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Study guide-exam 1

by: Aimee Castillon

Study guide-exam 1 PSYC 304

Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy

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About this Document

This was super last minute, but I've compiled the guide from questions from the textbook. I did not include the examples, however. Hopefully it helps!
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 304 at George Mason University taught by Patrick McElroy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Principles of Learning in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 09/22/15
PSYC 304 study guide Chapter 1 The functionalist approach was strongly influenced by Darwin s theory of evolution As originally defined by Watson behaviorism is a natural science approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of environmental influences on observable behavior William James was a functionalist and Edward Titchener was a structuralist Great musicians are born not made is an example of the nativist perspective on behavior and practice makes perfect is an example of the empiricist perspective According to the Law of Parsimony the simple explanation is generally the preferable explanation Bandura s social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observational learning and cognitive variables Skinner views thoughts and feelings as private or covert behaviors that need to be explained Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from some type of experience In classical conditioning behaviors the average person typically regards as involuntary come to be elicited in new situations Plato the Greek philosopher who exemplifies the nativist nature position emphasizes the role of heredity The term behavior refers to any activity of an organism that can be observed or somehow measured The structuralist approach proposed that the goal of psycholog should be to identify the basic elements of the mind Watson noted that a major problem with introspection was that the results obtained were often unreliable The Law of Contiguity states that we associate events that occur in close proximity to each other tabula rasa means that the brain is a blank state to begin with Chapter 2 any characteristic of a person place or thing that can change is called a variable in an experiment independent variables are systematically varied to determine if an effect is present a dependent variable is measured by the research team to test if a manipulated variable caused an effect a change in the dependent variable is siade to be the effect in an experiment one person s response can be another person s stimulus that influences a behavior On a cumulative recorder a gradually sloping line indicates a slow rate of response and a steep line indicates a high rate of response By contrast a flat line indicates no response behavioral definitions should be objective and unambiguous two common descriptive methods are naturalistic observations and case studies two main approaches to behavioral research are the descriptive approach and the experimental approach The simplest form of a control group design individuals are randomly assigned to an experimental treatment group and a control group control group designs that are used to assess differences between species are referred to as comparative designs An experiment that utilizes a type of singlesubject design requires only one or a few subjects The reversal design is also known as an ABAB or ABA design a key advantage of the multiple baseline design is that we do not have to withdraw the treatment to determine if it is effective An advantage to using animals is that the experimental environment can be controlled more for animal subjects than human subjects Chapter 3 Behaviors that are automatically drawn out by the stimuli that precede them are referred to as elicited behavior A simple involuntary response to a stimulus is called a reflex Many simple reflexes are activated through a reflex arc that consists of a sensory neuron an interneuron and a motor neuron in that order A fixed action pattern is a fixed sequence of responses that occurs in reaction to a specific stimulus Fixed action patterns are sometimes called speciesspecific behaviors because they are often unique to a certain species An increase in the strength of a behavior following repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus is called sensitization A decrease in the strength of a behavior following repeated presentation of the eliciting stimulus is called habituation A stimulus of intermediate intensity will initially result in a period of sensitization which is then followed by habituation In general longterm habituation is most likely to occur when the stimulus is presented at widely spaced intervals in this case the ability to respond tends to recover slowly when the stimulus is no longer presented Classical conditioning is also known as Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning The aprocess is also known as the primary process and the bprocess is also known as the opponent process In aversive conditioning the US is an event that is usually considered unpleasant and something that an organism would likely avoid In general aversive conditioning occurs more readily than appetitive conditioning In appetitive conditioning the US is an event that is usually considered pleasurable and usually sought out by the organism The opponentprocess theory of emotion accounts for why a strong emotional response is often followed by an opposite emotional response With repeated presentations of the emotional event the bprocess increases in both strength and duration An excitatory CS for fear is one that will elicit a fear response How to calculate the suppression ratio suppression ratio of responses during CS of responses during CS of responses preCS in a conditioned suppression ratio a score of 0 indicates total suppression of the behavior while a score of around 05 indicates no suppression


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