HIST Exam/Midterm 2
Popular in HIST 120 - History of the U.S. through Reconstruction
Popular in History
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Actual VS Virtual Representation 3 types of issues economic political amp social political no taxation without representation No one from colonies was sitting in the Parliament to decide the raise of taxes England claimed you have virtual representation since you are mostly commoners so the house of commons speaks for you Colonies demanded to send a person from New England to represent Actual Representation Constitutionalitv another coffee house argument England did not have a written Constitution there were big debates regarding laws Did English Parliament have the right to tell the colonies what to do 0 Colonies no because we do not vote for people who are in Parliament and if it violates my rights it is unconstitutional or a bad law 0 England Any law English passes automatically is a good law since elected by Parliament You have the right to express yourself because you are a human being not just because it39s written down this just makes it easier to enforce Sovereignty 0 All about where does the power lie Colonies thought King rules over everything over England parliament New England colonies ndia England said King and parliament rule together constitutional monarch over England colonies India Hong Kong First Great Awakening lSociall 1740 religious movement started in Europe amp transferred to American colonies introduced all types of new religions All ideas about going to heaven was predetermined God decides who goes and who goes to hell nothing you could do about it Q Enlightenment logicalscientific reasoning Says that there are rules to the world amp how nature works that you could figure out these things Free to choose there was a formula to go to Heaven 0 Confess you re an evil sinner then you can be reborn this was popular in the colonies people stopped going to church since your destiny was determined New Lights VS Old Lights new born in colonies young preachespastors very inspiring held big revival meetings said shouldn39t follow someone that isn39t born again Old lights born in England boring educated People choose the New Parents rejected religious leaders from England and then younger generations the children rejected everything 0 England was the Metropolis they made the initial investment to start the New England colony The colonies like Georgia or Virginia were being screwed over because England was benefitting and getting the most money out of this system England sends capital money and labor settlers indentured servants into the colony then the colony sends back to metropolis raw goods then they convert them into manufactured goods Colony sends commerce to metropolis both colony amp metropolis send money into Periphery Africa they send back labor slavery to colony Trade and Navigation Acts 1662 parliament passes law to regulate trade 1 of the first was no foreign ships in colonial ports 1690 England designated certain goods to be enumerated commodities 6 products tobacco sugar cotton indigo ginger and wool This made it so the colonies had no choice but to sell it to England so a low price and then England could sell it to other countries like France or Spain for a high price making England get all the profit As time passed into the 1700 s England kept adding more things to the list like rice and naval supplies and the Colonies could protest but England would say there are a lot ofthings they didn39t put on the list and we are protecting your farms by not allowing certain things to grow in England Basically England was making everything that made money an enumerated commodity which restricted colonial manufacturing potential This caused resentment in the colony Salutarv Neglect beneficialnot going to look closelvl England had a lot of rules they didn39t really enforce their rules that much during 17141742 letting the rules slide People who were suppose to enforce these laws didn39t get paid very much but it was a high competition to get the jobs A lot of smuggling went on people would bribe the port guard to leave for an hour so a ship could come in England let them get away with this on purpose so they wouldn39t revolt besides they were making so much money it didn t matter that much But in 1763 England started to crack down on smuggling and end Salutary Neglect passed the Sugar Act 10 years later American Revolution couldn39t put up with them anymore England saw it like this what is this talk about independence when we started the colony for you if he hadn39t made the initial investment there would be no tobacco plantsmarkets no colonies England protected us from other countries especially France especially good army and navy Parliament tried to exercise its power on the colonies and this is when things got a little crazy All the Acts below where enacted created by the English Parliament French and Indian War Imperial crisis started with this war the war was a great miscalculation 17561763 England was run by the Parliament the person running it was the Prime Minister William Pitt king was just a figurehead 1756 war broke out between French and American colonies which proposed to have a big war to settle the conflict once and for all so they could rid them from Eastern Europe England won now the most powerful in nation in the world with the finest Navy and strong Army 3 things occurred after the war 1 British national debt almost doubled 17 milliongt 133 million pound sterling economy was hurting a English North American colonies economy went down the tubes 2 New cultural tensions British had no respect for the Americans looked down on them and vice versa an Indian could kill English soldier so Americans weren39t so impressed with the English Army 3 different viewpoints Americans questioned why they needed England now that French is dealt with they weren39t grateful and didn39t want to keep selling stuff to them Sugar Act 1764 George Grenville head of Parliament passed this act which lowered the tariff tax on sugar so people didn39t have to smuggle Before England was collecting 2000 a year in taxes then after this act they get 30000 England could search your ships and you could not sew the government for stopping youfalse arrest Vice admiraltv Courts Courts in charge of smuggling transporting goods illegally expanded trial byjudge by themselves not myjury judges could be fired if not getting enough convictions Quartering Act 1765 England sent soldiers to the towns that were acting up and the people were required to find homes quarters for them Said we are doing it to protect the coloniesfrom the Indians but they haven39t had problems with them for about 100 years so didn39t really make sense New York said no we need no soldiers but then England put even more soldiers there NY Restructuring Act 1765 Took out the colonial councils put more soldiers in colonies This was a direct tax on colonies sales tax of 3 cents put a little stamp on every piece of written document newspaper book licenses England had been doing this since 1725 so they were use to it October 3lst 1765 when first stamps arrived riots broke out and colonist get a little crazy by not accepting it and parliament could not enforce the law The colonial elites felt it was aimed right at them so they didn t stop the mobs Conspiracy Theory develops that King was a good guy but he was getting really badevil advice who wanted to ruin the colonies In 1766 they got rid of the Stamp Act it was bad mistake Sons of Liberty Freedom fighters mostly lived in towns New York Boston Philly middle class who lead these mobs went to homes of stamp sellers and tied them to post and carried them to the outskirts of town to tar and feather their body Declaratorv Act 1766 English parliament declared we have the right to pass laws in the colonies Townshend DutiesCharles Townshend Replaced Grenville and claimed Colonies don39t want to pay taxes so no new more taxes but more tariff tax on imported goods Tariff is suppose to balance trade England placed new Tariffs on 5 items glass paint lead tea paper so colonies avoideddidn39t buy these goods In 1770 got rid of the Tariffs on everything except on the Tea townshend duties were people who enforced the tariffs Boston Massacre March 5 1770 British soldier was by himself guarding the customs house which collects the Tariffs A mob comes and he blows whistle and bunch of soldiers come to help so then it s mob vs soldiers One ofthe British soldiers called out Fire and 5 unarmed men are killed British claimed someone in the crowded called Fire but this scared both side so things calm down for about 3 years Crispus Attackus was one of the first men killed England greatly underestimated the problems of the colonies thought they were just spoiled brats Parliament tried to impose their will on the colonies and colonies didn39t really listen Boston Tea Partv In America they thought the Tea Act of 1773 which lowered the price of tea was all a trick conspiracy mindset that it wasn39t solely to help the East India Tea Co to fool people to buying the Tea and pay the Townshend Duty it wasn39t November 2 1773 Americans sons of liberty dressed up as Native Americans snuck on board of the ship searching for the tea got all the tea and dumped it overboard and touched nothing else This was very hard on the East India Tea Co they couldn39t afford to lose that much Coercive Act 1774 AKA Intolerable Acts England was not going to stand for colonies actions so they passed 3 laws for Boston 1 Massachusetts assembled is dissolvederased now just governor ruling 2 Shut down the port of Boston guarded w Naval troops so no shipping or trade in and out of Boston not until they pay for the Tea 3 British troops in Boston were not subjected to local Quarters if a man rapes an American girl they were taken to court in England not in Boston designed to make an example out ofBoston crack down on them but this didn39t really help it just spread and the entire America was revolutionary each side did not understand each other On April 19 1775 Americans start to fight back American Revolution started 4435 Americans killed in action small number considering a 8 year war there was a certain level of civility gentlemen ness Patrick Ferguson Major in British army invented a new type of gun range of 300 yards loaded down by the trigger only weighed half as much but he had to test the gun before the army used it so he took scoutsgood sniper and on September 7 1776 he s in Pennsylvania and heard horse coming so he hid in the bushes and it was George Washington and one other man and they popped out and could39ve shot him but didn39t let him pass because it was not proper to shoot him in the back LoyalistsTories loyal to England vs Rebels Americans Didn t know much about medicine or germs American Revolution low point in history of therapeuticshealing Concord and Lexington April 19th 1775 General Thomas Gage planned to send British troops to Concord to get the guns April 18 Paul Revere called out the redcoats British are coming he was stopped by the British and they saw off the saddle so he can39t ride the horse American militiavolunteers farmers with guns set up a roadblock in Lexington British yell at them telling them to move but don t so 8 Americans killed 10 injured and they retreat Its said that the shots fired at Lexington are the shots heard around the world and the beginning of Revolution British didn39t find weapons in Concord they were surrounded by Rebels so British had to retreat back to Boston many were killed June 17 1775 American and English fought the battle of Bunker Hill it was really on Breed39s Hill because it was closer amp higher ground which was the most bloody and probably most important battle Americans led by Prescott and they protected themselves from bullets with a trench and some trees He told the soldiers don39t fire until you can see the whites of their eyes this took a great deal of courage because the British had bayonets at the end of their guns The British had to retreat down the hill due to heavy fire Gage led the British and decided shoot from the side because he was afraid of getting caught in crossfire so he goes for a frontal assault He wanted to end the American Revolution right then and there but they are defeated and shocked on what is happening There were heavy casualties more British men died then Americans eventually British conquer the hill but no one saw this as a victory Lord Dunmore39s Ethiopian Regiment It s 1 of the great ironies of American Revolution colonists were fighting for their freedom but they weren39t really slaves ofEngIand African American were slaves and they were promised if leave your master and fight in the English army you will earn your freedom so 2000 slavesjoined On December 15 1775 Great Bridge Virginia the English are defeated and Virginia militia took on the black slaves Lord Dunmore was banished from Virginia and took only 500 Ethiopians no one really knows what happened to the other 1500 Hessians These are Germans mercenaries from the town of Hess that were hired to fightfor England The were allowed to pillage any town England was not understanding this war they think the overwhelming numbers will make the Americans surrender Nathan Hale He was one of the Sons of Liberty lighting fires on warehouses in New York but he got captured by British and sentenced to death and his last words Iregret that but I have 1 life to give my country he could only die once for his country This made it really hard to defeat them when they think like that G Washington retreats to Pennsylvania and on December 26th attacks Trenton New Jersey Hessians have to retreat this was a wrong strategic move England wanted to plug up the revolutionaries in the corner of the United States Howe will take his troops up to Lake Champlain and Burgoyne will come down from Canada to meet up in Albany September 11 1777 Washington and Howe trying to take the capital win meet at Brandywine Creek and Americans are defeated but Americans say that s not the capital anymore September 19 1777 Arnold vs Burgoyne 8000 vs 8000 Burgoyne had 10000 Native Americans along side until the troops encounter an American who tricks them saying Arnold as 30000 men Burgoyne was defeated and had to surrender 8000 men this was a major defeat France has been under the counter helping Americans because they didn39t like the English but not actually fighting them so after this Battle France sees America as an independent country and they think they could win so they declare war on England then Spain then Holland major breakthrough for America Battle of Yorktown March 15 1781 Cornwalis defeated the Americans at Guilford39s Court House then took his army to Chesapeake Bay to Yorktown has 8500 English soldiers seems like a good place because he can39t be shot at from the side since there39s ocean Washington thinks it could be a trap so he brings 9000 American troops and 7800 French troops French ships landed in the bay so Cornwalis was trapped October 19 1781 tries to march out of the peninsula but the English had surrendered Gen George Washington A 0 more than a revolutionary leader 0 Knew the role he must play not great strategic general lost a lot of battles but he understood the war and what it was all about Ca Roman senator that Washington saw as a role model Everyone went along with Caesar taking over Rome and being dictator except Cato one for the people never lost his virtue Valley Forge Winter of 177778 English took Philly and are staying there they have a lot of food and supplies Washington could39ve taken over a small town but didn39t instead vent to Valley Forge Pennsylvania and built the barracks for 8000 men The American people were suppose to help but they didn39t The army was starting to go hungry junior officers said to go steal some cows from the near by people but Washington said no because then they would bejust like the British ripping people off also it may stop trade over the world The revolution was an ideal they wanted to do things differently about the hearts and minds of the American people Meeting at Newburgh March 15 1783 anonymous note where does your loyalty lie vague idea of US or the army your brothers who fought for you Washington got a hold of this note and calls upon a meeting saying that the government will pay and get the money he has a letter from congress and reads it but his eyes were giving out and plants the guilt trip saying I39ve given up all I39ve got for this country and we don39t want to screw it up men were convinced no more Coup de39tat Cincinnatus another role model of Washington said let civilians run the country Articles of Confederation Original constitution ratified in 1781 this made united states army really weak It denied the federal government to tax so they didn39t have money so couldn39t pay the Army Congress kept thinking about demobilizing the Army maybe dismiss the soldiers without pay but never do this because you have to keep the army on your side Army thought Congress should be dismissed without pay started thinking Coup de39tat taking over the government Very very weak 13 little countries coming together hard to enforce any policies following the war that was ok because AF liked it like that Small minority thought it would fall apart because you could not hold a democracy Shav s Rebellion Daniel Shays led rebellion tax rebellion distribute the corporate put down the rebellion quickly Fear of Concentrated Power the federal government would have too much power and they would abuse it Diverse coalition of people who opposed ratification ofthe Constitution wanted to spread out power as much as possible afraid of concentrated power which they thought was badevil AntiFederalists gt Bill of Rights federal government would get too strong and violate citizens rights 1 wanted certain guarantees 2 if you feel uneasy about strangers having complete access to your privacy some cops are badyou lean toward antifederalists Federalists Said this is the beginning of the disaster you need to be stronger lets make constitutional convention to fix the AOC if you want to change anything all 13 states have to agreeapprove Federalists gt Constitution people who wanted a strong federal government Constitutional Convention May 25th 1787 met in Philadelphia made 2 decisions right away 1 refused to talk to the press meet in secret not tell anyone what we39re doing 2 took ADC and crumpled them up and threw them away need a whole new government they had a very strong nationalist outlook needed one that could tax people needed a stronger government BiCameral Legislature big states vs little states who should have more power bigger population more power legislature are people who make the laws to figure out who should have the power 0 House of Representatives it is based on population 0 Senate everyone gets 2 senators everyone is equal led to the argument how do you count the slaves 35th39s Compromise count all the white people but only count 35th39s of the black people this idea has been kind of abused bad for slaves and America because they weren39t being treated as human beings they didn39t have any rights made things worse for slaves t put more white slave owners in congress slaves couldn39t be in house of reps It took them about 4 months to create Constitution AF39s said we have a whole new document F39s said you made the federal government too strong we are not going to adopt this and for about a year people were submitting changes 90 of people voted against taxing Bill of Rights Antifederalist demanded certain guarantees which is the first 10 amendments to the constitution aka Bill of Rights lst amendment congress should make no law to establish a religion and can39t prohibit free religion separate church and state Supreme court decides if law is constitutional Anti fed say don39t want anyone telling us what to believe don39t bring religion into it Bill of Rights lets people live the way people were designed to live we are entitled to a certain sense of privacy to believe what we want able to freely express ourselves when people get afraid the bill of rights goes right out the window Freedom of Expression congress should abide no law against expression no law abridging the right to peacefully assemble curfew laws violate the constitution people are afraid of teenagers Right to bear Arms quota well regulated militiaquot Necessary to the security ofa state everyone has the right to own a gun An outdated thing they were afraid if the united states had a standing army the citizens would not be unable to defend themselves now its more about selling gun It s Problematic because everyone including crazy people can get a gun In 1789 good idea but now with the military having drones tanks high tech guns citizens really don t stand a chance with a few rifles Probable Cause 4th amendments no unreasonable searches no warrants should be issued without probable cause This is slowly getting eroded Antifederalists felt that most cops were ok but if you give them too much power they will abuse that power When people get afraid then the 4th gets disregarded and constitution goes out the window Cruel and Unusual Punishment 8th amendment excessive bail should not be required nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted prohibiting the federal government from imposing excessive bail excessive fines or cruel and unusual punishments including torture Alexander Hamilton First guy Washington brought into capital born in West Indies bastard son grows up with a bunch of wealth very smartintelligent Comes to states when 19 for an education feels confident about America being its own little country but not tied to any of the states Although he grew up with the wealth it is never going to be his money he admired them the wealthy instead of hating them and eventually became wealthy Very strong believer in federal government little faith in the people Anglophile loved the English Secretary of the Treasury at age 32 never could be president because he was born in West Indies H better for everyone to work for a giant incorporationindustry he had a definite plan got most ideas pushed through a Stabilize the government finances b build and demonstration the power of the federal government c tie the rich to the new government get rich people on your side d build up the domestic economy transportation network give out business loans e build closer ties with England Assumption soldiers were paid in Scrips wealthy bought them and federal government took overassumed the debts of the states Bank of US national bank concentrates a great deal of wealth with very few hands easy to manipulate Thomas Jefferson second guy Washington brought into capital Very smart guy wrote the declaration of independence probably the most important document came from Virginia appreciated a strong federal government but never too strong He was a philosopher and naturalist but He was a slave owner wrote the words that all men are created equal didn39t consider slaves as people Wife died and never remarried but constantly slept with Sally Hemming39s a slave and had children with her Thomas J never could save to that amount of money but enough to found university buy expensive books and wines First secretary of state Francophile loved the French 1800 president J wanted people self employed small businessmen he had a general idea Washington owned slave however he managed to free his slaves He set aside a great deal of money so when he died they could be freed Whiskev Rebellion 1792 passed Whiskey Tax to make everyone feel the power of the federal government wanted to show the small backcountry farmers Farmerspeople refused to pay whiskey tax Hamilton got a 12000 men army went to Pennsylvania and arrested 2 amp took to Washington then agreed to pay tax some think it was an over reaction XYZ affair embarrassing incident for J might be looking like we are going to war with France discriminated against immigrants harsh laws restricting citizens first amendments 1799 we avoided the war with france very important court case Washington served 2 terms and said he was done and held a presidential election 1796 john Adams got the most votes then it was ThomasJ so John would be president and J would be VP election in 1800 all but one voted for Burr NY and all but one forJ so it was a tie ThomasJ VA was president Hamilton hated Burr so ThomasJ became president in 1800 ThomasJ elected November of 1880 but not going to take office until March John Adam was still president quotLame duckquot presidency Adams still the president but not going to be it for very long few months he was a definite lame duck president started appointing a whole bunch ofjudges who shared his political philosophies thought like JA kind of his friends then called Midnight Judges William Marbury was appointed one of the judges judge of nations capital Adams filled out and signed all papers but did not deliver the papers Madison the one delivering papers comes in and refuses Marbury the papers doesn39t like him judges is illegitimate So Marbury goes to Supreme court and asks them to issue a court order forcing Madison to give him the papers Judiciary Act of 1789 sec 13 no one was sure what supreme court could do so 1789 congress passed this act saying they can issue a court order when the court orders someone to do something The problem judge judicial branch issues court order if you violate this order police come and arrest you which is the Executive branch enforcing the order ChiefJustice of supreme court is John Marshall if we say no Marbury loses paper if we say yes Madison can just say no because Madison is the executive branch secretary of state 1803 decision comes Madison should get his papers but we shouldn39t issue him a court order because we do not have the power to even though congress gave us the power congress can not give us the power because the constitution does not give us that power so this Act is unconstitutional first time that something violated the constitution Marshall created the job of the supreme court Judicial Review to decide is constitutional or not 3 things come out 1 Marbury does not get his judgeship the justice of the peace 2 the supreme court loses the power of issuing court orders 3 but they gain the power of Judicial Review power to interpret the constitution failed really badly in 1896 Plessy V Ferguson 0 blacks must ride in a separate cart than whites Plessy was an African American man who said that was illegal challenged this law the constitution claims that quotseparate but equalquot once you separate people you create unfairness Good 1974 US vs Richard M Nixon Nixon was president of US running for reelection 1972 was going to win but was afraid for a last minute surprise so sent his aids to plant listening devices in democrat headquarters and got caught had direct connects to Nixon white house got in touch with the FBI and said it was a CIA investigation and said the opposite to CIA he won elections further investigation found out that Nixon had recordings of the oval office which would say the truth about his plans Supreme Court demanded the tapes if august 1974 he designed to resign
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