BD abn Test 3 Study Guide
BD abn Test 3 Study Guide 240
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Date Created: 09/22/15
PSY 240 E Abnormal Psychology Third Test Studv Guide Substance and Impulse Disorders 1 Understand the meaning differences and relationship among substance intoxication use tolerance and withdrawal Substance intoxication our physiological reaction to ingested substances drunkenness or getting high Tolerance when a person requires increasingly greater amounts of a drug to experience the same effect Withdrawal responding physically in a negative way when a substance is no longer ingested 2 Understand negative reinforcement and drug use Many people are likely to initiate and continue drug use to escape from unpleasantness in their lives In addition many drugs provide escape from physical pain stress or panic and anxiety 3 What effects e g depression of inhibitory centers in the brain and neurotransmitters are involved with alcohol Increase GABA activity in septum hippocampus of limbic system gt anxiolytic effect reduced anxiety 4 What are the effects of using cocaine euphoria short term feelings of power and confidence affective blunting anxiety tension anger confusion hypervigilance paranoia insomnia decreased appetite dilated pupils tachycardia very high or very low blood pressure nausea seizure coma death with chronic hallucinations of all types of a very frightening nature 5 What are the effects of using marijuana Euphoria relaxation heightened sensory experience sense of enhanced creativity altered sense of space and time Everything is funny or increases whatever mood already experiencing Intellectual impairment poor short term memory tachycardia red eyes reduced blood pressure reduced coordination disrupts attention 6 What are the effects of using anabolic steroids How are they different from other recreational drugs Derived from or synthesized form of testosterone Used medicinally for people with asthma breast cancer and males with inadequate sexual development No associated high used to increase body mass 7 What is the most commonly used and most commonly addicted substance in the United States Alcohol 8 Which two substances are most likely to lead to dependence Alcohol and nicotine 9 How likely is it for a person to become dependent on marijuana 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Not likely What is the typical rate of development of cocaine dependency Dependence highly addictive but develops slowly usually First growing inability to resist taking more Later increased tolerance causes a need for higher doses What is fetal alcohol syndrome A combination of problems that can occur in a child whose mother drank while pregnant Problems include growth retardation mental retardation facial abnormalities What is the initial effect of drinking alcohol It decreases your inhibitions What is binge drinking Nationally what percent of college students binge drink Binge drinking 2 5 drinks by men 4 by women on one occasion Nationally 23 among all American adults binge drink 43 of college age Americans binge drink What factors determine whether drinking alcohol might lead to aggression Alcohol consumption facilitates aggressive behavior and increases the risk of being the victim of a violent act particularly in heavy drinkers What differentiates people who use alcohol from those who become dependent on alcohol People who use alcohol tend to have good stable moods and rarely think about alcohol while those who are dependent tend to experience definite depressive symptoms or extreme stress or irritability and experience extreme agitation if they cannot drink They also frequently think about drinking and how to obtain the next drink How do expectancies about alcohol affect its apparent effects Alcohol expectancies the cognitive affective and behavioral outcomes an individual expects to occur due to drinking Positive Alcohol Outcome Expectancies enhanced socialization sexual enhancement relaxation assertion Differentiate understand and know the efficacy of TABLE 2 TwelveSuggestedStep3ommmmcsmnymous different treatments e g AA for alcohol dependence l39 39 39 Inpatient Facilities designed to help people get through the initial withdrawal period and to provide supportive therapy so that they can go back to their communities We admitted we were powerless over alcohol that our lives had become unmanageable Canre to believe that a power greater than ourselves could restore the to sanity Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood Him Made a searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves Admitted to God to ourselves and to another human being the exact nature of our wrongs Were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character i 3 50 see 5 Humlbty asked Him to remove our shortcomins Made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to rnallte amends to them all Made direct amends to such people wherever possible except Expensive Ef cacy is equal t0 Outpatient testament Alcoholics Anonymous the most popular model for i Emmi the treatment of substance abuse 12 step gt 1 segment gangstgrsztgsmirggstep Controlled drinking controversial treatment Eid iimaiifw isg tommamprammese approach in which severe abusers are taught to drink in moderation Component treatment treatments that have components thought to boost the effectiveness of the treatment package 004 59 L 3 Source The Twelve Steps are reprinted with permission of Alcoholics Anonymous Wand Services AAWS Permission to reprint the Twelve Steps does not mean that AAWS has reviewed or approved the contents of the publication or that MWS necessarily agrees with the views expressed herein AA is a program of recovery from alcoholism onlyiuse of the Twelve Steps in connection with programs and activities which are patterned etter M but which address other problems or in any other non AA context does not imply otherwise 18 Understand what the agonist treatment for drug abuse is and how methadone and the nicotine gum and patch are examples of this approach Agonist substitution involves providing the person with a safe drug that has a chemical makeup similar to the addictive drug Methadone is an opiate agonist that is often given as a heroine substitute because they both act on the same neurotransmitter receptors For cigarette smokers the drug nicotine is provided to smokers in the form of gum or a patch which lack the carcinogens included in the cigarette smoke Agonist drugs block or counteract the effects of psychoactive drugs 19 What does your textbook say about controlled drinking versus abstinence as a treatment goal 20 The study suggested that controlled drinking may be a viable alternative to abstinence for some alcohol abusers although it isn t a cure Be able to recognize each of the disruptive impulse control and conduct disorders from a definition or description Disruptive ImpulseControl amp Conduct Disorders Behavioral and emotional dysregulation involving the violation of rights of others or con ict with norms or authorities Linked to disinhibition and somewhat to negative affectivity Oppositional De ant Disorder Angryirritable mood argumentative defies rules amp authorities deliberately annoys others blames others amp is spitefulvindictive Conduct Disorder Cruel bullying or aggressive behavior steals destroys property runs away or is truant and similar behavior Intermittent Explosive Disorder Unpremeditated verbal amp physical aggressive outbursts occasionally involving damage or destruction that are very out of proportion to any provocation Pyromania Following tensionarousal deliberately sets fires amp is gratified while doing so Fascinated with fire amp associated phenomena Kleptomania Following tensionarousal unable to resist stealing unneeded things Relieved gratified while stealing Personality Disorders 1 Know and be able to distinguish the three clusters of personality disorders 2 Know and be able to distinguish the ten personality disorders i TABLE i21 r I rders Personality Disorder Description ClusterA0dd or Eccentric Disorders Paranoid personality disorder Schizoid personality disorder Schizotypal personality disorder Cluster B Dramatic Emotional or Erratic Disorders Antisocial personality disorder Borderline personality disorder Histrionic personality disorder Narcissistic personality disorder Cluster C Anxious or Fearful Disorders Avoidaiint personality disorder Dependent personality disorder Obsessivecompulsive personality disorder A pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent A pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a restricted range of expression of emotions in interpersonal settings A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with reduced capacity for close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccen tricities of behavior A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships selfimage affects and control over impulses A pervasive pattern of excessive emotion and attention seeking A pervasive pattern of girandiosity in fantasy or behavior need for admiration and lack of empathy A pervasive pattern of social inhibition feelings of inadequacy and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation A pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of which leads to submissive and clizngiiingi behavior and fears of separation A pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliiness iperfectionisrn and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility openness and efficiency Source Reprinted with permission from American Psychiatric Association 2013 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders Eth edi Washington DC Author 2013 American Psychiatric Association What general problems eXist with the current categorical system of personality disorders and what advantages might there be for a dimensional approach High comorbidity with each other High comorbidity with other disorders poorer prognosis What is the FFM or Big 5 theory of personality What are its dimensions Openness to experience Curious receptive to new ideas amp perspectives emotionally expressive Conscientiousness Organized reliable committed to personal goals cautious Extraversion Social optimistic cheerful energetic Agreeableness Cooperative compassionate warm Neuroticism Emotionality Prone to psychological distress impulsive moody What is the relationship between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy How are they the same and how are they different Antisocial personality disorder disorder involving a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others person often described as being aggressive because they take what they want indifferent to the concerns of others Known as social predators Psychopathy Non DSM 5 category similar to antisocial personality disorder but with less emphasis on overt behavior Indicators include superficial charm lack of remorse grandiose sense of self worth pathological lying lack of empathy and manipulation Usually associated with higher IQs 6 If a person under 18 is showing signs of antisocial personality disorder what diagnosis is he or she most likely to receive None You must be 18 or older to be diagnosed 7 Know the underarousal fearlessness BISreward and interactive integrative theories for antisocial personality disorder Underarousal Body level of arousal is below what the thermostat of normal is so we seek activities that develop more arousal Fearlessness people who are psychopaths don t have fear and don t respond to danger cues Behavioral inhibition system BIS tells us to slow down and stop in situations that are considered fearful and dangerous Low in psychopaths Reward system REW High in psychopaths Less physiologically reactive to signs of distress in others 8 Know which words a person with borderline personality disorder is more likely to remember compared with other people Abandon suicidal emptiness 9 Recognize and understand Linehan s Diathesis Stress model of borderline personality disorder Biological vulnerability to emotional dysregulation Emotional dysregulation in the child 4 Child has emotional outburst Great demands on that is attended to by the parents the family Parental invalidation punishing or ignoring reasonable demands 10 Understand Barlow amp Durand s possible integration of the causes of borderline personality disorder Biological Vulnerability emotional reactivity to stress such as familial link to mood disorders Tendency toward impulsivity Psychological Vulnerability view world as threatening strongly react to perceived threats Specific Experiences such as childhood sexual or physical abuse immigration or other trauma 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Which treatment for borderline personality disorder seems to be effective Dialectical behavior therapy DBT involves exposing the client to stressors in a controlled situation as well as helping the client regulate emotions and cope with stressors that trigger suicidal behavior What s up with antisocial and histrionic personality disorders Histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder may be sex typed alternative expressions of the same underlying condition Females with the underlying condition may be predisposed to exhibit a predominantly histrionic patter whereas males with the underlying condition may be predisposed to exhibit a predominantly antisocial pattern What problem do therapists treating people with dependent personality disorder face Caution dependence on therapist Why do people with narcissistic personality disorder become depressed Because they often fail to live up to their own unrealistic expectations How are avoidant and schizoid personality disorders distinguished People with schizoid personality disorder are asocial because they are apathetic affectively at and relatively uninterested in interpersonal relationships People with avoidant personality disorder are asocial because they are interpersonally anxious and fearful of rejection How are avoidant and dependent personality disorders similar They are similar in their feelings of inadequacy sensitivity to criticism and need for reassurance Which personality disorder most resembles social anxiety Social anxiety disorder social phobia and Avoidant Personality Disorder have similar symptoms genetics and treatment response Thus Avoidant Personality Disorder is a more persistent and generalized form of Social Anxiety Disorder social phobia What are the differences between obsessive compulsive personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder People with obsessive compulsive personality disorder do not have obsessive thoughts and the compulsive behaviors seen in obsessive compulsive disorder How does the alternative DSM 5 model of personality disorders differ from the traditional official model In the dimensional models of personality disorders personality disorders are classified according to which characteristics are expressed at which levels This stands in contrast to the traditional categorical models of classification which are based on the Boolean presence or absence of symptoms and do not take into account levels of expression of a characteristic or its underlying dimension Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders 1 2 How consistent around the world are quotnormalquot sexual practices Quite inconsistent If it feels reasonable and enjoyable to all directly involved it is normal In sexually permissive Sweden how does the percent of women who use contraception the first time they have coitus compare with women in the USA Significantly higher Compare and contrast transsexual and gender dysphoria disorder Be able to recognize a description of someone who has gender dysphoria disorder Gender Dysphoria Strong incongruence between one s experienced gender and one s anatomic gender possibly including preference for role dress or play of other gender dislike of one s sexual anatomy or desire for sex characteristics of one s experienced gender What is currently the standard treatment for gender dysphoria disorder Treatment for gender dysphoria include a gradual path from full psychological evaluation and education to the administration of gonadal hormones to bring about desired secondary sex characteristics to finally the physical altering of anatomy through sex reassignment surgery Given a brief description be able to say what type of sexual disorders or paraphilias the person has Or given a sexual disorder or paraphilia be able to say what signs symptoms and qualifiers are important Also be able to recognize what is reasonably normal and not a disorder Sexual Dysfunctions Disturbance in a person s ability to respond sexually or to experience sexually pleasure that causes clinically significant distress for 2 6 months Female Sexual InterestArousal Disorder Woman with no or low interest in sex unreceptive to sex no or low sexual arousal or genital response GenitoPelvic PainPenetration Disorder Difficult vaginal penetration fearful of or actual vulvovaginal or pelvic pain during coitus or attempted coitus or strong tensing of vaginal floor muscles during attempted coitus Female Orgasmic Disorder Very delayed rare or absent orgasm or much less intense orgasm in a woman Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Few or no sexual thoughts or feelings of sexual desire in men Erectile Disorder Difficulty in obtaining or maintaining a rigid erection 2 75 of sexual activity Premature Early Ejaculation Man ejaculates within 1 minute of beginning coitus and before he wants to 2 75 of occasions Delayed Ejaculation Very delayed or no ejaculation 2 75 of partnered sexual activity Paraphilic Disorders Urges for unusual sexually related behaviors that are noxious to society cause potential harm or are criminal Involve distorted targets or courtship or pain All must occur gt 6 months Must act on these urge or experience great distressimpairment from them Transvestic Disorder Sexual arousal from cross dressing Voyeuristic Disorder Sexual arousal from watching unsuspecting naked or disrobing person or person having sex Exhibitionist Disorder Sexual arousal from genital exposure to an unsuspecting person Frotteuristic Disorder Sexual arousal from touching or rubbing against a non consenting person Fetishistic Disorder Sexual arousal from nonliving objects or extreme focus on nongenital body parts Pedophilic Disorder Sexual activity with a prepubescent child Sexual Masochism Disorder Sexual arousal from being humiliated hurt or bound Sexual Sadism Disorder Sexual arousal from the suffering of somebody else Which sexual disorder is most common in younger men Which in older men Younger men Male hypoactive sexual desire disorder Older men erectile dysfunction delayed ejaculation How common is comorbidity among sexual disorders Paraphilias have a high comorbidity anxiety disorders mood disorders substance abuse disorders Know and fully comprehend the causes of the sexual disorders or paraphilias as they are currently understood For example masturbation myths spectatoring etc Biological Physical disease Medical illness Prescription medications Alcohol and drugs Psychological Contributions Distraction Lack of information Misinformation Anxiety becomes more complicated excitement vs evaluation evaluation exasperated by I unrealistic standardsexpectations 39 spectatoring Social and Cultural Contributions Negative scripts Erotophobia not comfortable with being sexual Negative or traumatic experiences Poor interpersonal relationships Lack of communication Know the basic strategies and techniques for successfully treating each of the sexual disorders and paraphilias For example masturbation orgasmic reconditioning sensate focus squeeze technique etc Psychotherapeutic Strategies for Sexual Disorders Give Accurate Information Guided Exercises such as Body exploration Masturbation Sensate Focus I Non genital exploration I Genital exploration I Non genital pleasuring I Simultaneous pleasuring Cognitive Behavior Therapy alter maladaptive thoughts and scripts address non sexual psychological disorders Couple Counseling communication amp con ict resolution increase relationship positive behaviors Medical Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Viagra Levitra Cialis I Combined with CBT Vasodilating drug injection I Papaverine or prostaglandin Penile prosthesis or implants Vascular surgery Vacuum device therapy Premature Ejaculation SSRIs sometimes reduces the ability to orgasm Low desire Once in a While testosterone Female Sexual Dysfunctions Few options little progress Paraphilias Treatment Psychosocial Interventions Behavioral Target deviant and inappropriate sexual associations Covert sensitization Orgasmic reconditioning Familymarital therapy Coping Relapse prevention Medications For dangerous sexual offenders Chemical castration I Cyproterone acetate I Medroxyprogesterone acetate I Triptoretin 10 10 Roughly What percent of men with erectile dysfunction who take Viagra are able to maintain an erection sufficient for coitus Why is Viagra a popular treatment choice Roughly 50 to 80 of males with erectile dysfunction benefit from Viagra It is a popular treatment choice because it is more reliable and successful than other methods 11 What is erotophobia What is an important consequence of having it Learned negative reaction to or attitude about sexual activity perhaps developed as a result of a negative or even traumatic event such as rape 12 How much physical force do adults who molest children typically use 85 of pedophile do not restrain their victims Actual physical force is rare 13 How successful are treatment procedures for paraphilias 70 to 98 improve Poorest outcomes 2 Rapists Multiple paraphilias Chronic course High relapse rates Neurodevelopmental Disorders 1 Understand the concept and implications of sequential skill development As a skill is learned and eventually mastered how the skill is performed undergoes dramatic changes As each individual progresses from a child to an adult they pass through several stages of skill acquisition Crawlgtwalkgtrun each one is easier than the last because previous one is mastered 2 Recognize and distinguish symptoms and difficulties for people with ADHD learning disabilities autistic spectrum disorder and intellectual disability Neurodevelopmental Disorders Usually begin in childhood often pre school Include symptoms of excess deficits amp developmental delays Range from very specific to global impairment Frequently co occur Specific Learning Disorder Deficit in learning amp using academic skills not due to sensory difficulty The skills are very below age level Specify impairment in reading written expression andor mathematics Intellectual Disability Intellectual Developmental Disorder Deficits in intellectual amp adaptive functions Typically IQ g 70 amp limiting functioning in daily life Communication Disorders Deficits in language speech and communication Language Disorder Vocabulary ability to form sentences and ability to converse are substantially less than expected for age not due to sensorymotor difficulties Speech Sound Disorder Difficulty producing effective speech not due to physical condition ChildhoodOnset Fluency Disorder Stuttering Syllableletter prolongation pauses circumlocutions monosyllabic repetitions with anxietytension Social Pragmatic Communication Disorder Deficits in social communication adapting to social context fails to understand implicitcontextual meanings ll Autism Spectrum Disorder Deficits in communication amp social interaction social emotional reciprocity nonverbal communication developingunderstanding relationships Stereotyped repetitive movements inflexible routines restricted intense interests hyper or hypo sensory reactivity Motor Disorders Developmental Coordination Disorder Clumsy or slowinaccurate performance for age Stereotypic Movement Disorder Repetitive purposeless movement Tourette s Disorder Sudden rapid recurrent nonrhythmic movement amp vocalizations gt 1 year Persistent motor or vocal tic disorder Sudden rapid recurrent nonrhythmic movement or vocalizations gt 1 year Provisional tic disorder Sudden rapid recurrent nonrhythmic movement andor vocalizations lt 1 year AttentionDeficit Iyperactivity Disorder Inattentive careless mistakes can t sustain attention doesn t seem to listen starts tasks amp quickly loses focus difficulty organizing loses things distracted forgetful Hyperactive fidgets leaves seat inappropriately feels restless always revved up talks excessively blurts out answers interrupts difficulty waiting in line What happens with ADHD as a person grows into adulthood Lower level jobs 25 fewer years of education More likely to be divorced have substance use problems and antisocial personality disorder High risk behaviors What has research shown about the affect of toxins and food additives on ADHD Little evidence shown to support these association What type of medications are Ritalin and Cylert what effect do they have on people with ADHD Ritalin and Cylert are both stimulants that prove helpful in reducing the core symptoms of hyperactivity and improving concentration on tasks What is combined treatment for ADHD and what have studies found about its efficacy compared with medication alone There is no evidence that the combined treatment is better than medication alone What are the causes of learning disorders Experts aren t exactly sure what causes learning disabilities Some possibilities include Heredity Often learning disabilities run in the family so it s not uncommon to find that people with learning disabilities have parents or other relatives with similar difficulties Problems during pregnancy and birth Learning disabilities may be caused by illness or injury during or before birth It may also be caused by low birth weight lack of oxygen drug and alcohol use during pregnancy and premature or prolonged labor 10 ll 12 13 12 Incidents after birth Head injuries nutritional deprivation and exposure to toxic substances ie lead can contribute to learning disabilities Learning disabilities are NOT caused by economic disadvantage environmental factors or cultural differences In fact there is frequently no apparent cause for learning disabilities How are learning disabilities treated Educational Interventions Specific skills instructions Strategy instruction work on Decision making Critical thinking Direct Intrusion How much does parenting style cause autism Not at all According to research by Poon et al 2012 and others at what age is it best to start treating autism text p 529 As young as possible What type of school placement if any is best for most autistic children Regular placement classroom with special help if needed What is the usual IQ cutoff for intellectual disability Why is IQ alone an insufficient criteria for intellectual disability 70 75 IQ alone isn t sufficient enough for a diagnosis of ID because a person must also have significant difficulty in areas such as communication self care home living social and interpersonal skills use of community resources self direction functional academic skills work leisure health and safety What is the cause of Down syndrome Having an extra 21St chromosome usually due to maternal age As the age of the mother increases so does her chances of having a child with Down syndrome NeurOCOgnitive Disorders 1 2 Be able to recognize and distinguish delirium dementia and amnesia Delirium rapid onset reduced clarity of consciousness and cognition with confusion disorientation and deficits in memory and language Dementia gradual deterioration of brain functioning that affects memory judgment language and other advanced cognitive processes Amnesia a partial or total loss of memory What are the major causes of delirium Drug intoxication Medications Illicit drugs MDMA Withdrawal from drugs Fever 10 ll 13 Head injurybrain trauma Infections Oxygen deprivation Poisons Sleep deprivation An individual with NCD may become agitated apathetic or have other problems What causes these problems Difficult to establish cause effect relationship gt generally believed to be caused by the awareness that they are deteriorating mentally and the frustration that accompanies that It can also be attributed to the progressive brain deterioration Be able to recognize a description of someone with Alzheimer s disease When a person is showing signs of dementia how is Alzheimer s initially diagnosed A simplified version of a mental status exam is used to assess language and memory problems gt short term memory loss misnaming of things How is a definitive diagnosis for Alzheimer s disease made By looking at the brain after the person dies autopsy What was found to be a good early predictor for Alzheimer s disease among a group of nuns Massie et al 1996 Low Idea density simple writing occurred among all five nuns with Alzheimer s What are the effects of education and socioeconomic status on developing Alzheimer s dementia What is the usual explanation for these differences Intellectual achievement prevents or delays the onset of symptoms of the disorder Educational attainment creates a mental reserve learned set of skills that help someone cope longer with cognitive deterioration serves as an initial protective factor in the development of the disorder Those better off economically receive a better education while the poor of our society receive a subpar education and therefore suffer Alzheimer more frequentlyearlier What is the cognitive reserve hypothesis The concept of brain reserve or cognitive reserve CR refers to the ability to tolerate the age related changes and disease related pathology in the brain without developing clinical symptoms or signs of disease What are the neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques that indicate Alzheimer s disease When are they found Plaques abnormal clusters of protein fragments build up between nerve cells Dead and dying nerve cells contain tangles which are made up of twisted strands of another protein Found in the BRAIN Describe the process of the buildup of the amyloid plaques in Alzheimer s dementia Core of plaquesolid waxy substance make up of peptide amyloid beta causes cell death associated with Alzheimer s chokes the cell APP Amyloid precursor protein breaks down to amyloid protein in the plaques 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 14 What is the relation between apoE genes and Alzheimer s dementia Normally helps transport cholesterols through the bloodstream There are 3 other forms of this protein Apo E4 may be responsible for late onset Alzheimer s disease and that a gene on chromosome 19 is responsible How are the signs symptoms and course the same and how are they different for dementia caused by Alzheimer s vascular accident and HIV Alzheimer39s disease AD is the most common cause of dementia in people over age 65 with cause possibly related to amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles almost all brain functions including memory movement language judgment behavior and abstract thinking are eventually affected Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of dementia caused by brain damage from cerebrovascular or cardiovascular problems strokes or other problems that inhibit vascular function symptoms similar to AD but personality and emotions effected only late in the disease HIVassociated dementia is due to infection of the brain with HIV virus symptoms include impaired memory apathy social withdrawal and concentration problems Why do symptoms vary so much in people with vascular dementia Because multiple sites of the brain can be damaged so the particular skills that are impaired differ from person to person What exactly causes dementia in people who are HIV positive HIV infection itself seems to be responsible for the neurological impairment What parts of the brain are affected by HIV The inner part of the brain subcortical dementia What neurochemical is implicated in Parkinson s disease DOPAMINE What does TBI stand for What are the three types of TBI Traumatic brain injury Executive dysfunction difficulty planning complex activites learning and memory problems Closed Brain Injury Occurs when the head accelerates and then rapidly decelerates or collides with another object for example the windshield of a car and brain tissue is damaged not by the presence of a foreign object within the brain but by the violent smashing shaking stretching and twisting of brain tissue The nerve endings connecting the skull to the brain are often torn or become completely separated from the brain Closed brain injuries typically cause diffuse tissue damage that result in disabilities which are generalized and highly variable Open Penetrating Brain Injury Occurs when an object e g bullet knife fractures the skull enters the brain and injures the brain tissue in the process These injuries tend to damage localized areas of the brain and result in discrete and relatively predictable disabilities Acquired Brain Injury ABI Skull fracture The implication of this term is that the individual experienced normal growth and development from conception through birth until sustaining an insult to the brain later that resulted in impairment of brain function ABI is caused by the shearing of brain nerve fiber due to trauma or by cell death related 15 to swelling bleeding disease or loss of oxygen to the brain anoxia Whether mild moderate or severe acquired brain injury can cause physical cognitive speechlanguage and behavioral dysfunction 19 What types of sports are associated with later NCD and why Boxing football soccer hockey 20 How do the medications that sometimes benefit people with Alzheimer s dementia work How much benefit do they typically give Success has been modest at best T acrine hydrochloride rarely used bc of liver damage but it prevents breakdown of neurotransmitter acetylcholine gt not permanent Drugs that target beta amyloid are being researched Some vaccines are being researched that get immune system to attack process that overproduces small protein amyloid beta that lead to cell death 21 What can a person do to prevent or slow the progress of Alzheimer s dementia Control blood pressure don t smoke active physical and social life 22 What is the difference between dissociative amnesia and cognitive disorder amnesia Dissociative amnesia occurs when a person blocks out certain information usually associated with a stressful or traumatic event leaving him or her unable to remember important personal information With this disorder the degree of memory loss goes beyond normal forgetfulness and includes gaps in memory for long periods of time or of memories involving the traumatic event Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect learning memory perception and problem solving and include amnesia dementia and delirium Dissociative amnesia applies only to traumatic events and specific instances while cognitive disorder amnesia accounts for memory and learning functions in general
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