Exam 1 Notes from Textbook
Exam 1 Notes from Textbook PSYC 2301
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Flores on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2301 at University of Houston taught by Donald J Foss in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Intro To Methods in Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
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curvilinear and no relationship I Compare and contrast noneXperimental and experimental research methods I Distinguish between an independent variable and a dependent variable I Distinguish between cons lidit internal validity and external validity Woman ly pg mm m OW Ev QQMMNWQ WW QMMM Comvmn CQQQ WKQ Dana w WOMXQ WW lt54 J i m 369666 10WOJ Y Z k at cmKmMampV omqu VOKlUJLOl WOW CUNWWLCM Gammomlamc vowed cm V WWWWC KL Mamie iik dim x o o m ch 06 Wis wit W mm mman 906nm N6 Mommw depot WWGYJWP batman L WWW Mn Wo mml m Wt ma Watud Nomi JWWGU Ciliw ll Wig This may be do E asking people to describe their behavior directly observing behavior recor in physiological responses or even examin39 various public records such as cens s data a NEW WW 0 3 CM mm le dme mil e if 3dr 7 7 mam 6 CW Oxmk QM quot Paqa r EMMY e mpcma Wm WW 0 W6 as vgw WNW W V k 41611 My WWW mg a mom Ncmo ANN CLWM 0mm 3 Mu LQ MAW WM Mammy DD Mi QQWQW W 3 Wm mm W IV mmgmoeecl Wow m m worsng m MIV VQSWSVKQ i6 I ANN magiQ WQMWK U W QQMR mm COW CKOWM BunWWW 31C MOWMS W as M NW um wot W km 0er Cwl u l Internal valldity refers to our ability to accurately draW conclusions about causal relationships 39 mtggg QCMW Lo AQN MUM l External validity is the extent to which results of a study can be general ized to other populations and settings 2 MM Lmoom KKKng MUM f0 QWWWLB 0M mm dwwvc QWch Q3 Qualitative research focuses on people behaving in natural settings and describing their world in their own words quantitative research tends to focus on speci c behaviors that can be easily quanti ed i e counted The conclusions of qualitative research are based on interpretations drawn by the investigator Qualitative researchers emphasize collecting in depth information on a relatively few individuals or Within a very limited setting quantitative investigations generally include larger samples Conclusions in quantitative research are based upon statistical analysis of data a om WWQW R036 WWW wdwdxl M Oem CA WW WW ot WWQE VQ lt gtj SWCKQLC WWW ME 1 QMOWGR MN m mem CM mow WM 1 mermath OWWCPWM fQOMWQB MSGkmm WQM UREA SD WW M 9 my gm bxoqmwmj WWWCN WWCW W OQAEW UQXKUWS M h xci MW Wm 150w mg CWWW Q n WW I De ne co ounding variable and describe how confounding variables are related to internal validity I Describe the posttest only design and the pretest posttest design including the advantages and disadvantages of each design I Contrast an independent groups between subjects design with a repeated measures Within subjects design I Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of using a repeated measures design I Describe a matched pairs design including reasons to use this design Cmgmdmag ardmww Mm x A confounding variable is a va iable that varies along With the independent variable confounding occurs When the effects of the independent variable and an uncontrolled variable are intertwined so you cannot determine Which of the variables is responsible for the observed effect cl me El mm MM amp WNW VG EAAQEAV KC l q W I obtain two equivalent groups of participants 2 introduce the independent variable and 3 measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable v quotM L Q m en d W wvg a w i command V is bummed WW M Q Q 3v QQEWFrDQW w v KN Wmg Wumm wa WW WWW 6 mm CM 3053 lt3 0 W QM C m W CBY QCEG YW m ngQ MWCWWYS Q84 2 WOltvQj Mm mmm j mm mp mle Moow wii w om WWW mwgmg Mm pQM Ckm V GS CWVCL W O income inte gence age ersonality and political attitudes In this way participant differences cannot be an eXpla f ation or results of the eXper1 ment MWW Wamng lm W 5 Sam MN MAB Winonaer W C mlm W an twitgu owl oscilva Mala k immune QQQQGV Independent Dependent Independent Dependent Variable Variable Variable Variable Low 39 39 Recall High Recall 39 R Order Meaningfulness Measure Meaningfulness Measure Participants R High Y 39 Recall Low Recall Order 2 Meaninglulness Measure Meaningfulness Measure Alb W M of Mdlicdv use WWWQM Counterba ancing principles can be extended to exper1m re groups With three groups there are 6 possible orders 3 3 2 1 6 With four groups the nu er of possible orders increases to 24 4 4 3 2 1 24 you would need a minimum of 24 participants to represent each order and you would need 48 participants to have only two participants per order Imagine the number of orders possible in an experiment by Shepard and Metzler 1971 In their basic experimental paradigm each participant is shown a three dimensional object along with the same gure rotated at one of 10 dif ferent angles ranging from 0 degrees to 180 degrees see the sample objects il lustrated in Figure 8 2 Each time the participant presses a button when it is determined that the two gures are the same or different The dependent vari able is reaction time the amount of time it takes to decide whether the gures are the same or different The results show that reaction time becomes longer as he angle of rotation increases away from the original In this experiment with 10 conditions there are 3628800 possible orders Fortunately there are alter natives to complete counterbalancing that still allow researchers to draw valid conclusions about the effect of the independent variable without running some 36 million tests More lde chm mt Wd m OLSQQWle nnnnnnnnn nt quot Variable RRRR ll m WWW 0w dtmq m MOLWS OMS G if Q Q MAW mg Wer 9 941 3r S666ng REM ONLCQ CWWW q gt L E 0w WmB TENN um m OJ Way WVQS OM ww ij W WW W0 6 9 3383 3P MEWU E QWmWWQQ m JV CWWamp Q E QGWDWHgt WM jlw v kiv h rcmd dlmq m WWW EV ZXZ chan Wham j W OWIQW 1W2 23mm mm GAMMVL J F a f du M mkloqu J Ell E Hi8 0 Ar Ra ng 9 Q m 00 WW mmwnwmmmmb WNW WWWQ me mm mem i3pj mm 9 mom 1amp1qu 1 gt1 mm 91 V MummAwa 9 B B 1 2 1 2 35 1 1 9 1 1 5 3 A A 2 9 1 2 9 5 7 5 5 5 5 AV BNo AlaYu 9 B 8 1 2 1 2 35 1 5 5 1 1 1 1 A A 2 9 1 2 9 1 5 1 7 3 5 1 AV 8V0 AIKYU FIGUREIO6 Outcomes ofa factorial design with two independent variables
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