Lecture Notes 1,2,3
Lecture Notes 1,2,3 PSY150A1
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gigi on Tuesday September 22, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 436 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/22/15
LECTURE 1 History Psychology Scienti c study of behavior and mental processes Hindsight bias After learning an outcome you have the tendency to believe that you would have foreseen it 1 knew it all along phenomenon Root 1 Physiology Hippocrates Phrenology Study of biological workings Hippocrates saw illness as in imbalance of uids quothumorsquot Phrenoogy 19th cent science that predicted personality based on bumps on skull First brain specialization and study of regions Root2 Philosophy Use of logic amp speculation to John Locke understand reality amp human Tabula Rasa experience john Locke was a philosopher who believed everyone is born with a quottabula rasa or blank slate Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism 1st psych lab in Leipzig Introspection Germany 1879 father founder of structural5m attempt to identify structures of mind School 1 Structuralism Attempt to identify structures of the mind lntrospection primary tool thinking about our mental processes then reporting them like the counting windows in our head example in class But not every mental process is available to us William James Functional ism School 2 Functionalism William James father Studied how the mind helps people adapt to the world wanted to apply psych principles in uence of Darwin Gestalt Psychology Perceptual units School 3 Gestalt German for Whole the whole is more than the sum of its parts Primarily concerned with perception perceptual units brain organizes incoming info to simplify the world Psychoanalytic psychodynamic psychology Sigmund Freud School 4 Psychoanalytic Theory Aka psychodynamic Sigmund Freud cocaine enthusiast focus on neurology Separate components of the mind some of which are unconscious like sexual and aggressive Tension between thoughts and behavior Everything is symbolic ex compulsive hand washing is washing the dirt of unconscious desires Behaviorism 2 responses to behaviorism I Humanistic psych 2 Cognitive psych School 5 Behaviorisg focused on observable behaviors and how we learn them stimulus response relationships form reward and punishment some behaviorists argued the mental process don t exist BF Skinner Humanistic Psychology emphasized growth potential of healthy people Cognitive Revolution Computer provided new analogy for psychologists o brainhardware omental processessoftware studies how info is stored and worked with ex memory language thinking decision making problem solving LECTURE 2 Research Step 1 Identify a Problem Step 2 Make a prediction about a relationship between variables Hypothesis Pred i C L39 i O n Variable Can change manipulated or measured Step 3 Test hypothesis by collecting data Operational De nition using operational de nitions de nition of variable that speci es how it is measured or manipulated Step 4 Set of principles that explain a set Theory of observations Step 5 Test theory by generating new hypothesis Descriptive Research Describes characteristics of a certain phenomenongroup of people Case Study Study one person in depth used in exceptional cases brain damage patients Pros Detailed amp suggests ideas for future research Cons person may be atypical nonrepresentative of population Surveys Population Sample Random samples Draw a conclusion about population based on sample Every person in population has equal chance to be represented Naturalistic Observations Pro observations of behavior in natural setting no arti cial labs Cons difficult to be truly unobtrusive ethical Correlation Measure of how closely related two variables are Variables are predictive of each other Correlation coe icient Stat measures correlation 11 Positive increase in one predicts Direction increase in the other negative direction increase in one predicts decrease in other 0 no relationship Size number quantity Bigger correlationsmore predictive Smallerless predictive gt Direction and size of correlations are independent a correlation of 65 is just as big as 65 Pros demonstrates covariation easy low cost when a variable cannot be manipulated Third variableproblem Con correlation does not imply causation Experiment Determines causal relationship between variables IV cause manipulated DV effect measured 3 Steps of Experimental Research 1 Casual Hypothesis Experimental Condition 2 Manipulate IV Control 3 Measure DV Needs a group that serves as a comparisoncontrol Important that all different groups are treated as identically as possible except for the IV of interest Random Assignment Confound Makes outcome different but is not the IV Threaten internal validity Reliability Consistency same results when repeated Internal Validity Con dence that the IV External Validity manipulated caused group difference in DV Extent to which a study s ndings can be generalized to situations outside lab Demand characteristics 0 Placebo 0 Doubleblind design Effects that occur when researchers expectations led him or her consciously or not to treat participants in a way that encourages them to produce the expected results Any Effect on thought or behavior caused by an inert substance that is assumed to be active Participant and experimenter both blind to the condition Descriptive Stats Mean median mode measures of central tendency Range standard deviation measures of variability Inferential Stats Reveal whether differencespatterns in measurements re ect true patterns in groups vs just chance va a ons Statistical Significance 95 con dence level Informed Consent Told what is expected possible risks bene ts before study Debriefing Interview after that ensures participant has no negative reactions and understands why the study was conducted LECTURE 3 Biological Bases of Behavior Biological Psych biopsychology neuroscience Studies the link between biology amp behaviors 1 Receives signals 2 Processes signals 3 Sends signals to other neurons muscles organs neurotransmission Neuron Nerve cell Basic unit of nervous system Glial cells Maintain homeostasis form myelin and provide support and protection for neurons Cell Body soma Central part contains nucleus Dendrites Branches that receive chemical messages from other neurons antennae Axon Long cable like extension that delivers messages to other neurons Myelin Sheath Layer of fatty tissue that insulates axon and speeds up neurotransmission Schwann Cells Insulate individual nerve bers axons which is necessary for sending appropriate electrical signals throughout the nervous system Nodes of Ranvier Gaps formed between the myelin sheaths generated by different cells Terminal Buttons Structures at ends of axon branches that contain neurotransmitters Synapse gap between buttons and next neuron All or none law Neuron is always either at rest or ring Restingpotential Negative charge sodium ions outside Actionpotential Positive charge in action Excitatory messages quotGas pedalquot Inhibitory messages quotBra kesquot Threshold If there are enough excitatory signals the neuron res Neurotransmitter Chemical that sends signals from one neuron to another over synapse electrochemical process neurotransmitters stored in vesicles in the terminal buttons bind to receptors on the next neuron Acetylcholine Ach Dopamine Norepinephrine Serotonin Each receptor can only bind with one kind of neurotransmitter lock and key Some neurotransmitter remains in synaptic cleft after receptors are occupied Reuptake reabsorb neurotransmitter into vesicles Muscle movement some memory decreased Ach production in Alzheimer s Controls brains reward amp pleasure centers de cits in Parkinson s excess in schizophrenia Helps control alertness amp arousal quotfight or ight responsequot Helps regulate mood de cit depression SSRI S Depression is treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors Endorphins quotMorphine withinquot act as natural pain killers released in response to pain exercise excitement sex love quotRunners highquot spicy foods acupuncture Agonist Excite promote neurotransmission mimic neurotransmitters effects from similar structure morphineampendorphins Antagonist Inhibit block neurotransmission similar enough to occupy receptor but not enough to activate curare or may prevent release of neurotransmitter botox Brain Damage Patients Phineas Gage How we know the different parts of the brain have different roles 18231860 Left frontal lobe railroad worker dynamite shoots rod through brain he survived but became an opposite person Neuroimaging Image of structure or function of brain EEG Recording of electrical activity brainwaves that sweeps across brain s surface measures function Tracks activity in response to a stimulus high temporal resolution not invasive Electrodes on scalp do not demonstrate precise location of activity low spatial resolution MEG Measures the magnetic elds generated by neuronal activity of the brain direct measure of brain function very high temporal resolution excellent spatial resolution noninvasive CTscan Creates 3D image of brain structure using xrays used to examine brain injuries tumors strokes allows direct view of level of interest high contrast spatial resolution high levels of radiation PETscan Uses radioactive glucose to track energy consumption in the brain neurons use more glucose when active so glucose is delivered to most active areas brain function shows where brain functions radiation low temporal resolution expensive MRI Uses magnets to take sharp pictures of structure of the brain fMRI Detects amount of blood ow throughout the brain measures funcUon high spatial resolution noninvasive no radiation quick IHindbrain quotolder brainquot region comprised of brainstem and cerebellum Life sustaining mostly bodily processes Brainstem Set of neural structures at base of brain Medulla Heartbeat breathing swallowing POI lS Sleep coordinating motor Reticular formation move me nts Regulates alertness ght or ight Cerebellum rejc ponse I I quotLIttle braInquot extendIng from rear of brainstem which coordinates physical movement posture balance timing Integrates sensory info to ne tune movement 2 Midbrain Bridge between hindbrain amp forebrain Thalamus Brains sensory switchboard except for smell Receives signals from senses relays them to the appropriate brain structures 3 Forebrain Limbic system 0 Amygdala 0 Hypothalamus 0 Hippocampus HM anterograde amnesia retrograde amnesia Responsible for emotion motivation memory quotemotional brainquot ghting eeing feeding sex etc Emotion anger amp fear rhesus monkey experiment Regulates body maintains homeostasis quotpleasure centerquot Stores new info in memory doesn t contain memories HM had epilepsy removed hippocampi surgically after the surgery he was unable to form new memories anterograde amnesia memory consolidation procedural memories how to do things His short term memory was intact but he was unable to commit info to long term memory as opposed to the inability to retrieve old memories retrograde amnesia Cerebral Cortex 4 Lobes Convoluted outer surface of the brain most higher level mental processes 2 parts Cerebral Hemispheres amp Corpus Callosum connects left and right Hemispheres 1 Frontal Directly behind forehead uniquely humanplanning personality language 2 Parietal Top of cortex sense of touch integrates sensory info 3 Temporal Under temples in front of ears hearing understanding language 4 Occipital Back of brain vision separate areas for shape color motion Plasticity neuroprosthetics Brain s ability to change as a result of experience a neuroprosthetic is a device that supplants or supplements the input andor output of the nervous system prosthetic arm
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