Exam One Study Guide
Exam One Study Guide PSYC 2310
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cristina Saiz on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Week One Research Methods Key Constructs Hypothesis independent variable dependent variable operational definition experimental group control group random selection random assignment experimental design correlational design cross sectional design longitudinal design blind amp double blind design Other Issues Reliability Validity Confounds such as expectancy effects according to Rosenthal attrition in longitudinal studies cohort effects in cross sectional studies Generating E vidence Research evidence vs personal knowledge Personal knowledge example Dr Cohn s grandma is over the age of 90 and Dr Cohn watches her put 68 spoons of sugar in her coffee We know from research that having all that sugar in coffee is bad for you but her personal knowledge tells her that she s been having her coffee with 68 spoons of sugar for many many years and it has not had any negative consequences on her health Research evidence consists of hypothesis data collection data analysis replication Hypothesis informal definition an educated guess about how something works formal definition a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables Variable any stimulus phenomenon that can vary in value a GOOD hypothesis MUST be TESTABLE Some examples of research questions and their hypotheses 1Research question Is shyness related to family size Research hypothesis The larger the size of the family the less shy the child will be 2Research question Is susceptibility to peer pressure related to selfesteem Research hypothesis As susceptibility increases selfesteem decreases 3Research question What is the impact of television on children s aggressive behavior Research hypothesis Exposure to TV violence increases aggression Cannot generalize findings to all age groups First week we designed our own study as a class about the impact of television on children s aggressive behavior We decided to study 100 children both male and female that ranged from age 6 to age 9 Recruitment was to be set from public schools of one community We were to show one group of kids a 5 minute clip of a violent boxing match and the other group was to watch a 5 minute clip of sesame street We were then going to observe the children s behavior on a playground and measure their aggression levels We then went over the following key constructs Operational definition specifies the operations and procedures that are used to define the independent and dependent variables Independent variable experimental factor you manipulate the treatment itself Dependent variable the behavior measured the factor that might be affected by changes in the independent variable Experimental condition the condition that exposes subjects to one version of the independent variable Control condition a condition identical to the experimental one except the independent variable has a different value such as zero Random assignment assigning subjects to conditions by chance thus minimizing preexisting difference between those in the different conditions Week Three TUESDAY Teratogens environmenta sources of birth defects such as Thalidomide prescription drug for women to help control morning sickness during early pregnancy When they used this treatment on mice and other animals the drug seemed safe until 1963 when a pediatrician in Europe noticed that babies were being born with large birth defects and it turned out that this drug affected about 8000 babies Cause when teratogens are introduced during the embryonic stage of development it affects the embryo because the organs are starting to develop during this stage Alcohol when consumed in large quantity if fetus is born to a heavy drinker a woman who consumes 5 or more drinks a day there is a 30 chance that the fetus will be born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS and could be born with a small head abnormally wide set eyes andor malproportioned head Cigarettes considered a teratogen because babies born to a heavy smoker are born with a low birth weight Mg licit amp illicit drugs Radiation such as XRays Rubella German measles Pollutants mercury in fish or polluted water lead in paint asbestos in old houses etc Strei will stress affect developing embryofetus Dr Cohn then gave us an example of when his wife was pregnant when they first moved to El Paso She was 6 12 months pregnant and the OB she went to told her she was at risk to go into premature labor and was put on bedrest for the rest of her pregnancy They also didn t know how to work the ac unit and it was extremely hot in their new house so Dr Cohn s wife was stressed due to the heat being placed on bedrest How could we measure stress affecting the baby Develop an animal model with monkeys and tests how a sudden loud noise would affect the animal s stress levels Resulted in the blood flow to the fetus slowing because mother goes into fightflight response Studied women who lost their spouse toward the end of their pregnancy Prenata Stress was at 14 N167 subjects Postnata stress was at 65 N168 subjects Percentage of subjects displaying behavioral disorders It was reported that those under prenatal stress had greater presence of behavioral disorder than those who had postnatal stress Ended class Tuesday with a 3 minute video quotPortrait of Lotte a researcher took a picture of his daughter every week from birth to 12 years of age and compiled a video of it THURSDAY William James quotthe world of a newborn is a blooming buzzing confusion he thought babies were just a bundle of reflexes Apgar Scale five subtests that comprise the scale Appearance color Pulse heart rate Grimace reflex irritability Activity muscle tone amp Respiration breathing Newborns are rated 1 minute after birth and then again at 5 minutes m n O 1 D Sign Heart Rate beats per minute 100 or more bpm lt1OO bpm Not detectable Respiratory Effort Strong cry amp breathing Irregular shallow breaths Not Breathing Reflex Vigorous Response Weak Response No Response Muscle Tone Resilient Lack of Resistance Complete Flaccidity Skin Color Pink All Over Partially Pink Bluish or Yellowish Ol NOI NOl NOI NOI N Walking refle baby takes a step when mother holds him upright on his feet not old enough to walk on his own Sucking refle baby puts thumb in mouth and sucks on it Grasping reer baby will grab on tightly Reflexes in Infancy Re ex Stimulus Response Moro Loud noise or loss of support Legs up back arches arms forward Grasp Object placed on palms Hands grasp objects Sucking Touch lips Sucking movement Rooting Touch cheek Turn toward touch Babinski Touch sole of foot Foot twists in toes fan out Swimming Baby is immersed in water Holds breath swims with arms andlegs Infancy Research Techniques Habituation Preferential looking Violation of expectation Reinforcement M Can infants distinguish too sounds B vs P Measured again with pressure transducer in a pacifier No stimulus baby gave constant sucking Saying B sound over and over sucking increases but then gradually declines when baby gets bored of hearing it over and over again then Introduce P sound over and over sucking increases again but then slows when baby gets bored of hearing it habituation refers to decrease in responding after repeated presentations at 1 month we find that in response to new sound baby increases sucking and can tell between B amp P sound Rods amp cones present at birth Rods are light sensitive photoreceptors allow us to see in the dark Cones are photoreceptors that allow us to see color visual acuity Fovia is missing has not formed yet Responsible in part for visual acuity Lens is immature and can t bring things into focus Babies are very nearsighted but definitely not blind at birth Study done by Fantz Placed babies in a bassinet and placed 4 stimuli above them Found that baby looked at certain stimuli more than other stimuli and for a longer amount of time Young babies are attracted to the angular cues of a face not the actual face of a person It isn t until about 3 months that they like to look at and notice faces Objects become more in focus from birth to adulthood Babies can distinguish between colors Newborn can distinguish grey from orange yellow green or red At 2 months distinguish yellow from green At 3 months distinguish yellow from red At 4 months they are almost on par with adults This tells us that babies are more than just a bundle of reflexes and they are more competent than previously perceived Depth perception Visual cliff they have the baby sitting on a long table and part of the table is Plexiglas The mother calls her child to her to see whether the baby will stop before reaching the Plexiglas At 6 months the baby will crawl off the quotedgequot and does not realize the concept of depth perception At 10 months baby stops and doesn t crawl off and Or we could change the measurement procedure for depth Take a 10 day old baby Take a piece of paper a small distance away from the baby and move it closer to the baby s face when the piece of paper gets close enough to the babies face the baby starts to squirm amp try to get out of the way QUIZ 2 MOVED TO THURSDAY Week Two Prenatal Development development before birth It used to be believed that the placenta protected the fetus from all abnormalities but we learn otherwise through research and reading chapter 2 Prenatal Development has 3 stages Germinal Stage weeks 1 amp 2 Embryonic Stage weeks 3 8 Fetal Stage weeks 9 birth Germinal Stage cell division organism travels down fallopian tube impants itself in the uterus Embryonic Stage Cyindrica body forms becomesbrain amp spinal cord Heart develops starts beating at 4 weeks Eyes ears nose mouth start to form end of week 4 Digestive system begins to form stomach ampiver Bronchia buds forming which later become the lungs Ears develop by week 8 Fetal Stage Males amp females can be distinguished externally by 12 weeks Two halves of brain become visible at 16 weeks Joints appear Eyes open amp respond to light end of 7 months Brain becomes more convoluted 9th month convoluted meaning the folds and wrinkles of the brain this happens because the brain grows so much but there s not enough space so it folds and wrinkles into itself Role of heartbeat in motherchild relations Language of emotions 1 love you from the bottom of my heart 2My heart belongs to you 3She is close to her mother s heart Question to ponder Why refer to the heart when the important structure that feels these emotions is the brain Some Observations Mother Rhesus monkey at Central Park Zoo holding newborn close to heart 42 additional observations 40 times held on left side 2 time held on the right side 466 paintings in museum depicting mothers holding infants 80 of which depicted infants being held on the left side of the mother Mothers at a wellbaby clinic tended to hold babies on left side yet 438 shoppers holding packages the size of babies held those packages on the other side More observationsStudy 255 right handed moms held their newborn babies on the left side 83 32 left handed moms held their newborn babies on the left side 78 The right handed mothers stated it kept their dominant right hand free if they needed to use it while left handed mothers states they were able to hold their baby better on that side since it was their dominant side Prenatal Learning Is It Possible Study1 Lee Salk 1973 Groupl Group2 Group3 Listened to heartbeat Listened to heartbeat Listened to everyday sounds 72 bpm 120bpm n102 Group was eliminated because it n112 was difficult to get the babies calm amp quiet enough so they could eat Results Results Results 70 experienced weight gain 33 experienced weight gain 38 recorded crying time 60 recorded crying time Hypothesis relaxed with steady heartbeat sounds StudyZ DeCasper The Cat in the Hat study they took women who were 7 12 months pregnant and gave them the task of reading The Cat in the Hat twice a day for 3 minutes for their remaining 6 weeks of pregnancy when the women gave birth they took their two day old babies and placed headphones over their ears and put a pacifier in their mouths The pacifier had a pressure transducer to emit an electric signal The researchers had a recording of the mother s voice reading the first 3 minutes of the cat in the hat to the baby and they also had another woman s recorded voice read the cat in the hat to the baby as well when the recording was their mother s voice the babies sucked faster but if it was the other woman s voice the sucking slowed researchers found that the babies sucked on the pacifier at a rate fast enough to bring out their mother s voice Next class TERATOGENS environmental sources of birth defects thalidomide alcohol drugs cigarettes
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