 3 Know the elements of the scienti c method Know what conditions must be met before an animal protocol is approved by the ACUC 5 Know the advantages and disadvantages of Nissl and Golgi stains What does each stain in a neuron bKnow the components of the neuron doctrine 7Know how neurons are classi ed particularly by processes 3 Know the various functions of glia 5 Know how astrocytes shunt potassium WKnow the knee jerk re ex and where divergence and convergence are found I Know the difference between hypoerpolarization and depolarization LKnow the four regions of each neuron and whether that region signals in a quotgradedquot or an quotallor nonequot fashion 3me how the firing of action potentials Chang in response to more or less stimulation 7 Know the difference between feedforward and feedbackward inhibition BEAM 9 Understand what produces a voltage and what determines the voltage difference between two points A Understand how current is carried by positively and negatively charged ions Understand which direction each moves in order to produce a positive current IIJLl LL I I II 1 l l LL I 91605 1241 PM ud39y Guide httpwebctcolostateeduCVMBSJBS325SmdyGuideExamI unoersrana wnrcn component OT 3 Cefl acrs as a resrsror connecting me rnsrae 3of the cell to the outside Understand what causes this resistance to change Understand which component of the cell acts as a capacitor Understand the concept of the Nernst potential and why for a given ion 2 distribution between the inside and outside of a cell it would be either inside q positive zero or inside negative with respect to the outside Understand what 01 resting potential in a cell with respect to the Nernst potentials for two or more ion c n 12 I concentrat Understand the difference between active transport facilitated diffusion and cotransport s 39 39 of the NaK pump in maintaining the resting ions of sodium and potassium in a cell I I1 Understand how conductance changes in sodium and potassium channels give rise to the action potential Understa e conductance changes relate to the processes of activation a 39 Understand the concept of threshold for genera ion of an action potential and e factors that determine threshold 6 Understand what determines the space length constant of an axon and what would cause the space constant to become larger longer or smaller shorter Understand local circuit current and its role in the propagation of an action Wpotentiar Understand what it meant by saltatory conduction Understand the difference between sharp microelectrodes and patch clamp z electrodes Understand the difference between cellattached and wholecell modes of the patch clamp and the advantages of each method BUnderstand the basic structure of potassium and sodium channels Understand which regions form the pore and voltage sensor of these channels 2 of2 91605 1241 PM branes there is no evidence that glia are directly involved in electrical signaling Signaling is the function of nerve cells Nerve Cells Are the Signaling Units for Behavioral Responses The critical signaling functions of the brain the processing of sensory information the program ming of motor and emotional responses learning and memory are all carried out by interconnect ed sets of neurons We examine in general terms how these interconnections produce a behavior by considering a simple stretch re ex the knee jerk The anatomical components of the knee jerk are shown in Figure 2 6 The tendon of the quadriceps femoris an extensor muscle that moves the lower leg is attached to the tibia by way of the patellar Fig 1 6 The knee jerk is an example of a monosy naptic re ex system a simple behavior controlled by direct connections between sensory and motor neurons In this schematic drawing each extensor and exor motor neuron represents a population of many cells Tapping the patella or kneecap pulls on the tendon of the quadriceps femoris an extensor muscle that extends the lower leg When the muscle stretches in response to the pull of the tendon information regarding this change in the muscle is conveyed by afferent sensory neurons to the central nerv0us system In the spinal cord the sensory neurons act directly on motor neurons that contract the quadriceps In addition they act indirectly through interneurons to inhibit motor neurons that would otherwise contract the opposing muscle the ham string These actions combine to produce the re ex behavior Muscle spindle Quadricaps iemoris extensor muscle Tap on knee causes stretch of the tendon oi the extensor muscle of the knee Patella gLeren ber Chapter 2 Nerve Cells and Behavior 29 tendon Tapping the patellar tendon just below the kneecap patella pulls stretches the quadriceps femoris This initiates a re ex contraction of the quadriceps femoris and a simultaneous relaxation of the opposing exor muscles the hamstrings This stretch re ex thus changes the position of the lower leg by increasing the tension of a selected group of muscles Stretch re exes also maintain muscle tone a background level of tension The regulation of muscle action by the nervous system is discussed in Section VII of the book Stretch re exes like the knee jerk are special types of spinal re exes behaviors that are mediated by neural circuits that are entirely contained with in the spinal cord As we shall see later in the book such spinal circuits relieve the brain of having to micromanage elementary actions Stretch re exes are mediated by monosynapt ir circuits in which the Medulla V39 Descending 39 tor A e 39 mo SC nd39 information quot9 afferent information Cell body in dorsal root ganglion Extensor and flexor motor neurons L Inhibitory intemeuron Y Central nervous system


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