PSYC1100 Exam 1 Notes <Miller>
PSYC1100 Exam 1 Notes <Miller> PSYC 1100
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Almeena Shaikh on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1100 at University of Connecticut taught by Dr. David Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Connecticut.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
00 000 00 O O 0 0000000000 OO Overview of Psvcholoqv Goals of the course 1 Diversity much more than Freud natural science braincognition side and the social science personality side 2 Scientific vs pop psychology credibility problem science vs pseudoscience people think psychology is like the fake stuff like numerology and astrology etc mediatalk shows airways and print trying to solve problems hundreds listen and think they have the same problem and follow advice talk shows dr phil oprah scientific deemphasis for layperson watering down ex scientific american mind magazine of psychology and neuroscience released thoughts ideas brain science popular press distortion oversimplification of research articles therapy too many some weird practiced but not tested scientifically overrated and comparable to placebo self help books not written by scientists Apophenia perceiving meaningful connections among unrelated or random phenomena no meaning out of connections ex Lincoln 1846 JFK 1946 all the similarities about their assassinations conspiracy theones cosmic meanings between coincidences Pareidolia seeing meaningful images in meaningless visual stimuli ex seeing shapes in clouds manatee nebula horse nebula 3 Vocabulary unique terms 4 Mechanisms causes causes of behavior neuronal brain biochemical ex neurotransmitters and hormones ex neural basis for pareidolia right fusiform face area active Levels of Mechanisms example depression social loss of important relationships behavior decrease in pleasurable activities thought sad feelings neural changes in brain structure biochemical neurotransmitter andor hormone changes molecular genetic activity risk factors Facts in Science science gt more questions Are facts factual always changing due to differences in researchers methods different ones different outcomes O O O 0 00 0 technology can alter what we believe was true gives us new ways to look at something facts don t prove data are consistent with or inconsistent with hypothesis always possible new data will contradict Example Critical Periods imprinting social attachments expose duck to an object Then later test it by exposing it to something else it will follow original object question when is the critical period Book 1 age related Book 2 exposure related dependent on methodology Example Theories of learning 11 different theories but which is right data that is consistent for all of them ex why did john hit the dog bad experience movie Cujo displaced aggression god value systems and science need to be separate Falsifiability valid theories must be falsifiabletestable need to find data falsify data inconsistent with hypothesis Back to facts contradictory facts are OK different data sets common as disciplines evolve ex influenza 1918 flu why so devastating recreated virus inject virus in monkey and it died quickly over stimulated immune system by 1918 virus gt lungs filled w fluid in people w really good immune system gt caused death by drowning The better the immune system the more deaths there were ex menopause old views ovaries old less functional new view brain pituitary experiment old ovaries in young mice still reproduce young ovaries in old mice inactive reproduction Definition of Psvcholoov The Root of the Problem or the Problem with the Root psyche soul or mind Nonmental vs mental events how do we study non mental events see it hear it etc measurable what enables us to measure them how can we observemeasure soul or mind Hypothetical Construct unobservable structure that is believed to exist thing that doesn t exist ex the mind where is the soulmind brainheartteath can t define psychology with mind or soul Operational Definitions observable entities characteristics measurable OO 0 take the properties and characteristics of object as opposed to unseen ex definition of multitasking what is the mind the mind is what the brain does operational definitions avoid circularity ex what is a box a box shaped violence effect of media violence on aggression what is tv violence murder seen implied 6 o clock news what is aggression over threat fighting sports The Best Definition of Psychology the study of behavior can observe and measure behavior doesn t exclude other organisms Goals of Psvcholoov 1 Causes or Mechanisms proximal immediate distal early experience genetic evolutionary no sharp distinction between the two use common sense to figure it out 2Func ons outcomes or results behave in particular way gt outcome ex what s a proximal cause of eating hunger food around distal cause of eating dental structure evolutionary kinds of things we ate kinds of things we ate as kids like if at young varied food older try new things early experience ambiguity of cause and function outcome of someone39s behavior is a cause of a something else domino effect depend on what point in time ex whats a function of eating energy to run inc muscle massfat 3 Prediction ex dog bite she didn t predict it because she s not an animal expert but it was showing signs it was distressed see upper teeth licks its upper mouth predict way it would act 4 Control treatment control over behavior fixing it making it better environmental design human factors industrial organizational controlling how we use physical space ex confusing road signs cock pits spaced out well for efficiency ex airport at JFK guys peeing and missing urinals amsterdam no pee on floor etched fly on porcelain aim Subdisciplines of Psvcholoov Professional societies 1892 American Psychological Association 5654 functional divisions 1989 American Psychological Society experimental nature APA more of lobbying in DC clinical APS changed to Association of Psychological Science in 2006 Subdivision Examples O O 0 O 0000 OOIOIOIOOIOIO 0 clinical therapy clinical psychologist vs psychiatrist psychologist PhD gt no meds yet NM LA yes but limited behavior training psychiatrist MD medication experimental psychometrics establishes test by measuring them statistics ndustrialorganizational workplace more efficient personnel scanning interview of candidates to look for best fit people and advertising construct ads to sell IO effect of TV violence on memory for commercials more violent less memory The Hawthorne Effect over cooperative flattered experimental design problem the tendency of subjects to be over cooperative and compliant with an experimenter rather than behaving normally electric plant making telephones managers brought in IQ psychologist inc productivity 1 background music 2 lights gt Inc 3 bring lights back down gt inc flattered that manipulative study was being conducted didn t act normal Historv of Psvcholoqv Two Influences Physiology PhHosophy Hippocrates 460377 BC Personality ltgt body Phthistic tall and thin bad tempered angry apoplectic short and squat sluggish unemotional Sheldon 1954 endomorph fat happy sociable ectomorph skinny nervous thoughtful mesomorph athletic energetic direct Physiological theory of mental illness People used to say unusual behavior was due to demons Hippocrates said it was due to the mind On the Sacred Disease epilepsy Not only our pleasure our joy and our laughter but also our sorrow pain grief and tears arise from the brain and the brain alone Socrates 470399 BC First psychotherapist Unconscious mind ask questions 0000 0 0 O 0 00 0 0 hidden thoughts Plato 427 347 BC Biological theory of personality predating Freud Plato brain heart stomach Freud oral anal genital Aristotle 384322 BC Objective observation watch organism behave watched 500 species behave Vitalism soul behavior function of soul nature v nurture controversy beginning Continuity evolutionary continuity with humans and nonhumans quantitatively different phylogenetic scale not a true evolutionary thing but ordering humans at top on the same scale Albertus Magnus 12061280 amp St Thomas Aquinas 12251274 2 theologians make natural science more a thing make it legit ManBrute dichotomy Discontinuity not on the same scale Humans free will amp reason Nonhumans instincts Rene Descartes 15961650 Mechanism Physical laws Reflex action Everything we do is because nerve signals in brain John Locke 16321704 Tabula rasa blank slate Come into world without experiences Mechanistic POV experiences change behavior Franz Gall 17581828 Phrenology make map of skull that overlaps these properties if you were good at this trait it d have a bigger bump there gt not true Localized gt 30 mental properties on surface of skull start thinking about brain Behavior Took a while for Phrenology to die out Sir Francis Galton 18221911 Psychometrics test construction Correlation coefficient didn t get credit Karl Pearson got credit Pearson r Herbert Spencer18201911 Principles of Psychology 1855 Continuity Social Statics 1851 Survival of the Fittest poverty and starvation are natural agents cleansing society of the unfit Charles Darwin 18201911 The Origin of Species natural selection O O 0 O 0 O 0 000 Theory of Evolution by Means of Natural Selection Organismic Variability people are diff Environmental fluctuation always changing going to be competition for resources Competition Adaption adapted to environment compete successfully Reproductive success fitness Speciation reproductive isolation fit if you survive long enough to reproduce How Does Speciation Occur Correlation Variation Quote on slide 95 Other parts are going to change with evolution ex height to get fruit everything changes together gt so different that they can t reproduce with each other Pleiotropy Gene gt adaptive trait affects 4 other traits Everything changes together new species ex getting colder thermoregulation Some adjust and adapt to cold Reproduce genetic potential to continue these traits Speciation new species cannot breed with the beginning species Natural selection Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals Continuity between human and nonhuman organisms nonverbal communication different body parts send different signals Edward L Thorndike 18741949 Animal learning Puzzle box steps on paddle the door opens cat gets food how long does it take to learn that s what it does Law of Effect if it feels good you ll do it again a connection between a stimulus and a response is strengthened when it is accompanied or closely followed by a satisfying state of affairs John B Watson 18781958 Behaviorism getting rid of hypothetical constructs like mental SR stimulus response psychology ex stop light red means stop green means go Research Methods What is research The process of discovering new knowledge by means of the scientific method Two Broad categories Applied Research Translation targeted at specifically towards solving a problem Basic Research To discover new knowledge Can be applicable for applied research Appropriate Starting Point 0 00 O 0 O O 0 Observation and description across contexts Ethologist animal experts trained in ecology Roles of Naturalistic Observation 1 To Study Nature for Its Own Sake Alarm calling in Belding s ground squirrel Altruism nepotism put themselves at risk to help family 2 Starting Point for Subsequent Lab Investigations Auditory Interaction of Mallard Hens and Their Offspring Field Observations put box and put microphone in box to record noises Heard nesting bird make noise when he was seen Lab mallard never heard certain sounds hears the alarm for first time alerted 3 Validate or Add Substance to Previously Obtained Lab Data Tonic lmmobility animal mesmerized hypnotism just lab no field immobile chicken induced immobility in animals foxes bury food shallow grave for it instead of putting up a fight the bird gets tonic immobility to survive Catching Behavior of foxes Increase duck tonic immobility increase survival when foxes catch them 4 Provide Information on Species Variables for Efficient Lab Study Species differences in predation cues wolves social cats solitary Color vision see what kinds of stimulation they respond to humans trichromats rats dogs redgreen colorblind 5 Use Field as Natural Lab to Test Hypothesis Sexually dimorphic male and female look very different Male long tail bird flies weird so why evolve More often than not males evolves with weird traits Sexual Selection Charles Darwin Sexual dimorphism amp evolution of elaborate structures Should be disadvantageous gt predation Reproductive advantage only if not only reproductive advantage than just natural selection ex field study long tailed birds normal shortened elongated test effect of nesting success longer tail more successful Pros amp Cons of Field Research Cons Lack of control nature Small sample size effect on generalizations and conclusions Predation Pros High in external validity generalizability Fewer artifacts caused by unnatural contexts Context 0 00 0 0 O 0 context and behavior are intertwined different context affects behavior Urban Rhesus Monkeys Monkeys move into cities Urban monkeys very mean steal food jungle a lot different social interactions because it s still in the jungle Strange Situation A room that looks like a regular room ex in lab mom comes in with child a stranger man comes in but kid is chill but when at some same thing happens and kid freaks out Polling Location Affects Vote Voting at school vs voting not at school for school funding when at school against school funding when not at school Habitual Popcorn Eaters in Movie Theaters People who need popcorn at movies In theater vs in board room given fresh and stale popcorn in both situations did not eat a lot of stale in the board room but did in theater Continuum of Observational Settings Based on Degree of Control by Investigator look at image on slide 122 Unobtrusive Field Observations lnconspicuous Blinds hidden concealed to not alter the situation Obtrusive Field Observations Participant Observer AccustomRecord Participant among the observations ex recording data while interacting with monkeys Semi Free Field Observations Enclosed or confined islands ex Cayo Santiago lsland brought rhesus monkeys there to take observations Large zoological parks barrier so far away the subject unaware or unbothered Observations in Captivity Zoosaviaries Obvious barriers Beware of artifacts Sir Solly Zuckerman only used findings on captive monkeys not the same he said females constantly ready to mate but in reality 4 months of heat Complete Environmental Control Laboratory ex siamese fighting fish and parental behavior best to do in aquarium in order to get observations that would be basically impossible in the field part of the males parental job is blowing air bubbles in the eggs to oxygenate them Observations of Human Behavior in the Wild Human EthologyEvolutionary Psychology 0O 00 0 00 OO 0 0 00000 Our species typical behavior Ethological methods Facial Gestures A guy pretends to film straight ahead but people off to side are the ones being filmed Eyebrow flashing if someone approaching from a distant when one recognizes them eyebrows 90 UIO Reliability Greater than or equal to 2 observers report seeing the same thing incase of bias missing things Correlation Relationship between 2 or more variables Variable observable measurable Variables vary quantifiable Correlation Data Positive Correlation As one increases the other increases Varies in same direction Negative Vary in opposite directions One inc other dec vice versa No correlation nothing happening Scatter Plot Correlation Coefficient Pearson r 1 to 1 the closer to 1 the stronger the relationship positive rgtO negative rltO no rO Value of Correlation Prediction NOT Causation Why not causality Number of left hand fingerprint ridges inc gt inc in homosexuality Fingerprint ridges cannot cause sexual preference both due to other factors If not causation then why Variable manipulation may be impractical or unethical there just for observing to manipulate it might be bad Data are readily available Experimental Manipulation Experimentation Manipulation for purpose of drawing causal inferences looking for mechanism causes of behavior Pilot Studies not airplanes Design difficulties ex clarity of verbal instructions etc Check sensitivity and validity of measures Experimenter Practice Narrow down to a meaningful range of manipulated variable Not reported working out kinks figuring out experiment Check if it s causally linked to that variable 000 O OO 00 0 0000 Variables in Experiments multiple Independent variable Manipulated by experimenter Situational change physical environment context Subject change the attribute of subject ex age youngold anxiety levels highlow Organismic internal manipulation injecting hormone brain manipulation If it has an effect on behavior Dependent Variable Response behavior measured Extraneous Variable lntrude Control held constant could turn into ind variables Random almost impossible to control let them be hope they cancel each other out by testing a lot of people vary randomly large sample size Confounding subjects might be responding to that instead of independent variable needs to be controlled Varies systematically with independent variable ex math problems high anxiety vs low anxiety and the rooms are different temperatures It could be the reason for differences in behavior Confounding Variable Coke vs Pepsi Coke vs Pepsi in glasses labelled M amp Q People liked the letter M glass Letter not taste preference M and Q are confounding Confounding Variable Clever Hans Clever Hans horse who could do math Put a barrier between owner and Hans doesn t get answers right because Hans was responding to small head movements not responding to math Behavior due to prompting confounding variable Counterbalancing if doing choices 2 or more stimuli ex zebra finches auditory preferences could a female separated from father for 90 days recognize his song pick 1 song can t always have father s song on 1 side how to counterbalance coke vs pepsi switch letters Simultaneous preference test Other Ways of Controlling Extraneous Variables Single blind participant doesn t know the nature of the study placebo Subject is blind Controls for subject bias Double blind experimenter and subject don t know what it s about EampS are blind 0 O 000 0 Controls for EampS bias and Clever Hans Experimental vs Control Groups All Experiments Have at least 2 groups of subjects experimental group get the manipulation control treated identically but don t get the independent variable if there is a difference in behavior independent variable has effect if behavior is same no effect of independent variable ex caffeine on math experimental coffee control decaf solve math and see effects Sham Operates Organismic studies E and C gt Surgery E gt Internal manipulation Controls for surgical trauma E and C both get same preop surgery post op but E gets the internal manipulation compare behavior effect of internal manipulation Yoked Control Only E controls event C yoked to E C passively receives same events as E Arousal ex you earn A s get money brother doesn t do anything gets money for nothing no real learning E would behave in the right way to get reward every time E is rewarded C also gets reward Yoked linked connected ex rat pups 1 day old needs to move paddle to get milk E rat moves and gets paddle C gets it too Rewarded pup increases knowledge C no learning no evidence of law of effect Validity lnternal Validity Experiment measures what it intended to measure with proper experimental design Controlling extraneous variables Essen aH EthiCS Ethical Issues Value judgments no absolute right or wrong Two domains Nonhuman human A human experiment Purpose effect of personal space invasion on arousal in a naturalistic setting ex unobtrusive field experiment subjects did not know they were being studied Operational definition of arousal male micturition urination response Micturition Operational definition of personal space invasion 0000 subject confederate working with experimenter distance at urinals Dependent variables Latency how long it took to start peeing Duration length of pee How they did it subject alone at one end confederate moderate confederate close Experimenter was in stall and used a camera to figure out when pee started What was wrong here No prior permission No debriefing because in pilot study everybody thought it was funny 87 rejection rate of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology but this got in Statistics Raw data never report raw scores Frequency Distribution Histogram Frequency polygon Normal Distribution Skewed Distributions Negatively Skewed to the left Positively Skewed to the right Descriptive Statistics Normal distribution mean median mode all the same Different tests for mean and median by intentionally using wrong one can lie with statistics How to lie with statistics a highly skewed distribution report median uconn student teacher ratio 141 average size of undergrad class 29 students factor in independent studies Mean dishonest Median honest Measure of Variability standard deviation SD Large spread out small clustered around mean Graphs source of more deception expanded ordinate changing Y axis abscissa independent variable Sample size ex 4 out of 5 doctors recommend it could only be 5 doctors meanmedianmode
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