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ALL SEMESTER NOTES PSYC 1001 - General Psychology
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PSYC 1001 - General Psychology
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This 69 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachael Han on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1001 - General Psychology at George Washington University taught by Wetzell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 125 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
PSYCHOLOGY Ch Intro 1 2 and 3 01132015 What is Psychology Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes 0 Behavior outward overt actions and reactions ie talking facial expressions and movement 0 Mental Processes internal covert activity in our minds ie thinking feeling and remembering Eclectic Approach use combination of perspectives Operational Definition trying to define X in a way that can be empirically tested Goals of Psychology Description Explanation Prediction and Control 0 Description What is happening Where to whom amp under what circumstances 0 Explanation Why is it happening 0 Prediction When will it happen again 0 Control How can it be changed Philosophy of Science 0 Determinism universe is governed by lawful causeandeffect relationships 0 Empiricism knowledge arises from sensory experiences Historv of Psychology 0 Relatively new field of sciences around 135 yrs old 0 Francis Cecil Sumner father of African American psychology Prior to World of Psychology Plato Aristotle and Descartes 0 Connection between soul and body Ernst Weber and Gustav Fechner 0 Early perception studies formed a basis for experimentation in psychology physiologists Hermann von Helmholtz interested in optics how does the eye see 0 Groundbreaking experiments in visual and auditory perception Wundt and Structuralism 0 Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 physiologist 0 Objective Introspection process of objectively examining and measuring one s own thoughts and mental activities 0 First psychology lab in Germany 1879 Analyze the content of one s mind through objective introspection Brain D Experience Thought and Emotion O Consciousness state of being aware of external events could be broken down into thoughts experiences emotions and other basic elements To inspect these nonphysical elements learn to think objectively about their own thoughts objective introspection Titchener and Structuralism in USA 0 Edward Titchener 1867 1927 Wundt s Student took ideas to Ithaca NY 0 Structuralism Structures of the mind every experience can be broken down into its individual emotions and sensations I idea died out in the early 1900 s 0 tell me about things that are yellow 0 Margaret Washburn Titchener s student 0 first woman to receive a PhD in psychology 1894 author of The Animal Mind William James and Functionalism 0 William James 1842 1910 Harvard Professor Wrote textbook Principles of Psychology 0 Functionalism how the mind allows people to function in the real world how people work play and adapt to their surroundings stream of thought vs elements of mind 0 Focused on consciousness to everyday life rather than just its analysis believed scientific study of consciousness itself was not yet possible heavily in uenced by Darwin s natural selection behavioral traits could aid in survival as well 0 Mary Whiton Calkins first woman to complete coursework for a doctorate at Harvard but rejected 0 Elements in functionalism is now only found in educational or industrialorganizational psychology Max Wertheimer and Gestalt Psychology 0 Max Wertheimer O Gestalt Psychology studying sensation and perception in an organized whole 0 Believed psychological events like perceivingsensing couldn t be broken down into smaller elements amp still be properly understood the whole is greater than the sum of its parts 0 Gestalt ideas currently part of cognitive psychology studies Sigmund Freud s Theory of Psychoanalysis 0 Sigmund Freud neurologist in Austria treated patients with nervous system disorders 0 Psychoanalysis theory and therapy based on Freud s ideas basis of much modern psychotherapy process in which a trained psychological professional helps a person gain insight into and change their behavior 0 Insight therapy treating fearanxiety Emphasis on unconscious amp early childhood 6 yrs proposed there s an unconscious mind into which we repress all threatening urgesdesires O Stated that phobia irrational fear is symptom of underlying repressed con ict and cannot be cured without years of psychoanalysis to uncover and understand repressed material Pavlov Watson and the Dawn of Behaviorism 0 Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist O Re ex involuntary reaction could be caused to occur in response to a formerly unrelated stimulus Classical Conditioning Can salivate dogs wo giving them food 0 John Watson psychologist O Behaviorism science of behavior focus only on observable behavior something that could be directly seemmeasured based on classical conditioning ignored study of consciousness O Believed all behavior is learned and phobias are learned through process of conditioning I Watson amp Rayner I Little Albert experiments on babies highly unethical by teaching them to fear a white rat by making a loud scary noise every time the infant saw the rat I Mary Cover Jones grad student of Watson repeated study but added counterconditioning canceling out phobic reaction Little Peter Psychology Now Modern Perspectives 7 perspectives Psychodynamic Behavioral Humanistic Cognitive Sociocultural Biopsychological Evolutionary These are not competing theories 0 Psychodynamic Focus on unconscious early childhood development 0 Vestige of Freudian theory of unconscious mind and its in uence over conscious behavior and early childhood experiences less emphasis on seX and more emphasis on self 0 Behavioral BF Skinner became new leader about Watson by developing Operant Conditioning behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are reinforced 0 Ex boy learns if he cries mother will get him candy 0 Humanistic third force reaction to both psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism people have free will freedom to choose their own destiny and strive for selfactualization Achievement of one s full potential most famous founders are Abraham Maslow 19071970 and Carl Rogers 19021987 0 Answer to deterministic nature of behaviorism 0 Cognitive focus on memory intelligence perception thought processes problem solving language and learning cognitive neuroscience includes study of physical workings of the brain and nervous system when engaged in memory thinking and other cognitive processes use MRI fMRI and PET 0 Prior in 1960 focuses on how people think remember store and use info became major force 0 Now focus on the cognitive focuses 0 Sociocultural combines social psychology study of groups social roles and rules of social actions and relationships and cultural psychology study of cultural norms values and expectations both about the effect that people have on one another individually or a larger group shows in crosscultural research contrastscomparisons of a behavior studied in 2 cultures 0 Bystander Effect presence of other people lessens chance that a person in trouble would receive help result of diffusion of responsibility Biopsychological Attributes human and animal behavior to biological events human and animal behavior is seen as a direct result of events in the body hormones heredity brain chemicals tumors and diseases topics include sleep emotions aggression sexual behavior learning and memory 0 Ex offers best explanation for schizophrenia 0 Evolutionary biological mental traits shared by all humans explains mental strategies and traits ie why we lie how attractiveness in uences mate selection why fear of snakes is common etc overlaps with biopsychology and sociocultural perspective mind is seen as a set of infoprocessing machines designed by same process of Darwin s natural selection 0 Evolutionary psychologists study evolutionary origins of human behavior Psychological Professionals and Areas of Specialization Counselor Therapist or Social Worker Masters Degree Psychologist PhD PsyD no medical training but a doctorate degree 0 Psychologists jobs 1 university amp 4yr colleges 2 selfemployed 3 private for profit 0 Subfields of Psychology 1 clinical 2 counseling 3 developmental 0 Psychologists who do research basic vs applied research 0 Basic research for sake of gaining scientific knowledge 0 Applied research aimed at answering realworld practical problems Psychiatrist MD medical degree and physical specializing in diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders 0 Psychiatric social worker trained in area of social work and usually possess master s degree focus more on environmental conditions that can impact mental disorders poverty stress drug abuse Psychology The Scienti c Methodology Scienti c Method system for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data 0 Five Steps 1 perceiving observing the question derived from goal of description 2 forming a hypothesis 3 testing hypothesis 4 drawing conclusions 5 reporting your results amp revisereplicate Scienti c Conclusions must be 0 Falsifiable never proven only supported and always subject to revision 0 Mechanistic clear cause and effect not supernatural 0 Parsimonious simplest is best Occam s Razor Consistent must account for all empirical evidence Reproducible same conditions produce same outcomes Critical Thinking making reasoned judgments about claims 1 No Such Thing as Truths There are very few truths that do not need to be subjected to testing 2 Evidence Varies in Quality All evidence is not equal in quality 3 Question Everything Just because someone is considered to be an authority or to have a lot of eXpertise does not make everything that person claims automatically true 4 Keep an Open Mind Critical thinking requires an open mind Descriptive Methods Naturalistic Observation watch animalspeople behave in their normal environment 0 Advantage allows realistic picture of how behavior occurs 0 Disadvantage possibility of observer bias Blind Observers needed people who don t know research question and lack of control each setting is uniquedifferent O Observer Effect animalspeople who know they re being watched will not behave normally I Participant Observation researchers become participants in a group Laboratory Observation 0 Disadvantage being an artificial situation that might result in artificial behavior Case Studies one individual is studied in great detail 0 Advantage tremendous amount of detail it provides 0 Disadvantage can t really apply the results to other similar people I eX Phineas Gage who survived when a metal rod pierced his skull Surveys ask series of questions from topic they re studying O Advantage ability to get at private info and large sample size 0 Disadvantage careful about the group of people they survey representative sample and people aren t always honest about answers 0 Representative Sample random sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects Correlations Finding Relationships Correlation measure of the relationship between 2 variables 0 Correlation coefficient r represents direction of the relationships and its strength 0 Correlation does not prove causation The Experiment Only an experiment can demonstrate causation Deliberately manipulate the variable they think is causing some behavior while not changing others 0 Independent Variable the variable manipulated Dependent response of participants 0 Confounding Variables variables that interfere with each other and their possible effects on some other variable of interest I best way to fix this have experimental and control groups Operational Definition specifically names the operations stepsprocedures that the experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment Randomization is important Hazards Placebo Effect and Experimenter Effect 0 Placebo Effect expectations and biases of participants in study can in uence behavior 0 Experimenter Effect expectations of experimenter are biased Singleblind and Doubleblind studies amp Quasiexperimental 0 SingleBlind participants are blind to treatment they receive DoubleBlind researchers too O Quasiexperimental designs participants cannot be randomly assigned to conditions for some reason ie males vs females Ethics of Psychological Resem Guidelines for Doing Research with People 1 Rights and wellbeing of participants must be weighed against the study s values to science people first science second 2 Participants must be allowed to make an informal decision about participation 3 Deception must be justified 4 Participants may withdraw any time 5 Participants must be protected from risks or told explicably of risks 6 Investigators must debriet participants telling the true nature of the study and expectations of results 7 Data must remain confidential 8 If for any reason a study results in undesirable consequences for participants researcher is responsible for detecting and removing these consequences Why use animals instead of people Biggest reason we can do things to animals that we can t do to people Animals are easier to control they don t live as long so looking at longterm effects is easier have simple behavior that makes it easy to see changes Animal Research needs to be approved by institutional Animal Care and Use Committee IACUC The Three R s Replacement if we can not use animals you need to not to Reduction use fewest amount of animals and Refinement constantly reviewing procedures amp treatment Ethics in Psychological Research Historical Perspectives Nuremberg Code 1946 6 points to define legitimate medical research developed for Nazi war crimes trials Helsinki Declaration 1964 World Medical Association Ethical guide for biomedical research in humans Belmont Report 1978 response to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment 19321972 National Research Act 1974 Neurons and Nerves Building a Network Neuroscience deals with anatomy and physiology of the nervous system and their links to behavior 3 Main Levels of Analvsis Chemical molecular level Biological celllevel and Psychological Biological NeurosciencePsvchologv branch of neuroscience that focuses on the biological bases of psychological processes behavior and learning 0 primary area associated with biological perspective in psychology Structure of the Neuron The Nervous System s Building Block Neuron specialized cell in nervous system that receives and sends messages Within that system Just like cells but don t have centrioles bc they can t divide and replicate Dendr equotDemdrihc Tree I e39rnun Hz 5 ma Nucle us Nude m Hammer Wl a39elai 39 Sh a h Dendrite treelike or branch receives messages from other cells m the cell body contains the nucleus and keeps entire cell alive and functioning m fiber attached to soma carries messages out to other cells Axon Terminals synaptic nobs synaptic vesicles 0 responsible for communicating W other nerve cells Myelin Sheath insulated and protects neuron speeds up neural message traveling down axon m nerve fiber that conducts electrical impulses away from neuron s cell body and transmit info to different neurons muscles and glands Node of Ranvier myelin sheath gaps gaps formed btwn myelin sheaths generated by different cells History and Theories 0 Luigi Galvani ca 1700 Electrical stimulation I muscle contraction current on dead frog leg 0 Golgi and Reticular Theorv late 1800 s Nervous system continuous fibers 0 No gaps not independent cells Electrical impulses conducted bidirectional O Camillo Golgi Fierce proponent of reticular theory developed silvernitrate staining 0 Caial and Neuron Theorv Nerves are made of autonomous individual cells 0 Neurotransmission is unidirectional O Santiago Ramon y Cajal Proponent of neuron theory Refined Golgi s stain I Observed that Nerve fibers grows out of cell bodies Cutting a nerve fiber causes retrograde degeneration and there are gaps between terminals 0 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine Golgi and Cajal won 0 Golgi refused to acknowledge Cajal and used acceptance speech to criticize neuron theory 0 In Golgi s defense no conclusive evidence for neuron theory until l920l950 s it was hotly debated until then 0 Soup vs Spark Debate Is synaptic transmission chemical or electrical Chemical 0 gtkOtto Loewi 1920s Frog heart experiment with electrical stimulator on vagus nerve interneuronal transmission is chemical Nobel Prize 1936 Glial Cells specialized cells of the nervous system 0 Involved in formation of myelin Mounting immune responses in the brain holds neurons in place removing waste get nutrients to the neurons removing waste and cleaning up remains of dead neurons provide insulation for neurons synchronizing activity of the billions of neurons that constitute the nervous system possibly involved in certain psychological disorders schizophrenia or major depressive disorder 0 Myelin layer of fatty substances created by 2 types of glial cells oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells wraps around the shaft of neurons to form an insulating and protective sheath 0 Oligodendrocytes produce myelin in Central Nervous System for neurons in brair spinal cord I Tracts bundles of myelincoated axons traveling together as cables in central nervous system 0 Schwann cells produce myelin in Peripheral Nervous System for neurons of the body I Nerves bundles of myelincoated axons traveling together as cables in peripheral nervous system I Unigue feature can serve as tunnel where damaged nerve fibers can reconnect and repaid themselves Neuron s Electrochemical System Resting and Action Potentials Neuron at rest electrically charged 0 m semiliquid solution with charged particles inside and outside the cell Resting Potential negative charge inside compared to outside 70 mV due to distribution of ions diffusion 0 During an action potential positive ions first ow into the axon There s little or no net chance in the distribution of negative ions Action Potential electrochemical potential of neuron rapidly ips from negative to positive then back due to ion conductance when sodium ions enter inside mostly positive outside mostly negative Diffusion ions moving from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Electrostatic pressure relative electrical charges when ions are at rest All or none principle AP is always the same amplitude strength either neuron is firing at full strength or none at all Threshold potential potential at which an AP will be triggered typically between 40 and 55 mV Hypegpolarization rebound phase of the AP when the neuron becomes more negatively charged than resting potential Absolute refractory period repolarization phase of the AP between peak amplitude and crossing threshold during which another AP cannot be fired Relative refractory period phase from crossing threshold through hyperpolarization and returning to RP Another AP can be fired but required more energy than usual Propagation of the Action Period 7 A 7 A a A A A Saltatorv Conduction Saltatory to leap AP appears to leap from node to node but is actually propagated within axon BRAIN Initiative Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies Program started by Obama to answer questions about brain through developing new technologies The Synapse The Synapse uidfilled space between axon terminal dendrite of another neuron O Synaptic vesicles little saclife structures contain chemicals suspended in neurotransmitters O Neurotransmitters inside neuron and they transmit messages Instead of an electrical charge the presynaptic membrane contain neurotransmitters molecules and the post synaptic membrane contain ion channels that have receptor sites 0 Receptor sites proteins that allow only particular molecules of a certain shape to fit into it Neuron Communication Excitatorv Synapse synapse at which a neurotransmitter increases the likelihood of the receiving cell firing generating EPSP Excitatory postsynaptic potential Inhibitory Synapse synapse at which a neurotransmitter decreases the likelihood of the receiving cell firing generating IPSP Inhibitory postsynaptic potential The Axon Hillock connects the cell body soma to the axon Mgior Neurotrgnsmitters and Their Functions 0 Glutamate Glu gtkthere s a lotgtllt involved in learning memory formation nervous system development and synaptic plasticity Excess causes over activation and neuronal damage 0 Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA gtkthere s a lotgtllt involved in sleep and inhibits movement 0 Can help calm anxiety effect of alcohol is to enhance effect of GABA 0 Endorphins involved in pain relief type of neuropeptide 0 Bind to receptors that open the ion channels on the axon 0 Dopamine DA involved in control of movement and sensations of pleasure 0 Found in brain too little Parkinson s vs too much schizophrenia 0 Acetylcholine ACh involved in arousal attention memory and controls muscle contractions 0 found at synapses between neurons and muscle cells stimulates skeletal muscles to contract but slows contractions in heart muscle found in hippocampus forming new memories low levels of ACh linked to Alzheimer s 0 Serotonin 5HT involved in mood sleep and appetite 0 Found in lower part of brain with excitatory or inhibitory effect low levels depression 0 Norepinephrine NE involved in arousal and mood Clearing the Synapse Enzymatic Degradation vs Reuptake All Others 0 Reuptake sucks up neurotransmitters back into synaptic vesicles so next stimulation can occur 0 Enzymatic Degradation enzyme specifically designed to break apart ACh clears synaptic gap quickly The Nervous System network of cells that carries info to and from all part of the body 0 Central Nervous System CNS brain and spinal cord both which compose of neurons and glial cells 0 Peripheral Nervous System PNS transmits info tofrom CNS all nervesneurons not in CNS r xv mmquot Vivlii m Elf i L n l 3739 Learcl u was rs Jig will ll in ll r r QN ll 2 z 39 v glm 1 The lHrEilE39i and spinal mrel 39Il39ransmifts informatlerl tea aan ler lli e ee ntlral ner e eus system l l l EchleLr l LLEllilli lsl l I 7 Illa I inlerpsets and Pathway s leres ii n Ferma39li ie n renne ir ig he Auternat ieally Carries sen serfy and sends earners brain and the regulates gllanrls inferrnatien 1e musel es glands perisheral internal ergens and centrels and ergans nerveus system and taleeel vessels r neeeme at pupil dilatien ei the skeletal digestien and muselleg bleed pressu re s l l l iEreinsmseamen 1 m e a l l s39lgjzn39 133 93355 all 3 t in ems Maintains heady flu nctizens Prepares The laned3 tn under urdlinary rznnelhtinn s ream smell expend saves energy e nen gig in lirn es el stress The Central Nervous System The Spinal Chord long bundle of neurons that serve 2 vital functions for nervous system 0 outer section of myelinated axonsnerves that carry messages from body to brain and vice versa and inner section of cell bodies of neurons separated by glial cells that are responsible for re exes The Spinal Re ex Arc controlled by spinal cord reactions wo sending message to brain 3 types of neurons 0 Afferent sensory neurons carry messages from the senses to spinal cord carry input to the brain 0 Efferent motor somatic neurons carry messages from spinal cord to muscles and glands carry impulses away from brain efferent exit 0 Interneurons link afferent neurons to motor neurons Neuroplasticitv and Stem Cells 0 Neuroplasticity ability within the brain to constantly change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience or trauma 0 Stem cells special cells found in all the tissues for the body capable of becoming other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear omnipotent unlimited power The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic and Automatic Nervous Systems 0 Somatic nerves that control voluntary muscles made up of the sensory and motor pathways 0 Sensorv pathwav comprises all the nerves carrying messages from the senses to the central nervous system those nerves containing afferent neurons 0 Motor pathwav all of the nerves carrying messages from central nervous system to voluntary skeletal muscles of body 0 Autonomic nerves that control the involuntary muscles organs and glands 0 Parasvmpathetic Rest and digest located at topbottom of spinal column get body to return to normal functioning after stressful situation ends allows body to restore all energy it burned also responsible for most ordinary daytoday bodily functioning regular heartbeat normal breathing and digestion 39 EX slows heartbreathing constricts pupils reactivates digestionexcretion 0 S m athetic Fi ht or i ht primarily located on middle of spinal column get body ready to deal with stress 39 EX pupils get bigger to let more lightinfo in heart pumps fasterharder digestion system shut down saliva dries up The Endocrine System 0 Endocrine glands have no ducts and secrete their chemicals hormones directly into bloodstream 0 Hormones affect behavior and emotions by stimulating muscles organs or other glands I Oxytocin hormne involved with reproduction and parental behavior pregnancy l a nl l Pineal gland a l I r 1 aquot 77 ff P I tulmry gland ff Parathyroid gland 5 n quot quota Thymidgland il l l J Pancreas 39 V ll l 39 4 Adrenal 11 glands l I I Testes 0 Pineal Gland SleepWake cycle 0 Melatonin helps track day length and season 0 Pituitary Gland master gland controls all other endocrine glands SaltWater Levels 0 growth hormone oxytocin etc Parathyroid Gland Calcium Levels Thyroid Gland Metabolic Rate and growth Pancreas Gland Sugar Levels too little diabetes too much hypoglycemia Adrenals Gland 2 glands FightFlight Stress Response and Steroids 0 Adrenal medulla when people are under stress releases hormones 0 Adrenal cortex 30 different hormones called corticoids steroids regulating salt intake initiate and control stress reactions and provide source of sex hormones Gonads Glands Sexual differentiation maturation and activity ovaries and testes The Brain Why difficult to study brain 100 Billion Neurons Perpetual Flux Constant change Epigenetics changes that can change the genomes of the individual without changing the genetic code right hemispheres quotDmmlll39 mutilpl Ellll39lmllm i u thwgm DWEEESES art at the terehram ll ll hr alm 7 V I that relays information from sensory organs to quot the rerehral rortes Hy oo thalan nos Part of the toreorain quot Cerelhellum that requisites the am u t m Mr Thirst Part oi the tumultran 3 w I r I that controls balance quot aniel maintains nausarle eoorcarnation sexual elriye and aggression we teel P iittuitairy land quot l 7 Regulates other endocrine glands FEMS Part oi the hiintlhrain 7 that relays messages ll liip oocarri pus between the rereihellisrn Plays a role in our and the sorter lieerniing memory H and ability to cornea re sensory infor motion to expectations Reticular tormatiion t system of neryes running from the hindbrain amtrt through the rruiobraini to the cerebral cortex eontrollliino arousal anti attention Medulla ifquot i 7 Part of the hinolhrain where neryes s ross trorn one title of the hotly to the eirsgsesite slide of the brain Corpus Callosum connects left and right hemispheres of the brain Cerebral Cortex controls complex thought processes Thalamus sensory info part of forebrain that relays info from sensory organs to cerebral cortex 0 Greatest relay station of the brain Cerebellum controls balance and maintains muscle coordination m relays messages between the cerebellum and the cortex Reticular formation a system of nerves running from the hindbrain and through the midbrain to the cerebral cortex controlling arousal attention allows to pay attention to certain stimuli Medulla where nerves cross from one side of body to opposite side of brain Hippocampus plays role in learning memory and ability to compare sensory info to expectations 0 Often linked to Alzheimer s disease Pituitary gland regulates other endocrine glands Hypothalamus regulates amount of fear thirst sexual drive aggression Peeking Inside of the Brain Lesioning studies damaging areas of study in brain 0 Deep lesioning insertion of a thin insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire Brain stimulation less harmful way temporarily disrupt or enhance normal functioning of specific brain areas through electrical stimulation of the brain ESB O Invasive techniques DBS electrodes placed in specific deepbrain areas and electrode wires are routed to a pacemakerlike device impulse generator surgically implanted under collarbone that sends impulses to implanted electrodes to stimulate specific brain areas 39 Used in treatment for Parkinson s seizure chronic pain effects of moodmemory Noninvasive techniques rTMS tDCS lw magnetic pulses applied to cortex using special copper wire coils administrated in a repeated fashion I tDCS scalp electrodes pass very low amplitude direct current to the brain to change excitability of cortical neurons below electrodes 39 These techniques used studies of cognition memory retrieval and decision making PTSD depression and stroke effects Mapping Structure 0 0 CT Computed Tomography series of Xrays of the brain I Shows stroke damage tumors injuries abnormal brain structure metal in body MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging machine generating powerful magnetic field to align hydrogen atoms in brain tissues then radio pulses used to make atoms spin at particular frequencydirection 39 Shows estimated concentration of specific chemicalsneurotransmitters DTI brain s 2 color regions gray and white matter Mapping Function 0 O O O EEG electrical record electrical activity of cortex with electroencephalograph 39 Indicates stages of sleep seizures or presence of tumors PET radioactive sugar injected with radioactive glucose to detect brain activity using colors to indicate different levels of brain activity SPECT blood ow nuclear imaging test with special camera and radioactive substance to create 3D pics to show how blood ows to heart or what areas of brain are moreless active fMRI blood ow analyzes blood oxygen levels to look at brain functions The Hindbrain Pons larger swelling above medulla bridge between brain s lowerupper parts crossover of motor nerves carrying messages from brain to body and coordinate movements of leftright sides of body 0 In uences sleep dreaming arousal Medulla first swelling part want to never damage crossover of sensory nerves coming from body s leftright sides and that sensory info from left side of body goes to right side of brain amp vice versa 0 Lifesustaining functions like breathing swallowing heart rate Cerebellum base of skull 0 controls and coordinates involuntary rapid fine motor movement 0 coordinates voluntary movements that have to happen in rapid succession walking skating dancing playing musical instrument movements of speech Reticular Formation RF network of neurons running through middle of medullapons 0 General Attention alertness and arousal The Limbic System Tlhalamus Part of the forebrain that relays information From sensory organs to the cerebral cortex Hiyiootlhialamus Part of the torebrein that regulates the amount of fear thirst 7 7 sexual drive and 391 2quot aggression we Feel Cingulate cortex Primary cortical conipon ent of the limbic system involved in emotional and A cognitive processing a 39 al v39 i i v Will 33 Hlippocamons Influences our rnntistationr emotional control tear response and interpretations of 39 nonverbal emotional expressions Plays a role in our learning memory and ability to compare sensory information to expectations Limbic System involved in emotions motivation memory and learning Thalamus part of forebrain that relays info from sensory organs to cerebral cortex inner chamber hearing sight touch or taste 0 Olfactory Bulbs sense of smell signals from neurons in sinus cavity go directly here I Sense of smell only sense that doesn t have to first pass through thalamus Hypothalamus part of forebrain regulating the amount felt of fear thirst sexual drive and aggression Hippocampus plays role in learning memory and ability to compare sensory info to expectations instrumental in forming lonterm declarative memories Alzheimer s Disease lack of ACh Amygdala the almond in uences motivation emotional control fear response and interpretations of nonverbal emotional expressions play vital role in forming emotional memories Cingulate Cortex primary cortical component of limbic system pay attention 4 regions involved in emotional cognitive and autonomic processing ex selective attention written word recognition working memory schizophrenia bipolar disorder The Cortex rind or outer covering wrinkled outermost covering of the brain made up of tightly packed neurons Motor OHEX 5011 116 EDSE H39SDFF EUFIEX ssoriation cortex Association cortex Vi wal We r rilcke39s area a 1 Frontal Lobe contain prefrontal cortex motor cortex mirror neurons fire when an animal performs an action or observe that same action performed by another 0 higher functions planning personality language motor control complex decisions 0 Phineas Gage damaged this lack of emotional control I Perseveration making same movement over and over 2 Occipital Lobe primary visual cortices g3 Parietal Lobe contains somatosensorv cortex 0 info from skininternal body receptors for touch temperature and body position 4 Temporal Lobe auditory cortex and auditory association area language comprehension Association cortex areas within each lobe of the cortex made up of neurons responsible for the coordination and interpretation of sensory info coming into brain and stored memories images and knowledge as well as higher mental processing 0 Broca s area area in left frontal lobe of most people devoted to production of speech allows person to speak smoothly and uently I Broca s Aphasia inability to useunderstand either written or spoken language 0 Wernick s area area in left temporal lobe of most people involved in understanding the meaning of words I Wernicke s aphasia able to speak uentlycorrectly but use wrong words Two Cortical Hemispheres Cerebral Hemispheres Connected by corpus callosum thick band of neural fibers axons allowing hemispheres to communicate each hemisphere divided into 4 sections 0 Corpus callosum sometimes severed to reduce seizures Left Hemisphere controls right hand language left frontal math calculations logical thought processes analysis of detail reading Right Hemisphere controls left hand nonverbal process info globally the whole visualspatial perception musicartistic processing emotional thought and recognition pattern and facial recognition SplitBrain Research Spatial Neglect person with damage to right parietal and occipital lobes of cortex will ignore everything in left visual field Left visual field Right Hemisphere vs Right visual field Left Hemisphere 0 Patients shown images in the left visual field cannot describe them but do sense them Sensation Sensation I Perception through transduction 0 Stimulus I Sensory Receptors I Transduction I Neural Impulses I Perception Sensation activation of receptors in various sense organs detection of physical stimuli from our environment and is made possible by activation of specific receptor cells Transduction conversion of energy from one from to another 0 stimulus light sound smell etc energy converted to nerve impulse Sensory receptors special forms of neurons transduces physical info into electrical info 0 eyes ears nose etc Weber s Law of J ND just noticeable difference smallest different between 2 stimuli that s detectable 50 of the time whatever the different between stimuli might be it is always constant Absolute Threshold by Fechner least energy for correct stimulus detection 50 of time 0 Subliminal stimuli stimuli just below level of conscious awareness I Just strong enough to activate sensory receptors but not strong enough to be consciously aware of them James Vicary 1957 subliminal advertising never supported bc Vicary admitted that he never truly conducted a study 0 Signal Detection Theory Fechner how individuals respond to important stimuli Habituation way the brain deals with unchanging info from environment brain stops attending to constant unchanging stimuli cognitive 0 Ex people don t hear air conditioning until it s cut off Sensorv adaptation sensory receptors less responsive ignores to constant stimuli biological 0 EX first smell odor of garbage can but after a while smell goes away 0 EX when you eat food tastes strong at first but taste later fades away Microsaccades tiny eye movements that prevent adaptation to visual stimuli The Science of Seeing Psychological Properties of Light Brightness amplitude of light waves higher wave brighter light m length of the light waves longer wave reds vs shorter wave blues Saturation Purity of perceived color 0 highly saturated wavelengths all the same I less saturated varying wavelengths Structure of the Eye light passes through ganglion and bipolar cells I reaches to stimulate rods and cones I nerve impulses from the rods and cones travel along a nerve pathway to the brain Pupil lris opening that changes size depending on the amount at 739 Lem in tll39lE 39Er lih lr l39l39l 39rlt I r Charlgeg shape to blrir39lg abjjetts inta tucus Iris Its mustles untrnl the size at the pupil Retina J Centalns quot pliete r39etep39liur cells aqueous humer Clear liquid that V nourishes the 39 eye Fuuea Central area of lnght retina greatest Tlli l iSl39lI y e39l photoreceptors ID xtic nerve Cornea l Sends irisual a infnn lmatinn to the brain Bends lig ht we ire5 so the iln39iage can be focused an the retina Blind 5pm optic disc unmoughumm Bl d 1slithere thenptlcnewe J Ellhl llk liquid that vessel s l i lwg ll lmmil neurlshes and gives shape 39 quot Emil I D P 0 DT E CEP DF u the eye E 5 nere Cornea bends light waves so the image can be focused on retina clear membrane with fixed curvature 0 PRK and LASIK remove small portions of cornea to change curvature 0 Aside from lens damage to cornea can affect eye s ability to focus Agueous Humor clear liquid that nourishes the eye between cornea and iris E muscles control the size of pupil Pupil iris hole opening that changes size depending on amount of environment s light m changes shape to bring objects into focus hardens as we age thus causing presbyopia 0 Visual Accommodation lens change its shape from thick to thin focus on closefar away Vitreous Humor jellylike liquid that nourishes and gives shape to eye Blood Vessels Retina light sensitive area at back of eye with 3 layers ganglion cells bipolar cells and rodscones 0 contains photoreceptor cells first celltypes to receive light energy and responsible for its transduction m central area of retina greatest density of photoreceptors m not rods greatest visual acuity Blind Spot Optic Disc where optic nerve leaves eye no photoreceptor cells 0 EX if you stare with one eye at one spot long enough any object that slowly crosses visual field may at one point disappear Optic Nerve sends visual info to the brain 0 Dark adaptation recovery of the eye s sensitivity to visual stimuli in darkness after exposure to bright lights takes up to an hour 0 Light adaptation recovery of the eye s sensitivity to visual stimuli in light after exposure to darkness Takes only a few minutes Detail of the retina Pathway of nerve impulses Photoreceptor cells I bipolar cells I ganglion cells I optic nerve Direction of nerve impulses Bipolar neurons quot Ganglion cells I quot Optic disc Optic nerve quot Blind spot fibers going to the brain 39 Photoreceptor cells 39 39 Rods Cones Retina light sensitive area at back of eye with 3 layers ganglion cells bipolar cells and rodscones 0 contains photoreceptor cells Rods and Cones photoreceptors that respond to light s wavelengths 0 Rods sensitive to changes in brightness not color amp need little light to work well periphery 0 Cones day vision sensitive to changes in color need more light to work well fovea Bipolar Neurons specialized neurons in retina that receive signals from rods and cones and have only one dendrite and one axon Ganglion Cells its axons form optic nerve that receive signals from bipolar neurons 0 gtkaxons eventually form the optic nerve Blind Spot Optic Disc where optic nerve leaves eye no photoreceptor cells Optic Nerve sends visual info to the brain Myopia vs Hyperopia vs Presbyopia lb Farsghted eye tail Neal39sighted eye Myopia nearsighted focal point in front of retina Hyperopia farsighted focal point behind retina Presbyopia natural loss of lens exibility due to aging Perception of Color Trichromatic theorv three types of cones red green blue Firing rate of cones and color ex if red and green cones fire at fast enough rate see yellow Doesn t account for afterimages visual sensations that persist after the initial stimulus has been removed I explained by opponent process theory Opponent Process Theory four primary colors of red green blue and yellow with cones arranged in pairs Opponents of one another RedGreen BlueYellow If pair is strongly stimulated other member is inhibited and cannot be working Color blindness color deficiency is more appropriate Caused by defective cones in the retina most cases two conetypes still work The Ishihara Color Test to test color blindness 3 Types monochrome no cones shades of gray or dichromatic one cone that does not work properly combo of 2 conescolors More common in males because for Females she must inherit 2 recessive genes of XX but for men only needs to inherit one recessive gene from mother s X chromosome bc Y is smaller Through the Eyes to the Brain 0 Visual Cortex I Mangocellular Pathwav Where and Pavocellular Pathwav What Perception 0 Perception method by which sensations are organized and interpreted Perceptual Constancy 0 Size Constancy interpret an object as always being same size regardless of distance 0 Shape Constancy interpret shape of object as constant even when it changes in retina 0 Bri htness Constanc perceive apparent brightness of object even when light conditions change Gestalt Principals principles are based on the idea that people have a natural tendency to force patterns onto whatever they see 0 FigureGround tendency to perceive object or figures as existing on some background 0 Example Camou age 0 Proximity tendency to perceive objects that are close to one another XXX 0 Similarity tendency to perceive things that look similar as being part of the same group ie uniforms 0 Closure tendency to complete figures that are incomplete or nonexistent 0 Continuity tendency to perceive things as simply as possible with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex brokenup pattern 0 Contiguity tendency to perceive two things that happen close together in time as being related usually the first is assumed to cause the second 0 Common Re ion Not one of the ori inal rinci als added later tendency to perceive objects that are in a common area or region as being in a group Depth Perception 0 Depth Perception the ability to perceive the world in 3 dimensions monocular binocular Monocular pictorial depth cues depth cues that can be perceived by one eye alone 0 Integposition Overlap if one object blocks another object people assume that the blocked object is behind the first one and further away 0 Linear perspective lines that are actually parallel to seem to converge on each other 0 Relative size objects that people expect to be of a certain size appear to be small so assumed further away 0 Texture gradient closer things very distinctly textures but further away smallerfiner texture 0 Aerial perspective object haziness increases with distance due to atmospheric interference 0 Motion parallax closer objects appear to move more quicker than objects more further away 0 Accommodation lt closer objects require accommodations of the lens to be in focus the strength of which is tracked by the brain as another depth cue 0 not a pictorial cue happens inside the eye muscular cue Binocular depth cues cues for perceiving depth based on both eyes 0 Convergence position of eyes relative to one another rotation of the 2 eyes to focus on a single object 0 Binocular disparitv location of image on both retinas relative to one another Visual Illusions Illusion perception that does not correspond to reality 0 Help us understand how our vision system works 0 Arise from two factors eye physiology sensation and misinterpretation by the brain perception The MullerLver Illusion two lines identical but one looks longer than the other more in people in Western culture nnp Illusions of Motion sometimes we perceive an object as moving when it is actually still 0 Phi Phenomenon sense of something moving around the dots 0 Beta Movement motions assuming movement but dots just turning on an off 0 Autokinetic effect a single small light in a darkened room will appear to drift no cues to indicate it is not moving 0 Stroboscopic motion rapid series of still images appear to move Factors In uencing Perception Bottomup processing analyze smaller features first then build to a complete perception unfamiliar situations Topdown processing use preexisting knowledge to organize individual features into a unified whole Perceptual set expectancy tendency to perceive objectssituations in a particular way bc prior experiences Consciousness subjective awareness of everything going on inside and outside of you Waking state thoughts feelings sensations are clear and organized alert Altered state shift in quality or pattern of mental activity thoughts fuzzydisorganized 0 EX daydreaming being hypnotized achieving a meditative state under the in uence of drugs Altered States Mediation procedure involving a shift in consciousness to a highly focused aware state in control of mental processes scientific study is new Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction MBSR therapeutic programs that teach and promote mindfulness to improve well being and reduce negative experiences D ja vu distinct feeling of having seenexperienced a situation that s impossible or unlikely to have previously occurred Disorders of Consciousness m complete loss of consciousness Persistent Vegetative State PVS minimal to no consciousness may develop sleep cycles Minimally Conscious State MCS 2 ability to show some behavior suggesting consciousness even if inconsistently E state of consciousness occurring in cycles of several stages 13 of lives spent sleeping 0 Sleep cycles usually defined by the electroencephalogram EEG 0 Electroencephalogram EEG device that measures brain waves Biological and Circadian Rhythms Biological Rhythms patterns that are governed by biological processes called clocks and cycle over days weeks yrs etc Circadian Rhythms sleep wake cycle internally driven biological rhythms that cycle about every 24 hrs affecting physiological and behavioral processes controlled by hypothalamusXlt 0 Suprachiasmatic Nucleus SCN internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep in the hypothalamus also controls body temperature lower temp sleepier 0 special cells in the retina relay messages about light in the environment to the SCN I SCN communicates these signals to the pineal gland to releases melatonin which peaks in levels at nighttime and is reduced during wakefulness melatonin sometimes used to treat jet lag 0 If we don t get light cues our daily rhythms remain but gradually begin to shift 0 2 time keeping sources endogenous biological clocks with 25 hrs cycle and light acts as a zeitgeber or time giver that resets the clocks daily The Stages of Sleep 1 Stages of Sleep and notable features of earth Awake ei illIves H Awake and calm NunREM 1 or NFEEM i or H i waves I HumREM E or NREM 2 or H2 New mum DownStates occur u ng 39 gt this age p HEM ale3 H l 39W sarege hf lf BEBEiIEifiahh kJ gwal39f i 39 Eat a Viral PreSleep 0 Beta waves smallerfaster person is wide awake and mentally active 0 Alpha waves largerslower person is relaxed or lightly sleeping 0 Theta Waves even largerslower replaces alpha waves NonREM Sleep spans from lighter stages to a much deeper more restful kind of sleep 0 N1 RampK Stage 1 1 light sleep theta waves breathing blood pressure and heart rate all decrease O Hypnogogic hallucinations hypnic jerk falling sensation 0 If awakened prob won t believe they were sleeping 0 N2 RampK Stage 2 sleep spindles brief bursts of activity lasting only a second or two K complexes Theta waves still predominate brain waves continue to slow temperaturebreathingheart rate decrease 0 N3 RampK Stage 3 and 4 deepest stage of sleep delta waves growth hormones released difficult to wake a person at this stage 0 night terrors and sleepwalking only occur during N3 REM Lightest stage of sleep Quickening brain waves inhibited body movement rapid eye movement REM also called paradoxical sleep 90 of dreaming and hypnopompic hallucinations Psychologically active type of sleep 0 REM rebound experiencing greatly increased amounts of REM sleep the next night after being deprived of sleep or using sleeping pillsdepressant drugs I 50 of infant s sleep is typically spent in REM Why do we sleep All vertebrates sleep even those that would seem to be better off without it only warm blooded animals exhibit REM birdsmammals sleep appears to be essential for survival Adaptive theory animals evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active Restoration theorv sleep replenishes chemicals and repairs the body necessary for physical health Sleep and Learning research demonstrates that sleep helps us learn 0 REM sleep helps consolidate nondeclarative memory skills 0 Slow wave sleep helps consolidate declarative memory facts Necessity of Sleep 0 Sleep deprivation sleep loss that impairs concentration and results in irritability 0 Symptoms trembling hands in attention staring off into space droopy eyelids discomfort 0 Sleep also important for forming memories Microsleeps sleep lasting only a few seconds Sleep Deprivation One night edginess irritability poor concentration next day Multiple nights often depression difficulties in learning and attending slowed reaction times More than 4 days of severe deprivation can hear voices or see things Sleep deprivation results in cognitive distortions concentration perceptual distortions hallucinations A central function of sleep appears to be allowing the brain to rest In the lab sleep deprived subjects sleep longer when allowed Do not make up all of the sleep lost make up more REM stages than all others Sleep deprivation in lab animals results in death cause unknown Fatal familial insomnia gFFI 2 rare genetically inherited neurological disorder 0 Symptoms profound insomnia slow wave sleep disappears deficits in attentionmemory dreamlike confused state loss of autonomic and endocrine control increase body temp O Eventually results in death cause unknown Sleep Disorders Insomnia inability to get to sleep stay asleep or get a good quality of sleep Onset maintenance terminal primary and secondary insomnia Steps to help people sleep Go to bed only when you re sleepy if you lie in bed for 20 mins do a light activity don t do anything in your bed but sleep don t try too hard to get to sleep don t look at clock or calculate how much sleep you aren t getting keep to a regular schedule don t take sleeping pills drink alcohol or other types of drugs to slow down the nervous system do not allow you to get any REM or lighter stages of sleep Nightmares and REM Behavior Disorder Nightmares only during REM bad dreams arousing feelings of horror helplessness extreme sorrow etc REM Behavior Disorder rare disorder in which the brain mechanisms that normally inhibit the voluntary muscles fail allowing the person to thrash around and even get up and act out nightmares Night Terrors attacks of extreme fear that the Victim has while sound asleep Only occur during N3 may sit up scream run around the room or ail feel unable to breath Difference from nightmares nightmares are usually vividly remembered immediately upon waking and will actually be able to wake and immediately talk about the bad dream Sleepwalking amp Related Disorders Restless legs syndrome a persistent feeling of discomfort in the legs and the urge to continuously shift them into different positions Somnambulism Sleepwalking 2 disorder that involves wandering and performing other activities while asleep occurs in 20 of the population and partially due to heredity Disorders and Problems with Sleep Sleep Apnea disorder characterized by the temporary inability to breathe during sleep 5 25 of adults in the US suffer from apnea snore in very loud manner Narcolepsy disorder in which a person eXperiences extreme daytime sleepiness and even sleep attacks sleep seizure may slip suddenly into REM sleep during the day 0 Cataplexy sudden loss of muscle tone Sleep State Misperception S SM condition in which person underestimates her amount of sleep on a regular basis Positive Sleep Misverception when a person regularly overestimates their sleep Dreams Theories of Dreaming most dreams are centered around everyday life and tend to dream in color Psvchoanalvtic Approach Freud The Interpretation of Dreams 1900 unconscious eXpression of wish fulfillment no scientific evidence 0 Manifest Content actual content of a dream 0 Latent Content true meaning of a dream was hidden and only eXpressed in symbols Activation Synthesis HVDothesis Hobson amp McCarlev Suggest that dreams arise from random bursts of excitatory brain activity from the stem found through brain imaging techniques like PET scan Activation Information Mode AIM HypothesisModel info accessed when awake in uencing the synthesis of dreams when brain is making up a dream to eXplain its own activation it uses meaningful bitspieces of the person s eXperiences from the previouslast few days rather than just random items The Effects of vano Hypnosis state of consciousness in which a person is especially susceptible to suggestion produce amnesia reduce pain alter sensory impressions help people relaX serve as a useful adjunct to therapies direct at the above Cannot give increased strength reliably enhance memory regress people to an earlier agelife 4 Steps in Hypnotic Induction Person told to focus on what s being said I relaX and feel tired I accept suggestions I use vivid imagination Theories of Hypnosis 0 Dissociative Theory The Hidden Observer worked on immediate consciousness while a part of that person s mind hidden observer is aware of everything going on 0 Social Cognitive Theorv hypnotized people not in altered state but are playing situational role eXpected of them 0 Basic suggestion effect Hey I can t help it I was hypnotized The Influence of Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs drugs that alter behavior thinking perception andor memory History of Modern Pharmacology Isolation of morphine 1804 principle alkaloid of opium 0 Alkaloids alkaline constituents of plant extracts typically amines thus ines 0 Merck 1927 0 Led to isolation of other alkaloids strychnine 1817 caffeine 1820 nicotine 1828 0 Hypodermic Needles 1857 0 American Civil War 1861 1865 Patent Medicines in 1859 35M US Sales I 1904 74M US Sales US Legal Trends Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 Accurate labeling established FDA no substances were made illegal Harrison Narcotics Act 1914 International Opium Conference of 1911 Pharmacists and physicians must register 1 record narcotics inventories 18th Amendment 1920 prohibition gt05 alcohol 110th of typical beer was illegal repealed 1933 Mariiuana TaX Act 1937 taxed imports and sales prompted by state legislation immigration fears 0 Leary v The United States 1969 violated 5th amendment and struck down Controlled Substances Act 1970 replaced all previous legislation established 5 schedules of controlled substances Schedules I IV established DEA in effect to this day Observations on drug use and the law Drug laws often inconsistent with medicalscientific evidence Alcohol and nicotine remain legal yet marijuana remains illegal Often research on certain compounds is needlessly restricted Drug laws often kneej erk reactions to inc in use andor perceived dangers Often in uenced by prejudice paranoia resulting in unbalanced enforcement challenges to drug laws must counter these unrealistic perceptions Drug laws do not prevent drug use Most controlled substances can be acquired if desired restrictionincreased enforcement leads to alternate sources preventative education may be more effective less costly Addiction 0 What is addiction Not a simple question early views focused on physical dependence but many substances don t induce classical withdrawal and there are clear psychological components to addiction Addiction is a chronologically relapsing disorder characterized by Compulsion to seek and take a drug loss of control in limiting intake emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented Physical dependence body adapts to chronic drug use 0 Withdrawal symptoms when deprived of drug 0 Drug Tolerance larger and larger doses of drug are needed to achieve same initial effects 0 Negative reinforcement tendency to continue a behavior that leads to the removal of or escape from unpleasant circumstances or sensations very powerful motivating factor Contingency management therapy operant conditioning strategy patients earn vouchers for negative drug tests Cognitive behavior interventions work to change the way people think about the stresses in their lives and react to those stressors working toward more effective coping without resorting to drugs Psychological dependence compulsion to seek or take the drug belief that drug is needed to continue a feeling of emotional or psychological well being 0 Positive reinforcement tendency of a behavior to strengthen when followed by pleasurable consequences DSM IV TR 0 Substance use 0 Substance abuse 0 Adds maladaptive elements 0 Substance dependence ie addiction 0 Adds physiological elements tolerance and withdrawal DSM V Combines the above into Substance Use Disorder SUD Degrees of severity 0 Drug use 1 Drug abuse 1 Addition no such thing as a bad drug Models of Addiction 0 Gateway Model observed inunique to adolescents start out by using legal substances ie alcohol tobacco but later use progresses to marijuana A small percentage then move to other illicit substances 0 Homeostasis Stable physiological equilibrium with normal set point 0 Allostasis unstable compensated equilibrium with pathological set point 0 Allostatic model of drug abuse cyclic pattern of use with 3 main components I l Anticipation I preoccupation 2 intoxication I bingeing 3 withdrawal I negative affect I May or not progress I increased use larger amounts enhanced tolerancewithdrawal recruitment of anti reward brain mechanisms drug becomes negative reinforcers Types of Drugs Depressants drugs that dec the functioning of the immune system tranquilizers alcohol narcotics morphine heroin 0 Narcotics suppress sensation of painh 0 Sedatives o Rohypnol tranquilizer date rape drug 0 Barbiturates major tranquilizers with sedative effect can shut down brain stem regions reduce REM Sleep 0 Benzodiazepines relatively mind depressant effect lower anxiety and reduce stress increases effects of GABA eX Xanax Valium Halcion Atvian Librium 0 Alcohol most commonly used drug worldwide Acceptable but regulated in most cultures 0 more prevalent in West in uence of cultural norms men gt women 0 Targets GABA receptors also opioid and dopamine receptors inhibits frontal lobe O Negative consequences assault pregnancy drinking and driving 0 College Drinking college students drink more than non college peers believe that their peers drink more than they actually do Stimulants drugs that speed up sympathetic nervous system enhancing wakefulnessalertness cocaine methylphenidate Ritalin amphetamines bath salts syn Cathinone ecstasy MDMA Molly MDA nicotine caffeine 0 Amphetamines stimulants synthesized in labs Methedrine Benzedrine etc 0 Cocaine natural drug in coca plant leaves produces feelings of euphoria energy power and pleasure and deadens painsuppresses the appetite mood swings crash paranoia inability to feel pleasure extreme fatigue 0 Nicotine relatively mild but toxic stimulant producing slight rush or sense of arousal as it raises blood pressure and accelerates the heart addictive power stronger than heroin or alcohol 0 Stimulants like methylphenidate Ritalin affect same areas of brain as cocaine albeit w diff speedintensity Hallucinogens substances that produce dissociation andor perceptual distortion 0 LSD Psilocybin Ketamine Special K Vitamin K DMT Cannabinoids Marijuana THC binds to cannabinoid CB receptors CB System believed to be involved in neurodevelopment provides negative signal for neuron migration 0 Reduction of physical pain probable anti in ammatory effects similar to acetaminophen OpiatesOpioids poppy plants morphine heroin fentanyl hydro oxycodone Treatment challenging Prescription Drug Abuse Second to marijuana most commonly abused drug Learning relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience Classical Conditioning antecedent stimuli important behavior is involuntary Ivan Pavlov 1849 1936 Russian physiologist Discovered classical conditioning re exes stimuli amp responses Jr 91m L4 is it i cm E le I r1 L 1 EC r1 395 aFa 139 iv Emjirminjm 1 4 illquot 395 a lam 39 239 quot GENE mg m U nal 3 his Training E E 95 E T m alumninews R muE y Learning Twila Laarnirug Trials 7h TIrnzr r Elements of Classical Conditioning Neutral stimulus NS benign stimulus which elicits no response the bell prior to conditioning I becomes CS Unconditioned stimulus US the stimulus that naturally elicits the UR the food Unconditioned response UR natural automatic or re exive responsive to the US salivation in response to food Conditioned stimulus CS the NS once it elicits the CR after conditioning the bell after conditioning 0 CS must come before the US and the two must come very close together in time Conditioned response CR the UR when it is elicited by the CS after conditioning salivation in response to the bell Other Elements of Classical Conditioning Generalization tendency of stimuli that are similar to the CS to elicit the CR Discrimination tendency of stimuli that are similar to the CS to decreasingly elicit the CR as they become less similar 0 and are never paired with US Extinction tendency of the CS to gradually stop eliciting the CR following repeated presentation of the CS wo the US Spontaneous recovery full re establishment of the CR following a single CS US pairing after it has been extinguished HighOrder Conditioning 0 Occurs when a strong CS is paired with a new NS NS causing NS to become a second CS CS 0 After conditioning conditioned stimulus I conditioned stimulus conditioned response Conditioned Emotional Responses 0 Conditioned emotional response emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli little albert phobia anxiety depression Vicarious conditioning conditioning as a result of watching someone else response to a stimuli Other conditioned responses Conditioned taste avoidance development of an avoidance response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by aversive effects often occurring after only one association Biological preparedness idea that animals have a tendency to learn certain associations with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning Equipotentiality hypothesis idea that all natural phenomena have equal potential to serve as a CS proposed by Pavlov Cognitive perspective organism consciously eXpects something to occur 0 CS must predict the US for conditioning to take place Operant Conditioning consequences important REINFUEVEEMEMTV PUNISHMENT Fugitive IAQUing Stirrelirir39ngg 39IIEIIVJEHJ m Samueli39ingg Iripieasalquotlt dgiirabic quot39UIi UEr39 Fi T1Irii r ii rf39l nl ngmm Punishment E dlil UlL39 gullii lg J guiu blur Ejrulrliulu gelling J spanking for good tighavigr in schogl gr diso ngying Negative TRGIWac vi gf wnlding 50W etching wrap emsHt Something valued or scarablg Negative Ranrifer emegm Ma agm punmmmm E dlrlp is Gl39h39UlUil39ly 21 LiLkL39I Eacllrljuiit iLI393i IU 1 rmlygig by stopping at a reg ligi39t sugh as going out with friends Operant conditioning Voluntary behavior learned through consequences Thorndike s Law of Effect responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated BF Skinner 1904 1990 studied observable measurable behavior 0 Operant voluntary behavior learning depends on consequences Reinforcement any consequence that makes a response more likely Positive addition of a pleasurable stimulus eX Getting a gold star for good behavior in school Negative removalavoidance of aversion unpleasant stimulus eX avoiding a ticket by stopping at a red light Primary reinforcers reinforcer meeting a basic biological need or drive Secondary reinforcers reinforcing Via pairing with a primary reinforcer Punishment any consequence that makes a response less likely opposite of reinforcement Positive application unpleasant addition to situation eX Getting a spanking for disobeying Negative removal removal of something pleasurable after behavior occurs eX Losing a privilege Problems fear and anxiety lying avoidance modeling of aggression More Effective immediate consistent paired with reinforcement for correct behaviors Schedules of Reinforcement 0 Partial Reinforcement Effect response that s reinforced after son but not all correct responses will be more resistant to extinction than a response receiving continuous reinforcement reinforcer for each every response Fixed Ratio FR same number of desired responses required Rapid response rate with short pauses Variable Ratio VR number of responses required varies for each event Rapid rate without pauses slot machine Fixed Interval FI always same time before reinforcement opportunity Long pauses after reinforcement dentist Variable Interval VI reinforcement possibilities after varying amount of time slower steady rate wo pauses fishing Stimulus Control Discriminative Stimulus cue to specific response for reinforcement ex ashing light on a police car door stating open Other Concepts in Operant Conditioning 0 Shaping small steps toward some ultimate goal are reinforced until goal is reached 0 effective reinforcement heavy early reinforcement reinforce less and less incorporate harder steps 0 Extinction classical conditioning removal of the UC ex Ignoring a child s temper tantrum 0 Generalization and Discrimination 0 Spontaneous Recovery recurrence of a conditioned response after extinction 0 Biological constraints idea that animals can only be trained to perform behaviors related to evolutionary history 0 Instinctive drift animal s conditioned behavior reverts to genetic patterns Behavior Modification use of operant conditioning techniques to bring about the desired changes in behavior Behavior Modification Techniques 0 Token economy type of behavior modification in which desired behavior is rewarded with tokens 0 Applied behavior analysis modern term for a form of functional analysis and behavior modification that uses a variety of behavioral techniques to mold a desired behavior or response 0 Biofeedback controlling involuntary responses ie blood pressure via biological feedback 0 Neurofeedback modifying behavior via brain scanning and feedback about brain activity Cognitive Learning Theory 0 Early days of learning focus on behavior I 1950 s 60 s inc focus on mental events cognition 0 Edward Tolman early cognitive scientist experiment with 3 groups of rats in same maze I Latent Learning learning could happen wo reinforcement and then later affect behavior but only if there was a need to demonstrate the behavior MP1 Imrnher nl errr i quotn I 1 J 39 39 J J t Gretna s d i E quotz G rnup 1 t5 reua 2 I 2 i P39s Ei 1D 12 11 1E5 Days Gregg 1 receilrea feed reward fer eemgietihg the maze thraugh DUE the study Granap never reeeilreafa aa rewara39 aria thus iJEL E f feiiy iearhea the mate Graap 2 began ta reeeisrefaaa rewarel eh thati ID anew Hefare that time Graap Efs carve resemhieai Gretta 3 s hath receiving he reward but very aaieitiy eharigea rte res erhbie Grasp 139s artee thei began ta rereiiie a reward abhearirig ta learn the mate math faster than Gregg I did This suggests that the rats brains were iearhihg the mate the whbie time hat that the iearhihg a39ia39 hat manifest I untii the ahirrrais were motivated ta use it Herree riaterit iearrtirtgquot Insight Learning aha phenomenon Kohler found evidence of insight sudden perception of the relationships among elements of a problem in chimpanzees Learned Helplessness tendency to fail to act to escape from a situation bc of a history of repeated failures to do so 0 Even when escape becomes readily available Seligman found parallels with depression 0 may be due to ventromedial prefrontal corteX vaFC located in high level region of brain Observational Learning learning new behavior by watching a model behave 0 Bandura s Bobo Doll Experiment 2 conditions Aggressive and Non Aggressive Model 0 Viewers of aggression played more aggressively model s behavior was imitate even absence of reward 0 AMID 4 elements of Observational Learning sequence matters 0 Attention learner must be paying attention to the model 0 Memory must be able to retain the memory of the action 0 Imitation must be capable of reproducing the action 0 Desire must have the desire to perform the action Memory active system that senses organizes alters stores and retrieves information theme the elf memary and the 39praeesses that l t ILWE ihfermettan between them hisa which type at precess is ef etted bathings like the eeckteil petty effeet Elle hereti39re rehee rshl39i39 Renegade at emteregrhde amnesia Etta trier whenearte rehearsal Pr 7 V ah it i i t Waring V fa l ii39lt 39tli ii threadmg j Fir 1 Var iis E h inquot Ei uri L i ll ti n Letml s a i 39 39 quot E 7quot quot139 I 1 H r V F terri39 titrm t39n i ir helettme n n i a I r r II ILHILT Illibiti l39 i all mtmll a E L FW39IIIr39n39u a H l r I I39 39I39 i ll Irll rsrlettnn ilJnreFiijis1r1eij lrtl39njilmgiinj it First 1 InsL1 I eri stint In 11 m Il fg e I1 il Hlii39i ithhli Eg hillhsmqltl ti39tti iij at W lent rm himu l strum irr39l l rltrrrithtnsl l tll39li39i39l39i39 Ms It39s lEI lietuth the rituals 39te H Hiilflu39iiquot Theoretical Models of Memory Parallel distributed processing PDP Model memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections related to connectionism use of artificial neural networks to explain mental ability Levelsofprocessing assumes info that s more deeply processed or processed according to its meaning rather than just the soundphysical characteristics of the words will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time 0 shallow What does it look like I sound like I mean deep InformationProcessing Model assume the processing of info for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of 3 stage ie serial processing Types of Memory sensory short term memory long term memory 0 newly learned info is lost within one hour Sensory 1st stage Main process pattern recognition 0 2 kinds Iconic visual 1 12 seconds Echoic auditory 4 seconds Capacity large but not unlimited Duration of sensory codes very brief 0 Selective Attention ability to focus only one stimulus from along all sensory input 0 Eidetic imagery access a visual sensory memory over a long period of time rare Shortterm Memory STM memory system in which info is held for brief periods of time while being used Main process encoding primarily in auditory form but visual too Capacity limited capacity apr 7 bits of info Duration of sensory codes 12 30 seconds wo rehearsal O Chunking combining into meaningful units more info can be held in STM 0 Maintenance rehearsal repeating info over and over in your head using WM to maintain STM O Visuopatial Sketchpad visual WM Phonological Loop Auditory WM 0 Working Memory WM an active system that processes the info in STM O BaddelyHitch Model of WM Central Executive Svstem controls other 2 systems E Visuospatial Sketchpad visual semantics Phonological Loop language D Episodic buffer ST episodic memory LongTerm Memory LTM all info is placed to be kept more or less permanently 0 Capacity seemingly unlimited Duration of sensory codes relatively permanent 0 Elaborative Rehearsal method of transferring info from STM into LTM by making info meaningful in some way I most effective method of transferring info TVDes of LTM 0 Nondeclarative memory implicit procedural Motor skills habits classically conditioned re exes 0 Declarative memory explicit 0 Semantic memory facts general knowledge vs Episodic Memory events experienced by a person Processes of Memory Encoding ConsolidationStorage Retrieval Memory processes move info between memory m Encoding converting environmental and mental info into ST WM Consolidation transfer of STM to LTM Retrieval pulling info from LTM Retrieval of LongTerm Memories Retrieval cue a stimulus for remembering the more cues stored w piece of info the easier the retrieval Statedependent learning memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state Retrieval processes 0 Recall memory retrieval with littleno retrieval cues ie filling in blanks on application form essay questions 0 Serial position effect subject to a kind of prejudice of memory retrieval in which info at the beginning and end of list such as poem or song tends to be remembered easier 0 Primary Effect words at very beginning of list tend to be remembered better 0 Recency Effect last word or two was just heard and is still in STM for easy retrieval 0 Recognition memory retrieval that match present sensory cues ex multiple choice or TF q s amp name retrieval 0 False positive occurs when one thinks they recognizes someonesomething but in fact does not ex Father Bernard Pagano falsely identified for a series of robberies that were eventually confessed by another man 0 Eyewitness Testimony Loftus s protestor study what people see and hear after the fact can change their memories eyewitness testimony not always reliable O Autonomic encoding Long term memories that seem to enter permanent storage with littleno effort I Flashbulb Memories automatic encoding due to unexpected highly emotional event Constructive Memorv Procew Constructive processing retrievalcontent of memory altered by newer info 0 Hindsight bias false belief that you knew the outcome of an event 0 Knowledge of the event s true outcome is incorporated into your memories of the event itself Memorv Retrieval Problems 0 Misinformation effect misleading info presented after event can affect memory accuracy for event 0 Loftus tra ic accident study 0 Falsememory syndrome creation of inaccurate or false memories via others suggestions 0 Often while person is under hypnosis Loftus has demonstrated that hypnosis isn t necessary only visual cues Forgetting Failure to properly store info for future use Distributed practice spacing out one s study sessions will produce far better retrieval of info Encoding Failure failure to process info into memory different from forgetting Memory Trace Decay Theory 0 Memory Trace physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed 0 Decay loss of memory due to the passage of time during which the memory trace isn t used disuse Interference Theory 0 Proactive Interference info learned earlier interferes with info learned later 0 Retroactive interference info learned later interferes with info learned earlier Neuroscience of Memory LongTerm Potentiation LTP stable strengthening of synaptic connections due to increased activity connections due to increased activity believed to underlie all memory and learning Brain areas Associated with Types of Memory 0 Short term memories frontal temporal and parietal lobes 0 Nondeclarative memories basal ganglia amp cerebellum and possibly brain stem central gray 0 Semantic and episodic memories association cortices ie areas that aren t involved in sensorimotor 0 The Hippocampus plays vital role in formation of new declarative memories store new LTM Amnesia Organic Amnesia 0 Retrograde loss of memory from the point of some injury of trauma backwards or loss of memory for the past 0 Anterograde when memory for anything new becomes impossible although old memories may still be retrieval 0 Primary memory problem for Alzheimer s disease patients acetylcholine no longer readily produced Infantile Amnesia inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3 0 May be due to l implicit nature of infant memory ie relatively few eXperiences with which to label or categories memories making them less salient 2 mechanisms for LTP are focused on development and not available for memory formation Autobiographical memory memory for events and facts related to one s personal life story as children are able to talk about shared memories with adults this develops Thinking Cognition mental activity for organizing understanding and communicating 0 Mental images picture like representations of objects and events 0 creating mental image is almost the opposite of how we see an actual image Concepts Categories idea that represents category of objects events or activities Superordinate concept General ie Fruit Basic Level Type More Specific ie Apple Subordinate Concept Most Specific ie McIntosh Apple 0 Formal Concepts defined by specific rulesfeatures 0 Natural concepts form as a result of real world eXperience fuzziness 0 Prototype example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept Problem Solving cognition used to reach a goal by thinkingbehaving in certain ways 5 UNREILIIABLE AN D RELIABLE RELIABLE AND INVALID BUT INVALID VALID 0 Trial and Error mechanical solution attempting one solution after another is tried until successful eX PIN 0 Algorithms specific steps for solving certain problems guarantees a solution 0 eX Organizing books in the library Rubik s Cube Heuristics guesses based on eXperience rule of thum 0 Availability estimating the likelihood of an event based on how easily you can recall examples of it or relevant information 0 Representative assuming that a personthing sharing characteristics with members of a category is also a member of that category O Means end analvsis evaluating the difference between a goal and the present situation and then taking steps to reduce that difference 0 Working Backward does work much of the time work backward from the goal Subgoals break a goal down into subgoals each subgoal is achieved until you reach final solution Insight the sudden perception of a solution to a problem Aha Moment usually based on reorganizing info Problem Solving Barriers 0 Confirmation Bias search for evidence that fits beliefs while ignoring evidence not fitting beliefs 0 Mental Set persists in using past problem solving patterns 0Functional fixedness thinking about only most typical functions of objects Creativity solving problems by combining ideas or behaviors in new ways 0Divergent Thinking from one point to many ideas or possibilities 0 Convergent Thinking all lines of problem solving lead to single answer 0 Creative People use divergent thinking usually good at mental imagery have knowledge on wide range of topics unafraid to be different value their independence often unconventional in their work but not in other areas Intelligence ability to learn from eXperience acquire knowledge and adapt Charles Spearman saw intelligence as two abilities 0 g Factor general intelligence ability to reason and solve problems 0 traditional IQ test most likely measure g factor but Spearman believed superiority in one type of intelligence predicts superiority overall 0 S Factor specific intelligence task specific abilities like music business and art Gardner s Multiple Intelligences originally 7 different intelligences tentatively now 9 different types Verbal linguistic writersspeakers musical logical mathematical visual spatial pilots astronauts artists movement controlling body movements dancersathletes interpersonal sensitivity to others psychologists managers intrapersonal understanding one s emotions people oriented naturalist farmers landscapers biologists eXistentialist philosophical careers Sternberg s Triarchic Theory 0 Analytical break problems down into components 0 Practical use info for success in life practical intelligence street smarts 0 Creativity deal with novel problems in new ways Heritability proportion of change in UQ within population caused by hereditary factors is about 50 Measuring Intelligence IO Tests 0 Stanford Binet Test administration to groups of children measures various intellectual skills mental agechrono Age IQ MNCA X 100 O IQ Score comparison across age groups meaningless at age 16 Today age group comparison norms 0 The Wechsler Tests yield 4 indeX scores derived from both verbal and nonverbal subtests and an overall score of intelligence Different versions for various age groups Test Construction Good vs Bad Test 0 Validity degree to which test measures what it s supposed to measure 0 Reliability tendency of test to yield same results given same conditions 0 Standardization process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents that kind of people from whom the test is designed IQ Tests and Cultural Bias 0 IQ tests often criticized for being culturally biased questionsanswers may relate to test creators own experiences no to those of people of other cultures backgrounds and socioeconomic levels designers striving to create culturally fair tests Intellectual Disability Diagnosis of Intellectual Disability 0 DSM 5 diagnosis of intellectual disability formally mental retardation 0 deficits in intellectual functioning IQ lt 70 Must be present before age 18 0 clinical assessment of adaptive functioning across 3 domains 39Conceptual memory reasoning language 39Social empathy social judgment communication 39Practical personal care job skills money mgmt Causes of Intellectual Disability 0Deprived Environments and biological disorders familial retardation 0 Down Syndrome extra chromosome in what would normally be 21St pair 0 Fetal alcohol syndrome 0 Fragile X syndrome usually males defect in a gene on X chromosome of the 23rd pair leading to deficiency in a protein needed for brain development Giftedness Gifted uppermost 2 of the population IQ of 130 Terman s Termites longitudinal study of 1528 children of UQ s from 130 to 200 0 Socially well adjusted skilled leaders amp successful adults but methodological aws 0mental health issues amp relationship problems only occurred with IQ s of 180 Emotional Intelligence awareness and understanding of one s own and others emotions Viewed as a powerful in uence on success is life Language system for combining symbols to communicate and to represent mental activity 0Language Acquisition device biological element of brain that allows us to learn language Elements and Structure of Language 0 Phonemes basic units of sound up to age of 9 months ability to understand all phonemes 0 Morphemes smallest units of meaning within a language 0 Pragmatics practical and social parts of communication 0 Semantics words for determining meaning 0 Syntax rules for combining words and phrases 0 Grammar rules for language use and structure Relationship Between Language and Thought 0 Vygotsky language helps develop concepts vs Piaget concepts must be developed first if language is to follow 0 Cognitive universalism concepts ie color are universal and affect language development 0 contradicts 0 Linguistic relativitv thothesis processes and concepts controlled by language 0 how many Inuit words for snow Bats vs amingo Animal Studies in Language 0 Communication vs Language instinctual behavior vs symbolic thoughtuse of syntaX 0 There s some evidence that animals can develop basic language 39Kanzi the chimp recognizes 150 words some ability to follow complex instructions Human Development study of changes in people from conception until death 0 in psych brain cognition amp psychosocial changes Research Designs Longitudinal Study group of people followed and assessed at different times as the group ages 0 Gold standard within persons design increases statistical power and validity of results but eXpensive time consuming and danger of attrition CrossSectional Study several different age groups studied at one time 0 Less eXpensive and faster but between persons variability reduces statistical power and danger of cohort effects 0 Cohort Effect particular impact on development that occurs when a group of people share a common time period or eXperience CrossSequential Study combination of longitudinal and cross sectional studies The Building Blocks of Development Mendelian Genetics science of heredity 0 Genes hereditary units that carry traits each pea plant has 2 of each one from each parent 0 Dominant always eXpressed when present capital letters 0 Recessive only eXpressed when 2 are present lowercase letters 0 Allele combination of genes for a given trait YY gg Yg O Homozygous both are the same YY gg vs Heterozygous different Yg 0 Genotype specific combination of genes that an individual has for a given trait YY gg or Yg 0 Phenotype Visible eXpression of those genes yellowgreen Chromosomes amp DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Genes are carried on chromosomes 23 pairs 1 of each from each parent except X and Y 0 Chromosomes are composed of DNA molecules 0 genetic code stored Via sequences of 4 nucleic acids groups of 3 nucleic acids aka codons code for specific amino acids in a precise order chains of amino acids form proteins which are the essential building blocks of the human body Chromosome disorders Down syndrome trisomy 21 Klinefelter s syndrome extra sex chromosome in 23rd pair XXY enlarged breasts obesity excessive height Turner s syndrome missing X so these females have one lone X chromosome infertile short Recessive mutation Genetic Disorders PKU Cystic fibrosis Sickle cell anemia Tay Sachs disease Genetics amp Behavior Most phenotypes do not arise from a single or even a few genes often spread across several chromosomes detection is very challenging behavioral phenotypes are even more challenging bc of environmental in uences Charles Darwin s facial expressions hypothesis Nature vs Nurture most developmental psychologist agree psychological development is the product of a healthy interaction between nature genetics and nurture environment Prenz ll Development Fertilization the Zygote amp Twinning Ovum egg Fertilization uniting of egg amp sperm Zygote cell resulting form egg cell union divides into many cells eventually forming baby Identical twins monozygotic two babies come from one fertilized egg Fraternal Twins dizygotic two eggs are fertilized Dicephalic twins conjoined twins Periods of Pregnancy Germinal stage first 2 weeks after fertilization zygote moves down to uterus and begins to implant in the lining O Placenta specialized organ provides nourishment and filters waste products amp umbilical cord start forming Embryonic stage 2 8 weeks after fertilization organism s major organsstructures develop but not fully 0 Critical Periods times during which some environmental in uences can have an impact on development 0 Teratogens drug chemical virus or other factor that can cause birth defect can develop Fetal stage 8 weeks after conception until birth of baby length of baby increases 20x s O Miscarriages most likely to occur in first 3 months 0 Age of Viability between 22 26 weeks Brain Development Prenatal 5 20 weeks neurogenesis 50 100k neuronssec migration Birth 300 350g little myelination only basicVital re exes Age 4 1200 1500 g 80 of adult g corticospinal tracts formed myelinationmigration continue Adolescence myelination of frontal lobes complete synaptic pruning begins Adulthood prefrontal cortex fully online age 20 25 limited neurogenesis constant synaptic remodeling Via experience Childhood Development Physical Development Re exes 5 re exes for survival stepping grasping moro Startle sucking rooting Nervous system and healthy re exes Physical Development Sensory Development Touch most developed Taste amp Smell well developed Hearing functional but not fully developed Vision least developed rods are functional cones take about 6 months to fully develop Physical Development Motor Milestones 2 4 months raising head amp chest 2 5 months 4 6 months 6 7 months 7 8 months 8 18 months walking Cognitive Development Piaget s 4 Stage Theory rolling over sitting up with support sitting up without support crawling Piaget children are not little adults but instead think quite differently about the world Schemas mental concepts of the world Assimilation fitting new info into existing schema Accommodation altering schema to fit new info 4 Stages sensorimotor preoperational concrete operational formal operations 0 Sensorimotor Birth 2 yrs children explore using senses development of object permanence understanding that an object exists even when it is not in sight signals the move to the next stage 0 Preoperational 2 7 vears egocentrism inability to see world through others I Conservation issues U Conservation understanding that altering the appearance of something does not change its amount volume or mass U Centration tendency to focus on one feature of an object rather than all of its features U Irreversibility inability to mentally reverse actions 0 Concrete Operations 7 12 yrs conservation Decentrationreversibility classification concrete logic aware of object permanence but cannot deal effectively with abstract concepts 0 Formal Operations 12 yrs adulthood abstractions and analogies hypothesis testing Stressed importance of child s interaction with objects as a primary factor in cognitive development Vygotsky s Theory Stressed importance of social interactions w other people typically more highly skilled childrenadults O Scaffolding more highly skilled person gives learner more help in beginning of learning process and begins to withdraw help as learner s skills improve 0 Zone of proximal development difference btwn what child can do alone vs child can do with help Stages of Language Development Cooing 2 mo Babbling 6 mo One word speech 1 yr holophrases whole phrases for l word telegraphic speech 15 yrs whole sentences preschool years until age 6 Language apparently not learned through just imitation amp reinforcement language acquisition device Psychosocial Development Temperament behavioral characteristics established at birth ex Easy difficult slow to warm up In uence of environment and genetic appear stable into adulthood Attachment bond between infant and caregiver extremely important development usually forming within first 6 mo 0 Ainsworth s Strange Situation exposing infant to a series of leave takingsreturns of mother and stranger 0 Attachment Styles 0 Secure infants willing to get down from mother s lap explored room but touched base with mom every nowthen when stranger entered weary but calm when mother left upset when returned easily soothed O Avoidant infants unattached willing to explore but did not touch base did not look at stranger or mother reacted very little to her absencereturn no interest of concern 0 Ambivalent infants insecurely unattached clinging and unwilling to explore very upset by stranger protested when mother left hard to soothe when mom returned demand to be picked up but also pushed mother away 0 Disorganizeddisoriented infants insecurer unattached and often neglectedabused unable to decide how they should react to the mother s return 0 Harlow s monkevs surrogate mothers of newborn baby monkeys mothers were actually blocks of wood 0 study showed that most important element to developing attachment physical contact 0 Cultural Differences Japan vs USA Erikson s Psychosocial Stages of Development 0 Stage 1 Trust vs Mistrust Birth lyr basic needs consistentlyinconsistently met predictabilitylltrust 0 Stage 2 Autonomy vs Shame 1 3 yrs toddlers realize that they can direct their own behavior 0 Direction I autonomy 0 Stage 3 Initiative vs Guilt 3 5 yrs pre schoolers challenged to control behavior 0 responsibility I initiative 0 Stage 4 Industry vs Inferiority 5 12 yrs school aged children have more opportunities to learn 0 New skills I industry 0 Stage 5 Identity vs Role Confusion adolescence choices among many values in life 0 Self confidence I identity 0 Stage 6 Intimacy vs Isolation early adulthood primary task is finding a mate committed relationship without losing self sharing I intimacy 0 Stage 7 Generativity vs Stagnation middle adulthood creativity and production nurturing the next generation focus outward I generativity 0 Stage 8 Ego Integritv vs Despair late adulthood wisdom spirituality tranquility wholeness of self 0 Acceptance I integrity Adolescence age 13 to early 20s Physical amp Cognitive Development Physical Puberty bodily changes and sexual development 0 primary growth of seX organs and secondary changes in body like breastsbody hair seX characteristics Cognitive adolescent egocentrism 0 Personal fable they re unique and protected from harm O Imaginary audience others are as concerned about their thoughtscharacteristics as they are Moral Development Kohlberg s Theory Lawrence Kohlberg developmental psychologist in uenced by Piaget and others criticized as male oriented 0 developed a theory of the development of moral thinking looked at how people of various ages responded to stories about people caught up in moral dilemmas Levels of Morality O Preconventional consequences determine morality rewardgood punishmentbad 0 Conventional conforming to society s norms ruleslaws O Postconventional morality decided upon by individual may con ict with rulesnorms I 15 of adult population Adulthood begins in early 20 s divided into young middle death by heart disease most common amp late Physical Development 0 Menopause decline in reproductive system 0 Andropause changes in the sexual hormones and reproductive systems in males 0 Increase in health problems Cognitive Development reaction times slow down but intelligence and memory remain relatively stable Baumrind s Parenting Styles Authoritarian rigid and uncompromising demands perfection and tendency to use physical punishment Permissive indifferent indulgent ampor unwilling 0 Authoritative consistent and strict yet warm and exible Theories of Physical Psychological Age 0 Cellular clock theory cells are limited in of times they can reproduce to repaid damage 0 Telomeres structures on ends of chromosomes that shorten each time a cell reproduces 0 Wear and tear theory outside in uences such as stress physical exertion and bodily damage collagen wears out 0 Free radical theory biological explanation for damage done to cells over time free radicals are oxygen molecules that have an unstable negative electron they bounce around cell stealing electrons and increasing damage 0 Activity theory elderly adjust more positively to aging when remaining active in some way Stages of Death and Dying 0 Elizabeth Kubler Ross 5 stages of reaction when faced with death 0 l Denial 2 Anger 3 Bargaining 4 Depression 5 Acceptance Motivation start of activity to meet physical or psychological need started directed continued Motivation and the Brain 0 Dopamine Pathways reward motivation pleasureeuphoria motor function fine tuning compulsion perversion 0 Serotonin Pathwav mood memory processing sleep cognition Types of Motivation 0 Intrinsic Motivation act itself is motivating or internally rewarding 0 Some human actions may be motivated by instincts innate patterns of behavior found in both people and animals Good for creativity 0 Extrinsic motivation outcome is separate from person 3 Types of Needs 0 Need for achievement nAch desire to attain realistic and challenging goals 0 Need for affiliation nAff need for social interaction 0 Need for power nPow need to control or in uence others There are Thousands of Instincts for humans Theories DriveReduction Theory Need requirement of material e g food water essential for survival Drive need for leads to psychological tension and physical arousal Drive reduction theory act to reduce satisfy need and reduce tension Homeostasis tendency of the body to maintain a steady state Primary drives involves needs of body vs Acquired drives learned through experience Self theory of emotion links nAch to locus of control View of self beliefs about one s own abilities Locus of control Internal vs External 0 Internal leads to more attempts to achieve even in face of failure 0 External more likely to develop learned helplessness Beliefs about intelligence fixed vs changeable Arousal Theory Individuals have an optimal level of arousal to maintain stimulus motives such as curiosity are unlearned and lead to arousal sometimes level of arousal is reduced or increased 0 Easier tasks can stand high levels of arousal SensationSeeking Sensation seeker someone who needs more arousal than the average person 0 Likely due to variation in the dopaminergic reward system evidence for a link to propensity for drug abuse Incentive Approaches Incentives things that lure people to action Incentive approaches behavior is response to rewards of external stimulus Based on operant learning rewarding properties of the incentive are separate from the incentive itself Maslow s Humanistic Approach seldom ever reach point of self actualization 0 Selfactualization lower needs satisfied full human potential achieved 0 Growth vs deficiency needs 0 Peak experiences times when self actualization is temporary achieved 0 Hierarchy of Needs pyramid style must meet bottom needs to move up 0 O O O O O O Transcendence needs help others achieve self actualization Self actualization needs find self fulfillment and realize one s potential Aesthetic needs appreciate symmetry order beauty Cognitive needs know understand eXplore Esteem needs achieve be competent gain approvalrecognition Belongingness and love needs be with others be accepted belong Safety needs feel secure and safe out of danger Physiological needs Satisfy hunger thirst fatigue etc SelfDetermination Theory 0 Motivation involves 3 basic needs social context of action has effect on type of motivation O O O Autonomy self determination control of own life Competence mastered challenging tasks Relatedness belong and have intimate secure relationships Hunger 0 Insulin hormone secreted by pancreas reduces glucose to control levels of fats proteins carbs 0 Glucagon hormone secreted by pancreas increases glucose to control levels of fats proteins carbs Old View 0 Ventromedial Hypothalamus may be involved in stopping eating when glucose level goes up 0 Lateral Hypothalamus appears to in uence onset of eating when insulin level goes up Modern View 0 Much more compleX clearly a lot of signals at play Bodily Causes Weight set point level of weight body tries to maintain O In uenced by metabolism speed at which body burns energy genetics amp exercise 0 Basal metabolic rate BMR rate that body burns energy when resting Inversely correlated w weight Psychology of Hunger Social cues when meals are to be eaten and how much to eat Cultural customs food preferences comfort foods Anticipation of food can t be fully explained by physiological processes 0 Highly in uenced by perception Emotion subjective feeling part of consciousness Elements Physical body s response I Behavioral outward expression Cognitive subjective feeling Physiological of Emotion Emotion associated with sympathetic nervous system activity Amygdala fear and facial expressions Hemispheres of the brain Positive emotions left frontal lobe Negative emotions right frontal lobe O Interpreting facial expressions right hemisphere Behavior of Emotion emotions are expressed in various ways Universal Expressions at least 7 facial expressions recognized across many diff cultures ex Anger fear disgust happiness surprise and sadness Display rules vary across cultures and dictate how when emotions can be expressed in social settings 0 Individualistic US vs Collectivistic Japan Cognition of Emotion We interpret subjective feelings by irst given them a label Labeling involves 1 retrieving memories of previous similar experiences 2 perceiving the context of the emotion 3 coming up with a solution ie a label Partly a learned response in uenced by languageculture Theories of Emotion Stimulus Fi i responses SEEBind remarrie Cummnni Sen41 thaE UI W FEAR 2 I m k because Pm rm1quot Lainacross fear Int411 55mm JamesLame 39ljhgnntrgll I FE IHV quotW1 aftam herauge i isalrx1lsr1gquot H355 arousal FLUmucous ieai LquotE uglquot1 rln L39udg CannonBard theory n n a eld eunuqu I m 39quot quot I5El1iqll1liil IiiTUNE dummy H muj l L I from at the same tamequot braiimg clog bulimia to Fail 39 aaraurr I Inn1E Larisa3m fear chachurBEivngEr vngniii i i amnuial 39i39ml39 Gamit r Thus snarling atquot gamma i39 lrlnllleiglldrd j39 I arr hat HokeE ma Irae Mini2 7mm 3in Gus fear ms mg um I ch a nag22 396 body Eisatgrll lym Facial Pitl5 I a r Faria interpretatizm riggi h wipingMinn 111quot Fan Erna 39 quot I39I39Iijlaljliljn Lazaru A I E E quotmimemedia39iaiz nal FPH39EE 7 j mquot lag in Hullr51 rlquotquotiil39l i theory Sex vs Gender Sex Biological Physical 0 Geneticshormonesexternal organs not always dichotomous 0 Some now argue that sex should be defined by genetics only Which would be dichotomous 0 Important biomedical ramifications linked to genetics no consensus on this topic as of now Gender Psychological 0 Subjective experience of the individual 0 In the context of their culture s preferences and expectations likely biological in uences as well 0 Not dichotomous 0 Continuum between male and female Infinite possibilities Biological Sex 0 In humans sex is determined by 23rd pair of chromosomes known as the sex chromosomes 0 Y is the determining chromosome 0 Sry sex determining region of the Y chromosome I Present androgens produced male developed Not Produced no androgens female estrogen instead 0 Intersexed mixture of male and female sexual characteristics born with ambiguous sexual organs Sexual Development 0 Genetics Y chromosome contains Sry Sry codes for testes testes begin hormone synthesis 0 Organizing Effects primary effects mediated by presenceabsence of testicular hormones 0 Activating Effects secondary effects onset of puberty dimorphic activation of primary structures 0 Critical Periods finite and typically small time windows when sex hormones can exert organizing effects during early development Internal Sex Organs Begin as undifferentiated 0 Miillerian system female precursor contains what ll be dfimbriae fallopian tubes uterus amp vagina s inner 23rd 0 Wolffian system male precursor contains what ll be the epididymis vas deferens and seminal vesicles Primary Sex Differences 0 Primary sex characteristics present at birth and directly involved in reproduction 0 Females ovaries uterus vagina Males prostate penis testes scrotum Secondarv Sex Differences 0 Develop during puberty and are only indirectly involved in human reproduction 0 Females growth spurt menstrual cycle breast development mammary glands widening hips pubic hair fat deposits further growth and development of uterus vagina and ovaries I Menarche first cycle occurs at age 12 in more developed countries earlier onset is associated with the availability of better health care and nutrition along with increase in heightweight O m enlarged larynx Adam s apple deepening voice facialchest hair pubic hair coarser skin texture large increase in height 2 years later than female growth spurt I Spermarche occur around 14 yrs production of sperm Sex Hormones and the Brain 0 Organizational primary effects of androgens are no exclusive to sexual organs 0 Also mediate sexual dimorphism in key brain regions Via conversion to estrogens 0 Subject to critical periods and possibly subtle variance 0 No androgens brain development defaults to female Sex Hormones and Behavior 0 Zebra Finches ideal model for studying sexually dimorphic behavior 0 Highly dimorphic behavior birdsong linked to dimorphic brain development prenatal development occurs in eggs easy to manipulate hormones illustrate critical periods amp limited bipotentiality one particular interesting case of a gynandromorphy M Gender Roles and Typing 0 Gender Identity person s sense of being male or female in uenced by both biological amp environmental factors 0 Gender psychological aspect of being male or female 0 Gender typing acquiring gender role characteristics through culture s preferenceexpectations Gender roles culture s expectation for male and female behavior and personality Gender dysphonia feeling of strong desire to be another gender Biology and Learning In uences on Gender Biological In uences chromosomes hormones Environmental In uences parenting esp fathers I sons surroundings culture Theories of Gender Role Development Many modern theorists focus on leamingcognitive processes for the development of gender identity and behavior Gender role development in US our culture is somewhere in middle especially where women are concerned Social learning theory gender identity formed through reinforcement and modeling observationimitation Gender schema theory heavy emphasis on mental patterns child develops a male or female schema then observes or behaves accordingly Unfortunate case of David Brenda Reimer born biologically male but raised female bc of destroyed penis Dr John Money oversaw case and reported reassignment as successful amp as evidence that gender identity is primarily learned I David Reimer committed suicide Gender StereotVDing Gender stereotyping occurs when people assign characteristics to a person based on the person s male or female status rather than actual characteristics Androgyny not limited to stereotypes possessing characteristics of both roles Male and female gender stereotypes Sexism prejudice leading to unequal treatment Benevolent sexism positive stereotypes unequal treatment Gender Differences Females advantage in verbal skills emotional expression relate style Males advantage in math and spatial skills emotional expression report style Human Sexual Behzm Stages of Human Sexual Response Masters and Johnson study with most controversial method of gathering info Stages of the human sexual response cycle 0 l excitement beginning of arousal l min to several hrs pulse rate inc blood pressure rise breathing quickens skin show rosy ush clitoris swells lips of vagina open inside of vagina moistens penis erects testes pull up skin of scrotum tightens nipples harden O 2 plateau physical changes continue few seconds to several mins 0 3 orgasm rhythmic contractions in vaginapenis muscles I seminal uid uidsperm released from penis O 4 resolution final phase body returned to normal state I refractory period time period when male cannot become aroused older age longer period Different Tvpes of Sexual Behavior Kinsey Study Survey of sexual behaviors from 1938 on participants almost exclusively whitemiddle class administered via face to face interviews highly controversial findings about sexual behavior in US higher than anticipated frequency of alternative sexual practices like anal se masturbation reported believes that sexual orientation is on a continuum half of males surveyed reported having bisexual experiences less than 20 of females reported bisexual experience 3x s as many men had intercourse by age 16 than did women Janus report large scale survey of sexual behavior in US in 1990 s looked at more types of sexual behavior and related factors than Kinsey Recent study not everyone means same things by saying have sex or had sex Parental investment theory seeks to explain why men have sex more often than women evolution Development of Sexual Orientation Sexual Orientation sexual attraction preference for members of a particular sex 0 Research demonstrates biological differences between hetero amp homo possible genetic in uences most importantly prevalence is consistence across cultures 0 According to Kinsey research sexual orientation is typically on a continuum with some people falling at either extreme and some falling closer to the middle women 2 6 homosexual men 10 study critiqued bc restricted sample Kin selection hypothesis homosexuality may continue in genetic pool bc homosexuals protect their near kin without competing against their siblings for mates evolutionary purpose of homosexuality Sexual Orientation and the Brain domestic rams male sheep about 8 show preference for other males don t display female typical sexual behaviors evidence for a hypothalamic sexually dimorphic nucleus SDN INAH3 Region among the most famous of such studies but very controversial rife with confounds and generally inconclusive and no evidence that these regions are involved in sexual behavior 0 There s no consistent evidence for neuroanatomical differences that might account for sexual orientation Brain differences in sexual orientation bed nucleus of Stria Terminalis BNST 0 M gt F 0 M F Transsexuals F F M Transsexuals M Homosexual M Heterosexual M I Gender identity of most homosexual males male I linked to gender identity not sexual orientation Lateralization of amygdala response to AND and EST pheromones O Homosexual men heterosexual women Homosexual women heterosexual men Sexual Dysfunction nd Problems Sexual Dysfunction problem with interest arousal or response Paraphilia sexual arousal through unusualsocial unacceptable behaviors Causesin uences organic psychological sociocultural major cause stress DSM S sexual interestarousal disorders disorders related to physical act disorder of timing Prevalence 40 45 of women and 20 30 of men problems increase with age Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually Transmitted Infections affect sex organs and ability to reproduce can cause paindiscomfort or death 0 Viral STI s genital warts or herpes caused by HPV AIDS I No cure 0 Bacterial STI s chlamydia most common gonorrhea syphilis can ultimately affect brain I treatable with antibiotics HIVAIDS Sexually transmitted viral disorder causes deterioration of immune system if untreated eventual deaths Cause viral infection human immunodeficiency virus HIV Methods of transmission sex with infected person sharing needle giving birth breast feeding while infected Stress and Stressors Stress physical emotional cognitive and behavioral responses to threatening or challenging events Stressor causes of stress reaction stress causing event Distress effect of undesirable stressors Eustress effect of positive events ie weddings babies promotion 0 Update of definition eustress optimal amount of stress people need to promote healtl well being I Coincides with arousal theory Environmental Stressors Catastrophes unpredictable large scale events create a tremendous need to adapt and adjust create overwhelming feelings of threat Major Life Changes 0 Social Readjustment Rating Scale SRRS measures the amount of stress in a person s life over a l yr period resulting from major life events I estimates your risk of illnesshaving an accident in near future score of 300 is high I Life Change Units death of spouse 100 divorce 75 marital separation 65 jail term 63 0 College Undergraduate Stress Scale CUSS measures amount of stress in a college student s life over a 1 yr period resulting from major life events Hassles frustrations delays irritations minor disagreements etc Lazarus and Folkman hassle 0 to 3 scale 0 Number and perceived severity of daily hassles are strong predictors of headaches O Elederly people biggest daily hassle lack of money amp grocery shopping Psvchological Stressors Pressure urgent demandsexpectations from outside source Uncontrollability degree of control over situation Frustration desired goalfulfillment of perceived need blocked O Frustration Responses typical first response is to try again I Persistence continuation of efforts to get around frustrations I Aggression actions meant to harmdestroy often arising from frustration I Displaced aggression aggression place on less threateningavailable target I Escape or Withdrawal leaving presence of a stressor literally or psychologically Con ict pulled toward 2 desires goals only one of which can be attained O Approach approach con icts avoidance avoidance con icts approach avoidance con icts 1 goal Physiological Factors Stress and Health Autonomic NS Sympathetic Division Fight or Flight amp Parasympathetic Division Rest and Digest The HPA AXis Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal AXis chain of hormonal messages initiated by the brain that activate the SNS negative feedback look General Adaptation Svndrome O 1 Alarm sympathetic nervous system activated adrenal glands release hormones that increase heart rate blood pressure resulting in burst of energy can cause fever nausea headaches O 2 Resistance body settles into sympathetic division activity continuing to release stress hormones that help body resist the stressor early symptoms of alarm lesson 0 3 Exhaustion when body s resources are gone can lead to formation of stress related diseaseshigh blood pressure weakened immune system when stressor ends parasympathetic division activates Normal level of resistance Show to stress Resistainae to stress Saga 1 Silage 2 Stage 31 Alarm Resistance Exhaustion Immune System and Stress Immune System cells organs and chemicals that respond to disease infection and injury laughter helps 0 negatively affected by stress which has been shown to put people at higher risk for heart attacks 0 positively affected by stress when stress is not a continual chronic condition as stress continues body s resources fail in the eXhaustion phase Psychoneuroimmunology study of the effects of psychological factors such as stress emotions thinking etc Weight Problems and stress Type 2 diabetes which can increase chance of Alzheimer s Cancer and stress natural kill NK cells which suppress viruses and destroy tumor cells are decreased by stress Cognitive Factors in Stress Lazarus s Cognitive Appraisal Approach appraisaUthoughts of stressors is major factor in level of stress 0 Primary appraisal estimate severity of stressor and classifying it as a threat harmful in future or challenge something met and defeated I is the event threatening challenging or of no consequence 0 Secondary appraisal once identified threatharmful effect must estimate resources available for coping with stressor I what resources are available to deal with the stressor I ie social support money time energy Stress and Personalitv Type A ambitious time conscious hardworking often hostile O Neuroticism tendency to worry be moody be emotionally intense Type B relaxed less competitive than Type A slow to anger Type C pleasant and try to keep peace but repress emotions and internalizes angeranXiety 0 May increase levels of harmful stress hormones weaken immune system slower recovery Type H Hardy personality Type A people that thrive on stress but lacks the angerhostility O 3 C s deep sense of commitment control of their lives see problems as challenges Social Factors in Stress Poverty lack of sufficient money to provide basic necessities of life can lead to many stressors Job Stress workload lack of control or job security work schedule low job satisfaction burnout 0 Burnout negative changes in thoughts emotions and behavior as result of prolonged stressfrustration Acculturative stress methods of acculturation 0 Integration maintain sense of original cultural identity while forming positive relationship with majority 0 Assimilation minority person gives up old cultural identity 0 Separation rejects majority culture s ways ie refuse to learn language like Chinatown 0 Marginalization neither maintaining contact with original culture or joining majority culture most stress Coping with Stress Coping strategies actions that people can take to master tolerate reduce or minimize stressor effects Problem focused coping eliminatereduce source of stress via direct own action Emotion focused coping change stressor impact by changing emotional reaction Mediation mental exercises to refocus attention trancelike consciousness very effective 0 Concentrative focusing mind on repetitiveunchanging stimulus to clear mind or relaX O Receptive becoming aware of everything in immediate consciousness Culture Religion and Stress religiosity helps with coping diff cultures perceive stressors differently Social Psychology in uence of real imagined or implied presence of others and social world in which we exist 1 social in uence 2 social cognition 3 social interaction mil In uence Conformity Compliance Obedience and Group Behzm Social In uence process through which the realimplied presence of others can directlyindirectly in uence the thoughts feelings and behavior of an individual Conformity changing one s own behavior to match that of other people 0 Culture collectivist gt individualistic 0 Gender Males Females private responding Males lt Females non private O Asch study subjects conformed to group opinion about 13 of the time O GroupThink group unanimity and cohesiveness at risk of realistic decisions I Avoid it Impartial leadership seeking outside opinions stating problems in objective manner 0 Group Behavior 0 Group polarization those involved in a group discussion tend to take somewhat more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions I believed to be due to I Social comparison need to appear socially desirablecompare favorably to others I Informational social in uence tendency to take behavioral cues from others in ambiguous situations 0 Social Facilitation positive in uence of others on performance Social Impairment negative in uence I Depends on the perceived difficulty of the task 0 Deindividuation lessening of sense of personal identity and personal responsibility 0 Compliance change in behavior at the request of another 0 Compliance and consumer psychology I Door in the face technique large request I refusal I small request I Lowball technique commitment I increase cost I Foot in the door technique small request I refusal I large request U Individualist cultures US more likely to comply than collectivist Japan 0 Obedience compliance due to perceived authority of the asker Request perceived as command I Milgram s Obedience EXperiment participants teachers were instructed to give electric shocks to another person learner who only pretended to be shocked I 65 obeyed until end even though many were upset by being asked to do so mil Cognition Attitudes Impression Formation and Attribution Attitudes tendency to respond positivelynegatively toward certain people ideas objects or situations learned behavior 0 Components Affect how they feel Behavior how they act Cognition how they think 0 Attitude formation result of several processes direct contact or instruction interaction w others vicarious learning Persuasion attempt to change another s attitude via argument eXplanation etc 0 Key elements source of message message itself target audience medium the way received ie visual 0 Moderate degree of fear in a message makes it more effective especially combined with info about how to prevent the fearful consequences 0 Elaboration Likelihood Model people either elaborate add details and info based on what they hear facts or not elaborate at all amp pay attention to surface characteristics length who delivers it amp how attractive they are 0 Direct route involves attending to the content of the message itself 0 Peripheral route involves attending to factors not involved in the message such as appearance of source of message and length of message Cognitive Dissonance discomfort arising when one s thoughtsbeliefs and behaviors don t correspond 0 Lessening change con icting behaviorattitude form new attitude to justify behavior Impression Formation and Social Categorization 0 Impression formation forming of first knowledge about another person prediction 0 In uenced by primacy effect lSt impressions tend to persist event w contrary evidence part of social cognition mental processes we use to make sense of world around us 0 Social categorization automatic unconscious assignment of a new acquaintance to some categorygroup 0 Stereotype set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category 0 Implicit Personality Theory categories into which people place others are based on something Attribution process of eXplaining the behavior of others as well as one s own behavior 0 Dispositional internal vs Situational external 0 Fundamental attribution error tendency to assume actions of others are due to dispositional in uences 0 EX personality shortcomings rather than demands of the situations mil Interaction Preiudice and Aggression Prejudice negative thoughtsfeelings about particular group I Discrimination treating others differently bc of prejudice Types of Prejudice and Discrimination 0 Ingroup social groups with whom a person identifies us Outgroup doesn t identify them 0 Scapegoating person group typically member of out group who serves as target for frustration and negative emotions for in group usually people with least power How People Learn Preiudice 0 Realistic Con ict Theory increasing prejudicediscrimination closely tied to increasing degree of con ict between in group and the out group when groups are seeking common resource such as land or available jobs 0 Social cognitive theory views prejudice as attitude acquired through direct instruction modeling etc 0 Social identity theory formation of a person s identity within particular group due to the 3 factors of social categorization social identity and social comparison shock eXperience Stereotype vulnerability knowledge of someone else s stereotyped opinions 0 Selffulfilling prophecy Effect expectations have on outcomes 0 Stereotype Threat fear of stereotyped group that their behavior might confirm a stereotype Overcoming prejudice education intergroup contact equal status contact the jigsaw classroom 0 Jigsaw Classroom students have to work together to reach a specific goal with each student with piece The Experiment at Robber s Cave boys randomly separated into 2 groups I competitions fostered hostility btwn groups contrived situations requiring cooperation for success equal status contact 0 Result increase in cross group friendships Liking and Loving Interpersonal Attraction Rules of Attraction Interpersonal attraction liking or having desire for a relationship with another person 0 Factors physical attractiveness proximity similarity complementary qualities reciprocity of liking O The concept of opposites attract are not supported by studies but instead explain complementary qualities Sternberg s Triangular Theorv of Love 3 Components of Love Intimacy Passion Commitment 0 Intimacy feelings of closeness Passion physical component I Commitment decisions one makes 0 The love triangles the 3 components produce 7 different kinds of love I romantic intimacypassion companionate intimacycommitment consummate all 3 components liking infatuation empty and fatuous Aggression and Prosocial Behavior Aggression any behavior intended to hurtdestroy another person Biological in uences genetics ie twins amygdalalimbic system testosterone and serotonin levels Learning in uences social learning theory and social roles media violence Serotonin is decreased when drinking alcohol which can increase levels of aggression Power of Social Roles Social Role pattern of behavior expected of a person in a particular social position 0 Stanford Prison Experiment 70 young men assigned prisoner or guard I cancelled bc to deeply involved Prosocial Behavior Altruism helping someone in trouble with no expectation of reward O Temporoparietal junction is in uential in the presence of altruistic behavior Prosocial Behavior socially desirable behavior that benefits others rather than bring them to harm Bystander effect more bystanders less likely to help Diffusion of responsibility fewer bystanders less diffusion less sharing of responsibility more likely to help 0 Latane and Darley s theory participants in room filling with smoke more likely to report smoke when alone 5 decision points in helping behavior 0 noticing defining an emergency taking responsibility planning a course of action taking action Abnormality Psychopathology study of abnormal thoughts feelings and behaviors Early explanations of mental illness 0 Ancient times evil spirits released via trepanning cutting hole in skull O Hippocrates Ancient Greek father of medicine mental illness from imbalance of body s 4 humors phlegm black bile blood amp yellow bile Although incorrect 1St recorded attempt at a biological explanation 0 Middle ages spirit possession and exorcism O Renaissance mentally ill labeled as witches What is Abnormal Behavior 0 Abnormal Statistically Rare Deviates from cultural norms I Abnormal Behavior DOES NOT EQUAL Insanity insanity is legal term not psychological term 0 Situational context socialenvironmental setting of a person s behaviors O Maladaptive Causes subjective discomfort Doesn t allow day to day functioning Danger to self or others I Subjective discomfort emotional distress while engaging in a particular behavior or thought process I Maladaptive person finds it hard to adapt to the demand of day to day living Models of Abnormziity Biological behavior is caused by biological changes in the chemical structural or genetic systems or body Behaviorism abnormal behavior is learned Cognitive abnormal behavior comes from irrational beliefs and illogical patterns of thought Psychodynamic abnormal behavior stems from repressed con icts and urges that are fighting to become conscious Biopsychosocial result of interacting forces of biological psychological social and cultural in uences Sociocultural Perspective Sociocultural perspective abnormalnormal behavior is product of shaping within context of family in uences social group to which one belongs culture within which family and social group exist Cultural relativity need to consider norms and customs of one s culture when diagnosing O Culture bound syndrome disorders that are unique to specific cultures ex Eating disorders amp the West Diagnosing and Claisifving Disorders 262 of American adults 18 yrs have a mental disorder in any given year 615 mill people in US DSM 5 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 0 1St published in 1952 by APA revised multiple times as knowledgeways of thinking about psychological disorders has evolved currently in 5th edition released in early 2013 major shift in diagnostic methods better recognition of relatedness of many disorders use of continua rather than solid categories 0 Disorders provides clinicians with descriptions and criteria for diagnosing mental disorders I 20 categories 250 diff disorders not without critics and controversy 0 One axe is used to aid mental health professional make a diagnosis Pros amp Cons of Labels Labels help establish distinct diagnostic categories amp help patients receive effective treatment can be dangerous or overly prejudicial can become stigmatizes ex Imbecileretarded Rosenhan study at psychiatric hospitals 1972 psychological labels long lastingpowerful affect how other people see mental patients and how patients see themselves Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders disorders in which the most dominant symptom is excessive and unrealistic anxiety prevalent across cultures Free oating anxiety anxiety that s unrelated to any realistic known factor often symptom of anxiety disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD feeling of dreaddoom and physical stress lasting at least 6 months O Source of anxiety often cannot be pinpointed worry about things most people don t worry about Phobias 0 Phobia irrational persistent fear of an object situation or social activity 0 Specific phobia fear of objects situations or events 0 Social anxiety disorder fear of negative evaluation in social situations 0 Agoraphobia fear of placesituation from which escape is difficultimpossible fear of the marketplace Panic Disorder 0 Panic Disorder frequent disruptive panic attacks including physical symptoms associated with SNS arousal 0 Panic Attack sudden intense panic multiple physical emotional symptoms 0 Panic disorder with agoraphobia fear of panic attack in unfamiliar public place 0 General anxiety disorder excessive anxietyworries occur more day than not for at least 6 months Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 0 Obsessive recurring thoughts create anxiety irrational fears of negative outcomes 0 Compulsive compelled to perform ritualistic repetitive behaviormental acts reduce that anxiety 0 no longer classified as an anxiety disorder now in category of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorders no longer classified as anxiety disorders 0 Acute Stress Disorder ASD O Traumatic event exposed to actualthreatened violent death injury or sexual violence 0 either direct witnessed suffered by loved one or repeated indirect exposure in course of profesh duties 0 Posttraumatic stress disorder 1PTSD 2 ASD lasting longer than month or can emerge as late as 6 mo after trauma Causes of Anxiety Disorders 0 Psychodynamic repressed urgesdesires trying to come into consciousness create anxiety that s controlled by the abnormal behavior 0 Behavioral disordered behavior learned through operant and classical conditional techniques 0 Cognitive excessive anxiety from illogical irrational thought processes 000 O Magnification interpreting situations as being far worse than they actually are All ornothing performance must be perfect or result is failure Overgeneralization single negative event interpreted as never ending pattern of defeat Minimization giving littlen0 emphasis to one s successes or positive eventstraits 0 Biological chemical imbalances in the nervous system genetic transmission Mood Disorders The Effect of Affect 0 Affect emotional response 0 Mood disorders or Affective Disorders maladaptive disturbances of affect women 15 to 3 times more likely 0 Dysthymia moderate depression I Cyclothymia moderate mood swings sad to elated 0 Chronic usually lasing more than 2 yrs 0 Manic episodes episode of excessive excitement energy and elation Major Depression severe depression sudden no apparent external cause 0 Most common of mood disorders twice as common in women as in men many possible reasons for this 0 Behavioral theorists link it to learned helplessness Social cognitive theorists link to distortions in thinking Bipolar Disorder cyclic affect with no external cause linked to ADHD 0 Bipolar 1 normal to manic excessive excitement energy elation 0r irritability w or wo episodes of depression 0 Biopolar 11 normal mood with episodes of major depression and hypomania Cause of Mood Disorders 0 Behavioral link depression to learned helplessness 0 Cognitive see depression as result of distorted illogical thinking 0 Biological variation in neurotransmitter levels or specific brain activity genes and heritability play a part Eating Disorders Eating Disorders 0 Anorexia Nervosa body weight at 85 or less of ideal purposely disruption of calorie balance vomiting laxative abuse food restriction and0r excessive exercise 40 to 60 who receive treatment make a recovery Bulimia Nervosa binging eating large quantities of food with attempts to rid self of food through bad means Binge Eating Disorder uncontrolled binge eating no attempts to purgeuse bad methods to avoid weight gain Cause of Eating Disorders Adolescentsyoung adults are most at risk femalesgtmales males athletesmilitary 0 Also observed in non Western cultures that are not focused on thinness but most prevalent in West 0 Genetic components for eating disorders account for 40 60 of risk Dissociative Disorders Altered Identities Dissociative disorders break in conscious awareness memory andor sense of identity 0 Dissociative amnesia memory loss for personal info either partial or complete psychological in origin I Retrograde Amnesia suffer from some form of physical trauma 0 Dissociative fugue travel from familiar surroundings with amnesia for trip and possible personal identity 0 Dissociative identity disorder formally multiple personality disorder person seems to have 2 more distinct personalities Causes 0 Psychodynamic point of repression of memories seeing dissociation as a defense mechanism against anxiety 0 Cognitive and behavioral trauma related thought avoidance is negatively reinforced by reduction in anXiety and emotional paint 0 Biological lower than normal activity levels in areas responsible for body awareness depersonalization disorder mild dissociative disorder Schizophrenia Schizophrenia severely disordered thinking bizarre behavior inability to separate fantasy from reality 0 A disconnect between thoughts emotions and behavior 0 Psychotic involving severe break with reality Symptoms 0 Positive excesses of or additions to normal behavior I Delusions unshakeable false beliefs delusional disorder primary symptom is delusion I Hallucinations seeinghearing things that don t eXist O Negative Less than or an absence of normal behavior Poor attention poor speech production I Flat Affect lack of emotional responsiveness condition in which person shows littleno emotion 0 Causes 0 Positive symptoms appear to be associated with overactivity of dopamine areas of the brain negative with lower dopamine activity schizophrenia Parkinson s connection 0 Genetics brain structural defects have been implicated genetics supported by twinadoption studies 0 Biological roots supported by universal lifetime prevalence across cultures of approx 7 8 people out of 1000 O Stressvulnerability model aka diathesis stress suggests people with genetic markers for schizophrenia will not develop disorder unless eXposed to environmentaUemotional stress at critical times at development Personality Disorders 0 Personality Disorders persistent rigid maladaptive behavior interfering with normal social interaction unlike psychological disorders affect all aspects on one s life 0 Antisocial personality disorder no morals or conscience impulsive lacks regard for consequences mostly male 0 Against society Uses others for personal gain rare form serial killer must have qualified for a diagnosis of conduct disorder as a child 0 Borderline personality disorder moodyunstable unclear sense of identity clings to others extreme lovehate 0 Causes of Personality Disorders 0 O O O Cognitive behavioral specific behaviors learned over time associated with maladaptive belief systems Genetic factors biological relatives of people w personality disorders more likely to have similar disorders Stress tolerance look at lower than normal stress hormones in antisocial personality disordered persons as responsible for their low responsiveness to threatening stimuli Family relationships linked to disturbances in family communicationsrelationships such as abuse neglect overly strictoverprotective parenting parental rejection Treatment of Psychological Disorders Past and Present 0 Therapy treatment to make people feel better and function more effectively 0 Early treatment 1500 s mentally ill confined to asylums treatments harsh often damaging O Philippe Pinel psychiatrist that demanded humane treatment of the mentally ill 0 Modern Psychological Therapy 2 types of therapy 0 Psychotherapy involves talking to a psychological professional about one s concemsproblems mind 0 C I Goal to better understand oneself I Usually eclectic using more than one treatment method I Insight therapy targets motivesactions Action Therapy targets disordered behavior 0 Biomedical therapv uses pharmacotherapy or medical procedures to bring about changes in behaviors I Drugs neurosurgery non invasive interventions Psychotherapy begins Psychotherapy therapy to reveal unconscious con icts utilized techniques designed to reveal the unconscious Dream interpretation manifest actual dream and its events and latent content hidden symbolic meaning Free association stream of consciousness wo condemnation Resistance client becomes unwilling to discuss a certain topic Transference therapist becomes symbolic of past authoritative figure or parent Psvchoanalvsis Todav Freud s techniques lacked scientific support and were prone to subjective interpretation Psychodynamic therapy psychoanalysis modern term less focus on sexuality amp the id shorter treatment times Directive therapist actively gives interpretations of client s statements and may suggest certain actions Interpersonal TherapV Insight therapy focuses on relationships and the events of everyday life derived from psychoanalysis but has aspects of humanism and CBT does have research support for its effectiveness in treating depression Humanistic Therapy Person centered therapv nondirective insight therapy based on work of Carl Rogers client talks therapist listens Elements for a successful person therapist relationship authenticity unconditional positive regard empathy Motivational Interviewing client centered therapy with a twist goal directed reduce ambivalence about change increase motivation to bring that change about Gestalt therapy client discovers and accepts all of self to align their real and ideal selves O Directive role playing leading questions confrontation of clients statements 0 empty chair techniques Evaluation of Humanistic Therapies 0 Broad application in career workplace marriage etc works best with intelligent highly verbal persons not based in eXperimental research Behavior Therapies Behavior therapies action therapies focused on behavior not causes classical and operant conditioning Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis change behaviors via learning techniques insight based Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning Systematic desensitization steps to reduce fear and anxiety for treating phobias O 3 Step Process 1 relaxation training 2 far hierarchy 3 progressive exposure Aversion therapy undesirable behavior paired with aversive stimulus Exposure therapy introduces clients to situations related to their anxieties under controlled conditions PTSD O Flooding rapid intense imaginable exposure I EMDR Eye movement desensitization reprocessing O in vivo confront situation vs imaginal think about the frightening situation Participant Modeling model demonstrates desired behavior in a step by step process Reinforcement strengthening of response by following it with a pleasurable consequence positive or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus negative 0 Token economy reinforcers earned and exchanged for desired things successful across multiple settings 0 Contingency contract formal agreement on behavior change reinforcement penalties 0 Extinction removal of reinforcer to reduce frequency of a particular response time out Evaluation of Behavior Therapies 0 Effective treatment of specific problems control symptoms quicklyeffectively not effective with serious psychological disorders overall but can improve specific symptoms Cognitive Therapies Cognitive therapy focused on helping people change their ways of thinking rather than focusing on the behavior itself the cognitive therapist focuses on the distorted thinkingunrealistic beliefs that lead to maladaptive behavior Common Cognitive Distortions Personalization assuming too much personal responsibility Arbitrary interference jumping to conclusion wo evidence Selective thinking focusing on only one aspect of the situation Over generalization making sweeping conclusions based on only one incident Magnification and Minimization negative events blown out of proportion positive events ignored Cognitive Therapies Cognitivebehavioral therapy CBT learning to think more rationally and logically O 3 goals relieve symptoms and solve problems develop strategies for solving for future problems help change irrational distorted thinking Rationalemotive behavior therapy REBT cognitive behavioral therapy irrational beliefs are directly challenged and restructured therapist will often even argue with the client and assign homework Evaluation of Cognitive and Cognitive Behavioral Therapies IneXpensive and short term effective for depression stress anXiety criticized for focusing on symptoms and not causes of disordered behavior potential bias in therapist s opinions Group Therapies Family counseling gfamily therapy family members meet together with a counselor Self help groups support groups groups of people with similar problems meet together without therapist Advantages low cost eXposure to others with similar problems social interaction with others social and emotional support effective for people with social anXiety Disadvantages must share therapist s time lack of private setting in which to reveal concerns severely disordered persons unable to tolerate group Evaluation of Group Therapy most useful for people who cannot afford individual therapy can provide great deal of social and emotional support and validation Psychotherapy Studies of Effectiveness 75 90 of those treated feel therapy helped longer a person stays in therapy better improvement certain therapies better for certain problems no one method effective for all problems Preferences black clients prefer a therapist of opposite seX Asian men prefer a male therapist Effective Therapy Common factors approach to evaluating eclectic forms of therapy 0 matching therapy to client and problem protected setting opportunity for catharsis learning and practice of new behaviors positive eXperiences therapeutic alliance warm caring accepting empathic respectful relationship between therapist and client EvidenceBased Treatment Identifying treatment that work best for specific disorders 0 those that produce therapeutic change in controlled studies Include eXposure therapies cognitive behavioral and cognitive processing for PTSD Cognitive behavioral treatment for panic disorder with agoraphobia Cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anXiety disorder Cognitive therapy for depression Antipsychotic drugs fro schizophrenia 4 barriers to Effective Psychotherapy O culture bound values class bound values language nonverbal communication Cybertherapy psychotherapy via internet effective for those who otherwise unable to get a therapist Advantages costanonymityeasier access Disadvantages uncertain credentials lack of vocanody cues Biomedical Therapies affect biological functioning of body and brain Psychopharmacology study of how drugs affect behavior 0 intentional therapeutic effects amp unintentional side effects 4 Basic Categories of Drugs Used to Treat DisordersDepression Antipsvchotic drugs treat psychotic symptoms like delusionshallucinations Typicalatypical block dopamine O Tardive Dyskinesia side effects like repetitive involuntary jerks and movements of face lips legs body AnXiolytic drugs calm anXiety reactions Antimanic drugs treat bipolar disorder aka mood stabilizers Antidepressant drugs treat depressionanxiety tricyclics MAOI s SSRI s less addictive than antianXiety drugs 0 EX ketamine being investigated due to it seemingly immediate although short term effects Electroconvulsive therapy ECT delivery of an electric shock to either one sideboth side of person s head Quick short term treatment 6 mos amp useful for severe depression still used but much improved Negative effects memory is definitely affected causes retrograde and antegrade amnesias Deep Brain Stimulation DBS Showing promise in treatment of anorexia nervosa Psychosurgery surgery on brain tissue to relieve severe psychological disorders Prefrontal lobotomy connections between pre frontal lobe and rest of brain severed no longer used Bilateral anterior cingulotomy deep lesioning of cingulate gyrus via thin electrode wire Very rare Emerging technologies rTMS magnetic pulses tDCS scalp electrodes DBS implanted electrodes Documentary Happy In spite of their working and living conditions rickshaw drivers in India are as happy as the average American Dr Ed Diener who began researching happiness in 1981 was surprised when colleagues told him that it was impossible to measure happiness because many people studied depression 40 of happiness believed to be determined by intentional activity From teenage years onward we re slowly losing synapses that reply on neurotransmitter NT Dopamine O Dopamine is central to the eXperience of happiness Physical Activity Aerobic Exercises Best Method Activity for helping to preserve neuronal signaling by neurotransmitter NT most closely associated with happiness Flow eXperience of fulfillment synergy and control that occurs when an individual performs an activity that they are good at and truly enjoy Dr Mihal Csikszentmihalyi Important aspect of happiness is not lack of adversity but ability to recover from it more quickly 0 we need to experience adversity bc our brain looks at contrasts no joy without pain Research shows that money doesn t buy happiness unless it buys you basic needs up to 50000 According to research people who are orientated toward intrinsic goals are happy and fulfilled Bhutan recently decided to focus its economic policies on Gross National Happiness instead of GDP The profound sense of fulfillment health and longevity that s common among Okinawans demonstrated the importance of regular contact from different people of different generations Social bonding social cooperation in achieving true happiness Certain types of meditation that focus on compassion even when practiced by novices have been shown to produce long term alterations in brain function that correspond to an increased sense of well being
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