Chem 106 Exam #1 Study Guide
Chem 106 Exam #1 Study Guide Chem 106
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maranda Butterfield on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 106 at Washington State University taught by Nathalie Wall in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 146 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry II in Chemistry at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 12 121 0 Seawater is a Solutiona homogenous mixture of two or more substances 0 The larger component is called the solvent and the smaller component is the solute O Substances generally mix together into uniform mixtures related to spontaneous mixing 0 Seawater would be a thirsty solution since it wants to mix 0 Solutions can be made up of liquidliquid liquidsolid liquid gas etc many kinds 0 Solubility The amount of the substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent 0 Since the mixing of two substances doesn t necessarily lower the potential energy how most systems work we have to relate it to entropy O Entropy a measure of energy randomization or energy dispersal I Basically if two gases have a certain entropy apart it is larger when they are mixed evenly 0 Review Forces Dispersion Dipole Diople hydrogen bonding and ion dipole Solvent Solute interactions gt Solvent Solvent and Solute Solution forms Solute interactions Solvent Solute interactions Solvent Solvent and Solute Solution forms Solute interactions Solvent Solute interactions lt Solvent Solvent and Solute Solution may form Solute interactions depending on relative disparity 0 This table shows whether or not a solution would form depending on whether the two solutions mixing has more forces than if they stayed separated 123 0 Exothermic Heat is let off Endothermic heath is absorbed 0 Enthalpy of solution A H A H endotermie A H solvent endothermic A H m exothermic soln solute 0 If the enthalpy is about zero the entropy upon mixing causes the formation of a solution while the overall energy is constant 124 If the enthalpy is negative the solution is exothermic Here the tendency toward lower energy and the tendency for greater entropy causes the solution If the enthalpy is positive the solution is endothermic If the enthalpy isn t large the tendency for greater entropy causes a solution to form If the enthalpy is large the solution will not form Athdra on enthalpy change that happens when lmol of the gaseous solute ions is dissolved in water 0 It s the enthalpy of the solvent and miX added together 0 If the enthalpy of solute is lower than the hydration enthalpy then it is exothermic It may feel warm 0 If the enthalpy of solute is higher than hydration enthalpy then it is endothermic and a solution may not form They can feel cold 0 If they are about equal then there isn t a change in temp Dynamic Equilibrium when the rate of dissolution and recrystallization are equal 0 Some solutions may begin to recrystallize Saturated solution When the dissolved solute is in dynamic equilibrium with the undissolved solute additional solute will not dissolve Unsaturated solution contains less than the equilibrium amount of solute If you add more it will dissolve Super saturated solution containing more than the equilibrium amount of solute They are unstable and might cause the solution to precipitate Almost always the solubility of most solids in water increases with incrasing temperature Recrstalization When a saturated solution is creating and as it cools become supersaturated and precipitates and as the solid forms it tends to reject impurities creating a more pure solid It s a common way to purify Almost always the solubility of most gases decreases with increaming temperature 0 If the pressure is higher the solubility is higher Henry s Law SgaszkHPgas Where 0 Sgas is the solubility of the gas 0 KH is a constant of proportionality It depends on the solute solvent and temperature 0 Pgls is the partial pressure of the gas 125 0 Dilute solution has small quantities of solute compared to solvent 0 Concentrated solution has large quantities of solute compared to solvent 0 Review Molarity and similar things 0 Molarity with capital M is mols solutevolume solution 0 Molality with lowercase m is mols solutemass solventkg 0 Parts by mass and Parts by volume 0 Parts by mass mass solutemass solution times multiplication factor I X100 if percent by mass I X106 if parts per million I X109 if parts per billion 0 Parts by volume volume solutevolume solution times multiplication factor I X100 if percent by mass I X106 if parts per million I X109 if parts per billion Mole fraction and Mole percent 0 Mole fraction mols solute mols solution 0 Mole percent mole fraction X100 126 I Raoult s Law quantifys the vapor pressure of a solution 0 O psolution xsolvent psolvent O In an ideal solution PAxA P51 PB x3132 Prat P AP B 0 Freezing point depression and boiling point elevation O A T f m k f O A T b m kb 0 M molality I Osmotic Pressure H MRT M molarity T temp in kelvin R 008206 LatmmolK Pi is not actual pi just a variable 0000 O 127 128 Van t Hoff factor moles of particles 6 solution l 0 moles of fomula units dissolved Colloidal dispersioncolloid mixture in which a dispersed substance is finely divided in a dispersing medium like fog smoke whipped cream and milk Tyndall effect scattering of light by a colloidal dispersion Types of colloidal dispersions Classification Dispersing substance Dispersing medium Example Aerosol Liquid Gas Fog Solid aerosol Solid Gas Smoke Foam Gas Liquid Whipped cream Emulsion Liquid Liquid Milk Solid emulsion Liquid Solid opal Chapter 13 Chemical Kinetics 132 133 Reactant concentration decreases with time Product concentration increases with time Rate of change equation 1AA 1 lAC1 AD 0 aAtbAtcAtdAt Rate Law Expresses the relationship between the rate of reaction and the concentration of reactant AZquot 0 RateZkZ o k rate constant 0 n reaction order if n O the rate is independent of the concentration of A if n 1 the rate is direcly proportional to the concentration of A if n 2 the rate is proportional to the square of the concentration of A 0 You can only nd the order through experiment Using experimental data you can nd the order and then calculate k Rate Law for multiple reactants B2quot 0 A m RateZkZ 134 The integrated rate law is the relationship between the concentrations and time A o 0 Zero Order IMF kl 2 Act 2 0 o FirstOrder Z c 2 1n 0 Second Order 0 The HalfLife of a reaction Ado 2 0 Zero Order 2 5226 O693 o FirstOrder Im k Ado 0 Second Order 1 t12 6 135 136 137 Arrhenius Equation Ea O kAeRT o R 8314 JmoIK o A frequency factor 0 Ea activation energy In k A 1n A o l l R T r gt This is a straight line its called an Arrhenius plot k E 1 1 1n 2 A 0 k1 R T1 T2 Reaction mechanism the series of individual chemical steps by which an overall chemical reaction occurs Elementary step each step in a reaction mechanism Reaction intermediates form in one elementary step and are consumed in another Rate laws for elementary steps Elementary step Molecularity Rate law A gtgt Products 1 Rate kA A A gtgt Products 2 Rate kA2 A B gtgt Products 2 Rate kAB A A A gtgt Products 3 Rate kA3 A A B gtgt Products 3 Rate kA2B A B C gtgt Products 3 Rate kABC Ratedetermining step the elementary step that determines the rate of reaction it s the slowest step For a proposed reaction mechanism to be valid it must 0 The elementary steps in the mechanism must sum to the overall reaction 0 The rate law predicted by the mechanism must be consistent with the experimentally observed rate law Catalyst something that increases reaction rates 0 Homogenous same phase as reactants o Heterogeneous different phase than reactants Enzymes are biological catalysts Chapter 14 141 0 K is the equilibrium constant 0 Large K high concentration of products low concentration of reactants 0 Small K low concentration of products high concentration of reactants 142 0 Dynamic equilibrium is when the rate of forward reaction equals the rate of reverse reaction 143 0 Law of Mass Action 0 aAbBlt gtCCdD 2101611 0 AlalBl I If K ltlt 1 reverse reaction is favoured I If K z 1 neither direction is favoured I If K gtgt 1 forward reaction is favoured 0 Relationships between K and chemical equation 0 If you reverse the equation inverst the equilibrium constant A 2 B lt gt 3 C KforwardZLFZ 4118 I 3Clt gtAZB AB2 1 0 reverse C 3 K forward 0 If you multiple the coefficients in the equation raise the equilibrium constant to the same A2Blt gt3C nA2nBlt gt3nC 0 If you add two or more individual equations to obtain an overall equation multiple to crresopding equilibrium constants by each other to obstain the overall equilbirum constant AHZB Biz K O l ZBH3C iCi3 39 Kz iBr AH3C I You want so add the two equations together 0 If you multiple the two K equations together you end up with K K1K2 0 verall 144 0 Equilibrium constant in terms of pressure RT 2 0 K p K C 2 I c is the equilibrium constant in terms of concertaion I KP is the equilibrium constant in terms of partial pressures 145 0 Reactions involving solids and liquids O The concentrations of solids and liquids does Chemistry 106 Exam 1 Fall 2015 Study Guide Learning catalytics questions 1 Sea water is an example of a solution with what type of solute phase 2 Club Soda C02 and water is an example of a solution with what type of solute phase 3 Does the solubulity of an alcohol in water increase or decrease as the hydrocarbon chain of the alcohol increases 4 A solution is made by dissolving 2709 of KCI in 5759 of water The nal volume of solution is 586 mL and the density of water is 1027 9mL What is the molality of the solution The molar mass of KCI is 74559mol 5 By how many torr does the vapor pressure decrease when you add 1009 sucrose C12H22011 to 3009 of water The vapor pressure of pure water at 25C is 238torr The molar mass of sucrose is 342 9mol and the molar mass of water is 180 9mol 6 The wood frog can survive body temperatures as low as 80C What is the molality m of glucose ChH 1206 required to lower the freezing point as low as 80C Kf of water is 186Cm 7 Smoke is considered what type of colloidal dispersion Which oi the following rate expressions are valid for the reaction 3 H25 isquot 4 02 is gt8 H20 is 53 r791 1 A rate l g B late lHQSEs l C rate if 1 432093 D rate l E i 9 The following data is A73 What is the reaction order A in M lnitial Rate in Ms 010 00021 020 00082 040 00330 10lf a zero order reaction has the half life of 575 days and an initial concentration of 0930M what is the rate constant k in Ms 11lf a rst order reaction has the half life of 28 years what is the rate constant k 12What is the correct equilibrium expression for this reaction CH30nglHC0lgl2Hzlgl 13Give two reactions what is the equilibrium constant for the following A2Elt gtB2D Alt gtB2CK110ODlt gtCEK22 reaction when 14 Answers 1 Solid 2 Gas 3 It decreases 4 0630m 5 0410torr 6 43m 7 Solid Aerosol 8 A 9 2 10936E7 Ms 11785E9 1s H222 Z 12 cola K22 13 25 Also You may email me with any questions about the study guide and also suggestions to improve my study guidemuch appreciate still improving my skills D marandabutter eldgmailcom Note On 923 at 530pm me and a couple other classmates are meeting in Owen Library to study for them exam If youd like to attend email me Sorry this study guide wasn t the BEST one I ve made I promise the next will be much better
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