History 120 Final Study Guide
Popular in HIST 120 - History of the U.S. through Reconstruction
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Irizarry on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 68531 at a university taught by Mark Sigmon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 521 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Francis Scott Key Amistad Slavery happening in what they called the upper South like Virginia but what people overlook is the deep south like Alabama Mississippi slave owner in these states they changed their tactics Abolitionist hated slavery fanatical about their opposition to slavery wanted to abolish slavery slavery wasn t very cost effective or efficient O slaves don39t get any profit from it i know how much work i have to do without getting beaten can do a half ass job why would you to your full potential when you don t get any benefits People for slavery kind of agreed with these people that it wasn t effective what they weren39t paying attention some of the slave owners went up North to see how they could make slavery more efficient Slave owners in deep south got organized used metrics and got overseers for the fields more productive in order to push them harder Worked out a system so their slaves could work to full potential Cat of 9 tails incredibly terrible pain slave owners were ruthless driven by greed and profit found new ways eve of civil war in 1860 s very talented slaves could pick 200 pounds of cotton a day separate mind from bodyjust so they can escape a beating after the war people could only pick 100 pounds it was that threat of getting beaten to death that made the humanly impossible possible Slave Resistance Slaves always fought back it was dangerous and difficult found slick ways to get around that Slaves knew their masters better than masters new the slaves 1 there were a lot more slaves could compare notes 2 masters wanted to think of their slaves as stupid slaves learned to pretend to be stupid to get away with things slaves had to pick a certain amount each day or else get beaten so after basket was weighed smuggled some cotton into others basket who didn t pick as much or hide rocks at the bottom of basket or put in cotton in the morning so you have head start Method of slave resistance slaves did careless work damage property on regular basis break machinery injuring crops pretending to be sick runaway mostly under age of 30 probably because they were breaking up a family most only escaped for a few days 1855 60000 slaves escaped from slavery and made it to the North after 1850 you had to get out of the United States 2 soul39s inner self that you keep to yourself outer to show to the world to show that they are humble and nice master39s thought some were good so they wondered why they would run away quotEye Servants some slaves wouldn t work unless they got the master39s eyes on them this angered the Masters because they didn t want to contribute to the business quotStealingquot vs quotTa king Crimes another way of resistance that shall not steal slaves saw stealing only if that person is equal to you If you steal from a slave that was wrong and sinful but if you steal from master it was just taking it was ok Arsen starting fires in barns didn t happen often everyone would be punished for it and there wouldn39t be enoughfood Self mutilation cutting off body parts like fingers and arms it was seen as devaluing the masters property Suicide was the most devaluing Murder slaves were murdering their master with painful frequency killed overseer poor white man trying to get somewhere get quick buck for trying to whip wife or son Nat Turner symbolizes the ultimate form of slave resistance led a slave rebellion claimed he was born to read no one had to teach him read the bible careful started to have vivid dreams of black angels vs white angels took this as a sign remained in the upper South Virginia sold to a worse master he wasn t worked very hard August 22 1881 north county virginia Nat Turner rose up didn t tell anyone what he was going to do until last minute solar eclipse broke into master39s house with axes killed master and his whole family marched throughout countryside and add recruits in 2 days they manage to kill 60 white folks After this there became a massacre of slaves if a slave was in the rebellion or helped them or any knowledge of the dreams they were put to death Nat Turner wasn t captured until 2 months later and found guilty then executed Whites never really got over the trauma of the rebellion this was a form of negative resistance Extended Kinship Networks When slave children were really young they were taught to call each other brother and sister and the adults would be your aunts and uncles the slave owners drilled this into the minds their family lines When slaves got older elders they got stuck with babysitting duty a way of slave resistance was transferring values to the younger generations like folk tales Uncle Remus Stories folktales most stories focus on three animals brer brother fox and bear were always trying to kill the rabbit but the rabbit would outsmart them not by being bigger analogy for slavery always fought back against the institution of slavery C Brer Rabbit slave C Brer Bear overseer C Brer Fox master Policies for Native Americans 1 Overt Policy out there for everyone to see overt open not hidden 1787 the utmost good faith towards the Indians and never take their stuff land without their permission 2 Covert Policy how things actually work Sauk and Fox Indians felt victims of this policy they lived on the Mississippi River and controlled a great of area east and west of the river strong united nation 5000 people very good hunters partners in fur trade w British didn t have any dealings with US until 1804 and in that first treaty they gave away about half of their lands to the east to the US the first 5 members who signed the paper were not the Chiefs they were just young men of the tribe and went to St Louis to visit a friend on trial to death and while there they were given many gifts 2000 worth and promised to get friend out of prison by William Harrison governor who encouraged white settlement thought they were signing away a treaty for the down south where they rarely go to They couldn t read English the lands they actually signed away were getting 60000 in fur They were drunk while signing did get a release for friend but was shot quottrying to escape bitter enemies of the Sioux all these bad actions like bribery threats drunkenness gives a bad rep for Treaty39s Mineral Leases 18171827 peace on the Mississippi after more warfare broke out if you want to mine for silver and gold there are a lot of rules since it s a valuable mineral if you want to mine for things like copper its pretty easy to get a lease because it was a common mineral If a settler found coal or something and wanted to mine it they had to give the US 10 of what they mined everyone knew there was a wealthy lead mine on the upper Mississippi and it was carefully mapped out In 1822 a whole bunch of miners went out to claim these spots problem was that Natives were living on these lands Lt Charles Thomas in spring of 1827 starts releasing mineral leases for the Winnebago land permits to mine Winnebago leader of tribe never signed any papers with the United States and there was a death penalty if you sign something with the US Charles said to the miners you must remain there until blood is spilt and something will be done spring of 1828 group of miners were attacked by Winnebago and US declared war on them they were forced to sign a treaty because they lost the war and they gave up all their land east of the Mississippi Charles knew about the Covert policy Lawrence Taliaferro Sioux Agent recognized that war could help his career he was an agent to the sioux Indians one that was suppose to keep the peace between US and Indians 1828 great deal of tension on upper Mississippi wars would break out because people who try to hunt on the same herds so US decides to step in and calls for a peace conference at Prairie du Chien US guaranteed the Indians safety as they are leaving the village a war party of over 100 Sioux warriors make their down the Mississippi and stops by St Peters where Lawrence is to tell him they are going to declare war on the S F and he knows about the peace meeting He gave them ammo weapons and tobacco you may do as you please his actions spelt the doom for the Chiefs of the S F and all slaughtered except for 1 Thomas Forsyth Sauk and Fox Agent if you go to war with Sioux you Sauk and Fox will be destroyed warned the tribe if you look at the aftermath Taliaferro was promoted and rose up in US government Thomas Forsyth got fired for trying to prevent a war didn t know the covert policy what is suppose to happen native american territory US will cross the line to get the Indian land and once they get it they will send out surveyors to map out the land separate the lands into sections and will sell to a wealthy investor so then he will subdivide it to sell to family farmerssettlers and up price the land to get rich what happened while Indians are still owning the territory a white settler builds a farm on their lands without anyones permission after 5 years of that guy establishing a farm the US gets the Indian territory and divides it they sell it to investors and one of guy who bought a section that guy was living on it and says he is trespassing since I bought the land and the guy says ok I ll buy it off of you he said no so then writes a letter to congress saying that he has the right to kick him off Congress then decided if you go on frontier and build a little farm and once it goes on the market you have the first right to buy it first this forces you to get out there first onto the frontier before government buys it or takes from Indians this is what happened to the Sauk and Fox white guys take over their corn fields so when Preemption policy comes on they will get this great land for rock bottom price most of these Indians went West Black Hawk War Most everyone stayed West of the Mississippi the first year 1831 was ok with the white settlers but government warned them if you come back i will declare war and in 1832 the next summer he comes back with warriors and families and then governor of Illinois forms an army and 260 Sauk and Fox people were gunned down because he wanted to be buried on Rock Island like his father and grandfathers before that Black Hawk didn t die and met president Andrew Jackson and he asked him why did you start this war but really it was all these policies that did that Worcester v State of Georgia 1832 we will make a deal if you guarantee our western border we will give you the US all the rest of our Western claims and so they agreed but they had to get rid of Cherokee Indians that claimed a little piece of land on the border They got impatient because the US had not got rid of the Indians so it extended its lands Georgia passed a law that in order to step into Cherokee lands you had to have a permit given to you by the state Worcester a missionary trying to encourage Indians not to give up their lands was a US citizen and went onto the lands and so Georgia arrested him and convicted in Georgia state court to prison he tried to appeal to federal court case went in 1832 to supreme court ruled that Georgia law does not apply they have no right in Cherokee lands so get him out of prison Georgia said no and so Worcester stayed imprisoned for 9 more months president enforce supreme court ruling Once Indians saw that nobody follows the supreme court they thought they should sell the lands to the US to get out of there Trail of Tears Walk to Oklahoma 13 different cohorts 16000 set out from Georgia and estimated a quarter of the people died on the journey or first winter once they got there US held out 3 choices to Natives 1 you could assimilate adopt the white man ways give up hunting and start farming get educated 2 you could move out West and relocate the line of frontier kept moving so not stable 3 or you can be destroyed 1 is what Cherokees chose invited missionaries to teach them the ways women started doing domestic chores and gave up gardening schools were packed learning how to learn and write in English in a sense they basically destroyed themselves 1890 wounded knee US army massacres 300 people Missouri Compromise 36 30 congressional involvement with Slavery which is the Missouri Compromise 3 parts Maine comes in as free state Missouri comes in as a slave state keeps the balance congress said there will be no slavery west of miss or North ofthe missouri Southern border 36 30 it counted as a win for the slave owners Missouri could39ve gone either way if it would39ve been a free state there would be an imbalance Abolitionists When you talked to a North person about slavery they claimed it was a inefficientineffective labor system not the best way to exploit the resources of the country makes more sense to pay people they do a betterjob it degraded labor not economic Abolitionist want to abolish to slavery very religious people thought slavery was evil immoral most were young Christian women very dedicated to end the system of slavery wouldn t use or wear things made from slaves everyone kind of hate them thought they were trying to tell the slaves to take over a lot of them faced death threats family disowning Started sending petitions to Congress in 1830 s Gag Rule In 1836 congressman passed a law if we get anymore petitions regarding slavery we will table it set it aside and maybe read them later Part of the first amendment right to petition your government Slavocracy were the slave owners were basically running the government repealed in 1845 Wilmot Proviso went to senate and proposed Proviso special law if then kind of law if we win and if we get territory really wanted California then there will be no slavery in that no territory it did not pass it was voted down very first law that split the country into North and South Democrats and the Whigs everybody in congress voted according to their party it separated us by section the Democrats and Whigs of the North voted for it and those of the South against it VP was a Southerner so he voted it down congress tried to stop a civil war Compromise of 1850 4 parts of compromise 1 California came into the Union as a free state we stole it from Mexico throws off the balance of slavery 2 No slave Auctions in Washington DC public relations sort of thing new englanders really hated slavery 3 In New Mexico and Utah they were going to P0pular Sovereignty good on paper and for politicians concept that the people should have the right to vote let the people decide free or slave state it doesn t work the issue of slavery is too intense little civil war in Kansas 4 Harsh Fugitive Slave Act slaves would always run away to the North maybe Massachusetts slave owner might track them down got the slave arrested put them on trial and the jury would free the slave even though their was enough evidence from the master A runaway slave was fugitive slave a fugitive slaves had no right to trial byjury instead a commissioner would decide the case b an accused fugitive slave could not testify on his own behalf c specifically it permitted a return to slavery based solely on the testimony of the master was in the hands ofthe master the words d 5 innocent 10 return to master it didn t prevent the civil war because it wasn t really a compromise poor whites paid to oppress Harriet Beecher Stowe she wrote Uncle Tom s Cabin after 4 months living on plantation observing slave life wrote after a slave Tom had a good master had wife and children good slave but his master died and Uncle Tom was sold off to Simon Legree horrible guy his 2 daughters escape to Canada and succeed Legree ran after them so when he goes back he basically beats Tom to death When people of the North read this book the issue changed from economical to emotional and were willing to step up It changed people s attitude about slavery published in 1852 quotBleedingquot Kansas first state voting if they were going to be a free or slave state tried Popular Sovereignty abolitionists came in and said we are a free state and then sent that to Washington Then slave owners from Missouri came in a sent in the opposite Slave owners came in and shot up the town trying to intimidate the abolitionists can t settle issue by the vote John Brown rode into a plantation that had 20 slaves working on it and arrested the 4 men that were overseeing it and sentenced them to death since they claim Kansas was a free slave cut off there heads Dred Scott Decision 1857 supreme court got involved very worst decision ever John Emerson died in Wisconsin free state Dred Scott sued for his freedom in a Missouri court but they said you have to go back to slavery 1856 takes to federal court and they say slaves cannot sue for their freedom even if he wasn t a slave and free he could not sue for his freedom because he was Black from AfricaEven if he was white and free you he could not sue because the time he was in Wisconsin does not make him free This convinced the North that they will have to go to war to end slavery Slavocracy John Brown s Raid on Harper s Ferry John Brown hated slavery white guy had a lot of children wondering why slaves wouldn t want to escape and revolt for their self convinced the South in 1859 Harpers Ferry was an armory where the US held a lot of guns they actually managed to get in but eventually December 2nd 1859 John Brown was sentenced to death most people in the North thought he was crazy and don t want to be associated with him the white South thought he was insane trying to give guns to the slaves so they thought all people in North like him and want slaves to overthrow 1860 Nov Abraham Lincoln was elected president of US thought to just settle down Dec 1860 South Carolina said they were going to leavesucceed the Union 7 others had succeeded the Union 1861 Fort Sumter only has enough supplies to last for a couple more weeks Lincoln didn t want them to surrender or start a civil war or want guys to starve to death Confederates said no we are not going to allow you to send food no mercy mission April 12 1861 Civil War began last 4 years end April 9 1865 more Americans died here then all our other wars put together WW2 revolution Vietnam it was Americans vs Americans anyone killed was American 100000 man armies you got so many people 23rds died by disease didn t understand germs or didn t have vacations no sanitation most common disease dysentery Smooth Bore vs Rifled Muskets technology is constantly changing but the tactics do not smooth bore take a tube of steel and drill it hollow weapon that Napoleon used the range was 80 yards load the ball and gun powder and once shot the ball would zing out to side no matter how you pack in the balls so men would put a whole bunch tight together so some would go off to the side put most would go in the general direction 2030 seconds to reload 10 seconds to charge with bayonet so after they shot they would charge after them right before civil war technology changed to rifling small spiral groove carved in the barrel of the gun you load the bullet at the back of the gun bullets were shaped by bullets it allows the bullet to spin through the air range is 400 yards but the tactics didn t change people kept charging and then the other side would reload so charging didn t really work after you shoot why the war was being fought south wanted to break away to be independent country and north said you can t do that after South says we quit there is a lot of anger and bitterness left out and Emancipation Proclamation when the war began Lincoln was not interested in freeing the slaves he only cared about keeping the country together so if that meant keeping enslavement or freeing them as long as the country was together January lst 1863 he signed to frees the slaves in the Southern rebellious states then this became a war about freeing the slaves but it didn t free all of them like the states loyal to the Union 54th Massachusetts Infantry Col Robert Gould Shaw a Young Abolitionist led Mass 54th regiment all african american men Lincoln allow African American men to serve in the US armed forces Lincoln gave the soldiers an opportunity to quit the army with all the benefits if they were mistreated while trying to serve the force The African Americans expected to go into the army and be treated like a man and as equal Reconstruction after the war the south was under marshal law they had no rights they were states they were divided into military districts and to become states again they had to go through a process of Reconstruction 3 plans none of them worked 1 lincoln39s plan made the plan easy so hopefully they would give up a take all high ranking military officers and leaders of the confederacy would be removed from political power b amaste to anyone who would share an oath of allegiance swear loyalty to the USConstitution 10 of citizens take the oath the state can come back in will be a reconstructed state doesn t do anything for the slaves worried about getting the state back into the Union congress was unhappy with the plan e Louisiana got 10 but congress was not satisfied April 15 1865 Lincoln died was assassinated VP took over Andrew Johnson from state of Tennessee grown up around slavery always loyal to Union not to pleased with the rich people his plan 2 leaders of confederacy would be taken out of power plus people who own property worth 20000 the planter class had to meet the president to ask for forgivenessamnesty a rich guys talked you into it so you are all forgiven reconstruct yourself b had to write to no slavery in the state c really easy plan congress impeached him AJ s cabinet member d president could not fire cabinet members without their permission 3 Radical Republican plan Congress Plan radical completely new and indifferent A leaders of confederacy are removed from political process cannot vote or run for office B majority of the state 51 has to swear an oath of loyalty saying that they will be loyal to the US in the future and that they have been loyal all along a trying to get them to betray the cause the confederacy break their loyalty and have the confederacy dissolved C Universal all male suffrage regardless of race creed or religion slaves can vote wasn t really radical at all the country failed reconstruction didn t work maybe they should be more radical south won the peace controlled the image of reconstruction insulting stereotyping emerged slave owning class Carpetbaggers really cheap luggage bag crooks and conmen decided to take advantage of people ripped off people reality they were good harded people a lot of abolitionist came down opened up schools taught african americans how to read and just trying to help former slaves most people in south hated them Scalawag Southern39s that cooperated calibrated with the reconstruction government white people who wanted to be apart of the war not going fight back nothing like the harassment that black voters and black office members faced the fact that they were voting was an insult to the southern way of life remembering that they lost Tried to rebuild the South whites and blacks made gain rebuilt farmland and roads opened juries for black men did not try to punish former master or revenge didn t get into reinvented land renovation theyjust wanted an even playing field make things fair don t need any favors just dont discriminate their people could prosper knew how to workpick cotton rebuilding was expensive a lot of corruption Gilded Age crooks in Washington DC it was evil and bothersome the white South refused to accept the Reconstructive government this biracial government they did everything to resist used massive amounts of violent beginning of domestic violence KKK assisant black leaders burn schools and churches whipped people brought terror to the black people white people tried to fight backprotect the blacks South was in disarray North just said we ll let them take care of their issues Reconstruction didn t work because white South used massive amounts of violence and terror and the North didn t really care 1877 reconstruction was over Compromise of 1877 ended reconstruction first tuesday of November people voted 1876 presidential election Samuel Tilden Democrat looked good for him Rutherford Hayes republican had to win all southern states to win Hayes won and first thing pulled all federal troops out of the South without them reconstruction kind of went downhill from theirdissolved built two of everything for segregation economic downfall C enormous waste of intelligence and ability because African Americans couldn t really do much except pick cotton splendid failure not because 13th amendment 1865 abolished slavery outlaw slavery in the United States 14th amendment 1867 all americans have equal protection under the law granted citizenship quotseparate but equal but once you separate things you create inequality law ofthe land and segregation emerged 15th amendment guaranteed all men the right to vote quotLiteracy Clause in order to vote you had to be able to read question was how do you tell if you can read so they made you read clauses of the constitution and interpret it so you could understand it but the person evaluating you could just say no you can t read Debt Peonage Sharecropping white south wasn t happy with the new additions to the Constitution so they found ways around it white south owned a lot of land we will rent you land but you have to give me 25 of the crop you grow but if you are a former slave land doesn t really help you still need seed mull plow but its seasonal and this guy needs money for some months to survive and so borrows money for the white land owner every year you are owning more than what you make
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