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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabriah Brown on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MUS-22111-001 at Kent State University taught by William B Hannam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
Understanding Music Study guide Music is made of different elements The P gt P Pquot39gtS l l 39 Melody Rhythm Harmony Texture Form Tempo Dynamics Timbre tamber Middle Ages 450 AD 1450 AD First written music appears around 450 AD Most of the music of this time has been lost as of most of the writings about the music The middle ages begin with the fall of the roman empire The catholic church will ll the power void Church becomes authority in almost all matters of politics culture and religion in most of Europe Main point how the authority of church will change through the middle ages amp how this allows music to change Pope Gregory Credited with collecting music to be used in Service of Catholic Church Also created rst singing school in Rome schola cantorium Approximately 3000 deliveries all written anonymously Monophonic free owing melody with Latin text Melodies became known as Gregorian chant Generic term for this type of music is plain chant Chant just melodies sung by one singer or small group no music behind words Slowed and Melismatic phrases that seem to have no rhythm Melisma grouping of notes set on a single syllable or text D The Church modes Major or minor key didn39t exist Modes are scales Major and minor scales are also modes Church modes are speci c scale that are not major or minor l The mass Death reenactment of the sacri ce of Christ Most solemn ritual in the Roman Catholic Church I love the music from Middle Ages music from math is the most survived Each section of mass has certain Gregorian chants to go with it I the math different types High mass V low mass High mass missa solemnis Combo of sung and spoken text Low mass Missa ecta all text spoken by one celebrant priest The ordinary and the proper Ordinary exact same text performed with only a few main sections that are most important These would appear in many mass Proper contains several other text be on the main ones and these will change depending on occasion of the service 5 sections of ordinary Kyrie Gloria credo Sanctus and Benedictus Angus dei European history 8th11th century Death by late 1800 church has in uence political policy in Europe now involved in succession Instead of oldest son air now split between all sons This weekend Kingdom and makes them targets for north south and east invaders ln eighth and ninth century we see these attacks on Catholic Europe Catholic Europe Italy France parts Of West Spain England GermanyAustria Some of surrounding land Feudalism developed in 10th and 11th centuries Security more important than stability Commoners found that they could trust local lords more than the church to protect them Monarch begin to grow once again Feudalism cause tension in church leading to split in eastern and western portions of the church D East traditional and west more progressive Short after split Muslim invasion take holy land ofJerusalem 1095 AD Pope Urban ll called First Crusade and responds to Turk invasion polyphony most important development and western music Examples of here between 1000 and 1150 AD Polyphony forces changes musical notation moves us toward our modern system gtrhythmic notation system organum earliest form of polyphony Adds a second voice above or below original voice Voice is more parallel to each other L onin 11351201 amp P rotin 11751238 gtL onin rst prominent composer of polyphonic music whose name we know today composed in 2 part organum gtP rotin L onins student He extended orgasm 3 amp 4 parts Both men composed music for Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris Organum develop more precise style Upper voice faster note Some upper voice eventually newly composed Lower voice from old chance soon but now stretched out sometimes lower line played by instrument instead of sung No form of music Motet Motets in Middle Ages was always in triple meter secular music Minstrels town to town entertaining whatever audience will gather playing music acting spreading gossip I often lived in fringes of society Most people saw them as less than good or honest Troubadour composer performer who went part of the nobility mainly in France Dads name in Inventor or finder originally Music based on love poetry Instrumental music During Middle Ages vocal music was more important but 130039s see more instrumental music 1 Instruments often used to support double voice parts or to accompany singers 2 Instruments important to dance Most dance was improvised rather than written down One of the most important dance types of the Middle Ages was estampie Ars Nova mid 13001450 new art because Ars Antiqua old art began in France move to Italy artists moved from religious things to more secular ideas composes wrote polyphonic music not based on Gregorian chant Guillaume de machaut 13001370 became a priest was secretary for King of Bohemia Later became composer in court of Duke of Normandy Greatest composer of his time in his last year wrote both sacred and secular music More than 20 motet Large number of secular songs based on love poetry chansons Also wrote earliest known complete polyphonic settings of the mass Messe de Notre dame Q7Hundred Years War 13371453 War between France and England Best de ning period in the histories of both countries begin when King Philip the VI of France attempted to take over English territory and duchy of Aquitaine in southwestern France ended when the French nally expelled the English from the continent itthe plague also known as quot the black deathquot The plague started in port city of Italy in 1347 spread through Germany and France into England in 1348 It made its way into Spain by 1350 Nearly 75 million people died of the Black Plague 13 of Europe population didn39t completely disappear until early 1600s it The Renaissance 14501600 AD Major change in overall philosophy is humanism Does humanism based on idea man in present more important than what may happen and hereafter This move away from religion as societies grapes authority also allow for a revival of scienti c inquiry People looked back to ancient Greek and Romans for inspiration and knowledge Art is from individual instead of from God Musicians in Renaissance nd jobs in church for city or state or for Royal or aristocratic courts Composers Choir masters Singers Organists lnstrumentalist Teachers Princess Publisher beginning of Renaissance were in Italy Fact that Renaissance originated in Italy is problem for music historian In many art ltaly lead ltaians slack behind and composition of music Most great composers in Renaissance come from North 0 Northern France Belgium amp Holland ltalian brought the composer to Italy at General characteristics of Renaissance music 1 Vocal music still most prominent A Vocal lines smooth ow and conceive around abilities of the human voice in a more artistic way than before B Polyphonic music often use practice of continuous imitation C Church music vocal sung acapella D Secular music instrumental accompaniment E Instrumental music more prominent 2 Development and advancement of a compositional technique called tone painting A Tone painting composing a way so as to represent the ideas of text in music 3 Music used cantus rmus xed melody as basis of new composition A Like how they used Gregorian chant melodies now a cantus rmus not have to belong hell out notes Can be heard in original form B Cantus rmus preexisting melody used as basis for new composition Renaissance motet Motets strictly a form of sacred music Only one text you at this time more easily understood Advancement in polyphony ruin that plan 1 master of Renaissance motets was Josquin Desprez 14451521 Franco Flemish composer born in small Belgium town on border of France Career in Italy involved with papal choir in Rome Greatly advanced practice of continuous imitation oCounterpoint polyphony more complex than anyone else 01 pair of imitative voices followed by a second pair Josquin more than 100 motets 17 masses and a lot of secular music it Music historians frustrated don39t know orders of his work Where he was most of his life His early music he lost or destroyed do have work in his name but isn39t his
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