Exam 1 study guide
Exam 1 study guide SOC387
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Marth on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC387 at Grand Valley State University taught by Hickman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Sociology of childhood in Sociology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Soc 387 Sociology of Childhood Exam 1 Study Guide Terms to know 0 Producer a person who produces goods and services or creates economic value Ex Children prior to industrialization 0 Consumer A person who consumes by using a commodity or service Ex what we think of children as now 0 Agent of socialization People groups or institutions that teach us what we need to know to participate in society Ex Mom teacher friends babysitter or cartoons 0 Primary socialization early socialization that stresses the basic knowledge and values of society 0 Secondary socialization Socialization following primary that emphasizes creativity logic emotional control and advances knowledge 0 Social institutions Major spheres of social life or social subsystems organized to meet a basic human need 0 Socialization the process by which individuals acquire the knowledge skills and character traits that enable them to participate as effective members of groups and society 0 Interpretive theory IT Children create and participate in their own unique peer cultures by appropriating information from the adult world Children are actively contributing to cultural production and change 0 Orb wed Model Interpretive reproduction is viewed as a spiral in which children produce and participate in a series of embedded peer culture which in turn contribute to reproduction and change in the wider society or culture 0 Peer culture a stable set of activities or routines artifacts values and concerns that children produce and share in interaction with peers Egocentrism regardingtheselfor 0 Selfconcept an idea of the selfconstructed from the and the responses of others usually expressed through characteristics how you think about yourself 0 Selfesteem confidence in one39s own worth or abilities How you feel about yourself 0 Selfregulation Selfcontrol the ability to control ones decisions Topics to know New Sociology of Childhood Compared to the old views of childhood Oldgt cramming social conflict theory into children we now recognize that children are active participants in society and not passive of social processes As well as active participates of who they want to become as adults I Once a child observes something that is new they are going to recognize it act on it and learn from it rather than just sitting back and observing it There is recognition of the role that children play in their own lives experiences and socialization Views childhood more of a state of mind rather than an event or specific period of time It is known as a social category Features of New Sociology Matthews 1 Children are reflexive social actors they understand what is going on in their world and react to it 2 Plurality of childhoods there are multiple childhood each culture and social context has a different view of cthhood 3 Relationships Children recognize different relationships Ex child parent relationship gives the child a satisfaction of having an authority figure or themselves imitating the authority figure Social construction 9time and culture specific when peoples conceptions about society are seen as social inventions Ex Gender race and social class They shape how we see the world Now whenever we conceive a child we feel the need to know if it is a boy or a girl so that we can buy it the quotappropriate clothes when really gender and the quotgender colors is just a social construction that we make up a long time ago socia constructions are spread through the interactions in larger society they are based off of time historical studies of childhood and culture studying the societal changes associated with child Ex in the 1800s pink was considered a masculine color Whereas now we see pink as a feminine color Why we say that childhood is a social construction 0 Sternheimer 2006 Social constructions of preteens Kids are annoying immoral lazy greed and selfcentered Kids are stupid These are social constructions based on time because context is missing Not every preteen portrays these characteristics Some people may even think of some adults this way 0 Philip Aries 1960 First sociologist to make a case of social construction ooked at medieval European painting of children and observed that they were dressed formally adult looking and had no emotion also from the picture the children wore specific clothing that was supposed to represent a characteristic of their life social construction Ex lace is a sign of wealth in the family 0 Linda Pollock 1983 Looked at the diaries written by mothers mainly looking for if kids were able to be kids if they had a lack of care or any reasons for deaths She found that the wealthy life and the poor life were very different in the adult world but the childhoods were all the same All kids still played as all kid would back then 0 Alston 1992 and Wiggins 1985 nterested in the children of slaves ooked at testimonies autobiographies and a few interview from the people themselves Found that at age 13 they slaved children were put on plantations 12 and under were put to work but at a lower level young children such as infants were raised by caregivers other than their parents usually they were raised by the elderly No education for slaved kids They would still play but they would play games such as quotauctionquot or funerals because that s all they knew of Whereas the white kids would play quothousequot Similarly Fredrick Douglas wrote a book about his childhood as a slave and states that he was raised by his grandma and only learned from his older sisters bible that he found laying around this proves Alston s and Wiggins s findings all of these different time periods give us evidence that social constructions started centuries ago and some even were carried on into society today if childhood was not a social construction then there would be no difference between rich child vs poor children or white children vs black children You see different social constructions in these children due to the different context they are exposed to Children as producers vs consumers o Producers In the early centuries prior to the mid1900s children were considered producers They worked in jobs starting at age 5 or 6 in order to help make an income for their family Most children worked as newsies in the town selling newspapers twice a day others worked in agriculture housework coal mining or were spinners ndustriaization brought child labor outside of the home in into the factories During this time more people not began to see and realize the work that children were put up to do people began to ask questions on if this was the right thing to have children do at such a young age Many issues arose Moral issues Family wage kids were secondary income to the family Role of education wanted kids to have and education and work 0000 Type of work what kind of work should kids be doing They get hurt too much in the factories Technology lessened the amount ofjobs Immigration immigrant children were taking a lot of the jobs Adult worker not enough jobs for adults due to so many kids working From then on out children from then on out had to be the age of 10 in order to work But many people lied about their child s age just to get them to work and make money for the family But people were still suspicious of danger so Child labor Organization 1904 Charted in congress in 1907 investigated child labor issue specifically Lewis Hine and hired a committee to document child labon In 1938 congress passed the Fair Labor standards act set a 40 hour labor wage set a minimum wage and prohibited labor under the age of 16 it took long to pass due to all the issues listed in the above statement 0 Consumers after the Fair labor standards act children are now considered consumers 1940s and early 50s Has continued to grow and strengthen as a social construction of childhood in the US since created a shift in the view of a child s value and place in society Socialization The process of learning roles and skills of society How we learn to quotfit in Five aims of socialization in children 1 Develop a selfconcept identify self through characteristics 2 Learn selfregulation selfcontrol the ability to control decisions 3 Empower achievement Making goals in order to look forward to the future positive reinforcement 4 Acquire appropriate social roles earning behavior of the roles you take on and balancing all roles Ex being a sister daughter and a friend 5 Implement developmental skills children interact with each other showing and learning social emotional and cognitive skills In order to get to the aims of socialization we turn to the agents of socialization and the social institutions that surround us 0 Social institutions Major spheres of social life or social subsystems organized to meet a basic human need Ex Family Peers church school or child care 0 Agent of socialization People groups or institutions that teach us what we need to know to participate in society smaller units of the social institution Ex Mom teacher friends babysitter or cartoons What Socializes us what about and in what way 0 Primary socializations early socialization that stresses the basic knowledge and values of society sets our fundamentals and are usually taught by family or caregiver Ex first time learning please and thank you 0 Secondary socializations following the primary that emphasizes creativity logic emotional control and advanced knowledge pretty much teaches you everything else Ex School peers church community We use our primary socialization in order to understand and learn the secondary socialization Why aren t we all the same then Depending on the context time and culture each child is exposed to different agents and institutions Families have different levels of importance Ex family being most important vs school being most important Our aims of socialization are different different goals Aspects of social Institutions they operate individually and interact with other institutions as well Ex sometimes your friends and family don t get along but other institutions such as family and school do they provide society with social organization the social institution and participants pursue a collective goal Theory and the sociology of childhood 0 Previous theories and concepts applied to childhood Do not address specific child issues simpify highly complex processes allowing them to overlook the importance of children focus on outcomes assume children have a passive role 0 New theory in sociology of childhood recognizes both active and passive roles of children interested in the process not just the outcome child centered interactive dynamic and participatory Interpretive Theory IT Children create and participate in their own unique peer cultures by appropriating information from the adult world Children are actively contributing to cultural production and change uses all collective actions together 0 Assumptions chidhood is a social form social category children are exposed to the same social forces as adults with development considered Children themselves are constructions of childhood and society agency Components of IT 1 3 types of collective action Central assumptions chidhood is a social form social category children are exposed to the same social forces as adults with development considered Children themselves are constructions of childhood and society agency 3 Active and passive roles when learning 4 Duality of structure social worlds Adultadult world 9 children absent chid child world adults absent adultchild work two social worlds work together 5 Language what is being discussed what language is being used and how it is being used what the meaning is anguage 0000 O Creates stability Conveys information Expresses emotion Created shared understanding Forms connectedness Gives a source of comparisons how friends do things vs how their parents do 6 Cultural routines similar to language Ex going to school every day or celebrating Halloween Orb wed model Interpretive reproduction is viewed as a spiral in which children produce and participate in a series of embedded peer culture which in turn contribute to reproduction and change in the wider society or culture graphical representation of interpretive reproduction shortcomings you only can represent what you know you cannot assume what you don t know
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