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Study Guide 1

by: Alexis Fajardo

Study Guide 1 PSY 360 LEC (46763)

Alexis Fajardo
GPA 3.1
Social Psychology
Adam Lazarewicz

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Social Psychology
Adam Lazarewicz
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexis Fajardo on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 360 LEC (46763) at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
1 PSY 360 Social Psychology Midterm 1 Study Guide Introduction What is social psychology Scientific study of how we feel think and how behaviors are in uenced by other people 0 Social thinking 0 Social in uence 0 Social relations The person x situation interaction 2 9 Describe the two basic points of emphasis in Kurt Lewin s field theory Behavior function of person environment What is the life space 0 Persons psychological life 0 Depositions and social forces that shape behavior What is a region within the life space Give an example of a con ict within the life space How can such con icts shape behavior How did Adolf Hitler and World War II in general shape the development of social psychology What was the focus of social psychology during the 19605705 How did the era of pluralism as well as the modern era approach this issue What is the hindsight bias What does it teach us about the importance of research in social psychology Research Methods What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory Hypothesis is a prediction Theory is a set of principles that explain outcomes of studies How do the two concepts inform one another Hypothesis 9 research 9 theory 9 hypothesis What is a population Entire group What is a sample Part of group Why is random sampling such an important element of psychological research Every member of the population should have equal likely chance of being in the sample 0 Increases generalization What is an operational definition Specific way to measure a variable in our study Give an example Stanford prison study measured the variables by giving them roles and seeing how they reacted What is descriptive research and how can it be useful to social psychologists Describes characteristics of group person phenomenon 0 Case study 0 Naturalistic observation 0 Archival research 0 Surveys What is correlational research Measure how closely related two variables are Does changing one predict change in the other What do the direction and size of a correlation coefficient tell us Direction tells us whether it is a positive or negative correlation size tells us the strength as it gets further from zero What is the difference between positive negative and zero correlations Positive one increases the other increases Negative one increases the other decreases Zero no correlation What are the strengths and weaknesses of correlational research Small 10 to 29 Moderate 30 to 49 Large 50 to 100 The larger the correlation the more predictive it is What is experimental research Certain kind of research Demonstrates causation due to experimental control random assignment and random sampling What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable Independent variable is intentionally manipulated Cause in the causeeffect Dependent variable is the outcome measured quotEffectquot in the causeeffect What is random assignment why is it important and how is it different than random sampling Random assignment should minimize preexisting differences Random sampling says every member of the population should have equal likely chance of being in the sample What are the strengths and weaknesses of experimental research It is a certain kind of research Demonstrates causation due to experimental control random assignment and random sampling What does it mean to say that results of a study are statistically significant Indicates likelihood of something happening by chance What is the difference between internal validity and external validity Internal validity is the degree of certainty that IV caused group differences in DV External validity is the degree to which sample findings apply to population How do confounds threaten internal validity How do we determine whether a study is ethical or not What is an IRB Institutional Review Board What are the purposes of informed consent and debriefing Resolve any negative feelings Reveal any deception The Self What is the selfconcept Person s beliefs about their own attributes and characteristics What are selfschemas and how do they in uence our interactions with others Mental structure framework that organizes information New information sorted into schemas 9 understanding What is working selfknowledge Selfconcept is multifaceted Family of selves within similarities Some selves more prominent and accessible than others What are possible selves and how do they affect us according to Objective SelfAwareness Theory The kind of person you might become possible selves The kind of person you would like to become ideal selves The kind of person you should become ought selves The kind of person you fear you will become feared selves 2 How does introspection inform the self Flawed source of self info Busy processing external info Optimistic bias above average effect What is a ective forecasting Predicting emotional responses to future events 3 What is SelfPerception Theory Infer internal status by observing our own behavior Happy because we smile Introversion extraversion selfesteem What is the facial feedback hypothesis Looking in mirror amplifies effects 4 What is Social Comparison Theory How does it in uence the self Evaluate self by comparing yourself to others Define ourselves using distinguishing features Self 9 social construct 5 What is the TwoFactor Theory of emotion How does it in uence the self Emotion physiological arousal cognitive interpretation of physical state 6 What is the difference between independent and interdependent cultures How does this cultural divide in uence the self 7 What is selfregulation and what does it mean to say that it is a limited resource Controlling thoughts feelings or behaviors to achieve goals Self control as a limited resource 8 According to Sociometer Theory why is selfesteem important Overall positive and or negative evaluations to self Often compartmentalized General stability across lifespan o Sociometer theory 0 Terror management theory 9 Describe Terror Management Theory According to Terror Management Theory why is self esteem important Awareness of existence awareness of nonexistence 10 Describe SelfEvaluation Maintenance Theory What does it mean to bask in re ected gloryquot and when are we most likely to do it Social Perception 1 What is social perception Process by which people get to know each other 0 Forming impressions making inferences about others 0 Verbal and non verbal behaviors physical appearance assumptions etc 0 Who is this person Why are they acting the way they are 2 What is attribution and what are the two basic types of attributions that we make According to Kelley s Covariation Model what are the three factors that determine which of these two attributions we make An explanation for a persons behavior 2 basic types of attribution o dispositional internal characteristic stable 0 situational external contextual unstable 3 What is the fundamental attribution error tendency to overestimate dispositional causes and to underestimate situational causes when making attributions for others behavior How do each of the following factors contribute to this error a motives for control b perceptual salience c cognitive business d culture 4 What is a belief in a just world a Belief that people get the consequences they deservekarma justice i Positively correlated with 1 Rightwing authoritarianism Belief in protestant work ethicquot Religiosity Conservative beliefs Empowered individuals within a culture What does Melvin L rner s research teach us about how this belief in uences us UMPSNN Social Cognition 1 What is social cognition how our brain processes social information and uses that to make decisions What is the difference between explicit and implicit cognition 2 Describe the cognitive miserquot concept What is the difference between algorithms and heuristics and what are the strengths and weaknesses of each How do emotions affect algorithmic and heuristic thinking What is counterfactual thinking What types of events are most likely to cause regret in our lives 4 What is the availability heuristic How can it be in uenced by priming What is the representativeness heuristic How are each of these heuristics an outcome of the baserate fallacy Tendency to ignore the actual likelihood of something happening a Underlies availability representativeness heuristics i Example 911 After people were afraid and more patriotic Travel sales declined 5 What is the anchorand adjust heuristic When is it most likely to in uence us How long is the Mississippi river Use reference point as anchor adjust from there Uncertain judgment Anchors can be completely irrelevant but still used 0 We want right yet quick and easy answers 0 Heuristics provide valuable shortcuts in understanding and interpreting the world while conserving cognitive resources 6 What is the contrast e ect different perceptions of something on salient comparison we start to compare everything What is the framing e ect tendency to see something differently based on how its presented How does each inform social cognition 7 What is perceptual con rmation and how was David Rosenhan s study an illustration of the concept tendency to see things in line with beliefs and expectations example placebo David Rosenhan study David Rosenhan 9 On being sane in insane places Trying to see if they can fake their way into a mental hospital 8 people goes to a different mental hospital Told three different lies 8 1 Fake name 2 Fake background 3 Fake hearing voices saying thud hollow empty All admitted with Schizophrenia no more voices or abnormal behavior 0 Behaviors interpreted in the content of the mental illness 0 Note taking pathological writing behavior 0 Interpreted mixed emotions toward parents 0 Genuine patients not fooled o Accused them of faking and being journalists 0 Stay ranged from 752 days 0 Psychosis in remission 0 Challenge by mental hospital 0 Send one fake over three month span 0 Hospital evaluates all incoming patients I Admitted 193 o 41 considered fake 42 suspicious 0 Total sent in 0 What is an illusory correlation tendency to see correlation between 2 things when no relation exists What is belief perseverance and why does it happen What is a selffulfilling prophecy belief that shapes behavior to fit the belief 1 Expectation 9 own behavior 9 others reaction 9 own perception Attitudes and Behavior What are attitudes and attitude objects Likes and Dislikes positive and or negative evaluations of attitude objects People ideas objectives events etc What are the 4 basic reactions to attitude objects Positive high reaction positive low reaction negative high reaction negative low reaction What is the need for evaluation and how does it in uence attitude formation strong likes and dislikes quick evaluations opinionated 9 positively correlated with judgmental views What are the strengths and weaknesses of using selfreport measures of attitudes strengths direct conscious access easy to conduct weaknesses can be biased intentionally or not What is an attitude scale What is a bogus pipeline bogus pipeline phony device that allegedly measures true feelings physiologically What are the strengths and weaknesses of covert measures of attitudes What is facial electromyography EMG records imperceptible facial muscle activity associated with emotions attitudes what is electroencephalography EEG measures electrical activity of brain through scalp could measure how your brain reacts to certain things by your brain activity and how can they be used to assess attitudes What is the implicit association test IAT 1998 Quickly categorize faces as blackwhite Quickly categorize words as goodbad Faces and words paired White good and blackbad White bad and black good Measure people s mistakes and how quickly they categorize things White paired with good is more common Implicit preferences for self over other white over black younger over old straight over gay able over disabled thin over obese ect 4 What evidence exists that attitudes have a genetic component Tesser 1993 identical twins have more similar attitudes than fraternal o Identical raised apart 9 as similar as identicals raised together 0 Predispositionbased attitudes 9 quicker more rigid responses among nontwins 5 How can observational learning in uence attitudes How can classical conditioning in uence attitudes particularly through the mere exposure e ect and subliminal persuasion neutral stimulus paired with stimulus that elicits automatic response 0 Staas and Staas 1958 pair nationalities with pleasant and un pleasant words 9 in uences subsequent liking nationalities o Eg German and the word cockroach French and the word chocolate ice cream How can operant conditioning in uence attitudes rewards and punishments Berg and McQuinn 1986 couples who exchange high levels of rewards helping others doing favors 9 happier longer relationships What is evaluative conditioning 6 What are the 4 conditions under which attitudes are particularly likely to guide behavior 1 Strong 2 accessible 3 specific 4 in line with social norms What is the theory of planned behavior


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