Power and Authority
Power and Authority SOC 101- Intro to Sociology
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joy Sasnett on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 101- Intro to Sociology at Tri-County Technical College taught by Aristide Sechandice in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 115 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Tri-County Technical College.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Power and Authority 1 Power De ned A Power can be measured empirically and only directly by observing outcomes of interactions Relational phenomenon B Quote from Max Weber Power is the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out disown will despite resistance 11 Types of Power A Types of power 1 Coercive physical force threats kidnapping etc 2 Political overcoming resistance with persuading 3 Economic big corporations 4 Cybernetic most rapid rising power over technology channel etc possesses this power search engines google intelligence agencies CIA Illegitimate hackers have or withhold information B The Concept of Fungibility l Fungibility entities specialize in one type of power can convert one type of power into another type of power Why do it More not having all your eggs in one basket power in areas with a discount III Authority A Authority Concept Distinction Between Power and Authority 1 Authority written down right to command appliance 2 Power unwritten ability to get appliance even though no right is given to demand B Types of Authority 1 Traditional authority based on longevity customs The Pope 2 Charismatic based on charisma rare special qualities of an individual MLK Jr tend to meet early end of life usually nasty ending unstable 3 Rationallegal power is legitimated by eXplicit rules and rational procedures that de ne the rights and duties of the occupants of given positions of cials claim obedience on the grounds that their commands fall within the impersonal formally de ned scope of their of ce Authoritarianism government tolerates little or no opposition to its rule but permits nongovernment mental centers of in uence and allows debate on some issues of public policy Totalitarianism total state one in which the government undertakes to control all parts of the society and all aspects of social life like North Korea C Effects of Authority on Those Subject to it 1 Stanley Milgram Mil gram Study 2002 Mil gram 1960s researcher discovered that ordinary people readily behave in morally questionable ways in the name of conformity and obedience conducted his experiment with nearly 1000 subjects pressure to conform to role expectations and to obey authority caused ordinary people to become nasty prison guards and shock administering teachers in these experiments 2 Solomon Asch Asch Study 1952 asked subjects to match lines of the same length from two sets of cards displayed at the front of the room some individuals conform to the false consensus of a group even though the consensus is contradicted by the evidence of their own eyes his ndings have been replicated many times and in many nations and cultures although people in some countries conform more than others the differences are not very large 3 Banality of Evil Hannah Arendt political philosopher her thoughts span totalitarianism revolution the nature of freedom and the faculties of thought and judgment essentially undertakes a reconstruction of the nature of political existence D Effects of Authority on Those Exercising it 1 Philip Zimbardo Zimbardo Study The Experiment similar to Mil gram was modeled after the 1970s Stanford University study by Zimbardo in the original study by Zimbardo psychologist 21 male students played the prisoner and guard roles in the mock prison as the experiment progressed prisoners became more passive and withdrawn and the guards conformed more fully with their guard roles displaying institutional aggression forcing prisoners to perform useless tasks sing dance etc E The Existentialist Critique of Authority 1 Existentialism a philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will Albert Camus French nobel prize winning author journalist philosopher His views contributed to the rise of the philosophy known as absurdism refers to the con ict between the human tendency to seek inherent value and meaning in life and the human inability to nd any Camus did not consider himself to be an existentialist despite usually being classi ed as one even in his lifetime
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