Environmental Science Final exam
Environmental Science Final exam EVR 1001
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aliona Maquet on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EVR 1001 at Florida International University taught by Stephen Leatherman in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 259 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science and Sustainability in Arts at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Environmental Science Study Guide Exam 3 Chapter 22 Climate Change Climate change Alteration in the longterm patterns and statistical averages of meteorological events Weather The meteorological conditions in a given place on a given day Climate Longterm patterns or trends of meteorological conditions Global Warming A rapidly shifting range of temperatures that scientists have measured in myriad locations around the world Not just a few days warmer here and there but higher high temperature more and longer heat waves earlier springs and later winters Lee Frelich An ecologist with the University of Minnesota trekked up to the north end of Ham Lake away from the calamity where they remained trapped when a re ending 3 days and spreading to 75000 acres around them North Woods is also in danger of forest res 12000 years ago fossil plants and pollen records show that the climate warmed so dramatically that tree species39 ranges shifted northwards at a rate of 50 kilometers per century Then 6000 years ago the climate cooled a bit and trees began migrating south and west once again This is called tree migration but the most accurate term is quottree range migrationquot since they are really changes in a species39 range In the past two decades springtime has come ever earlier to the region a week or two sooner than the historical average Eight of the state39s 20 warmest years have been recorded since 1981 o 2000 to 2010 is the warmest decade on record 0 According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration the global land average temperature increased by 096 Celsius 173 F In higher latitudes temperatures have increased by 9 degrees Fahrenheit 0 Sea surface temperatures have also increased by as much as 5 degrees Fahrenheit in some places 0 Arctic is very vulnerable to climate change Scientist found out that spring and summer temperatures were 1116 Celsius higher than previous years 0 Based on the current rate of melting the entire Arctic could be completely ice free in the summers come 2040 0 Overall sea ice 34 per decade 0 In Antarctica the Larsen B Ice Shelf a colossal of sea ice more than 210 meters thick and as big as Rode Island collapsed in 2002 in just a couple weeks39 time o This happened again in 2008 when the Wilkins Ice Shelf also in Antarctica collapsed again in 2 weeks39 time c As ice melts sea levels are rising by an average of 4 to 8 inches during the last century 0 NOAA records that August 2011 was the secondwarmest August behind 1998 since records began in 1880 0 Areas close to large bodies of water are expected to be wetter more rain and snow whereas inner continental areas are expected to be drier as warmer temperatures increase the loss of water from soil but not enough to fall back as rain Greenhouse effect Greenhouse gases Molecules in the atmosphere that absorb heat and reradiate it back to earth 0 Carbon dioxide is the greenhouse gas released by anthropogenic activities that has the biggest impact on the climate 566 in 2000 C02 from burning fossil fuels Greenhouse effect The warming of the planet that result when heat is trapped by Earth39s atmosphere 0 Without the process of greenhouse effect the earth would be around 0 degrees Therefore it is a good thing but is becoming enhanced by industrial and agricultural practices Radiative forcer Anything that alters the balance of incoming solar radiation relative to the amount of heat that escapes out into space Albedo The ability of a surface to re ect away solar radiation factors that can affect global climate 0 Light colored surfaces like glaciers and meadow have a high albedo re ect sunlight and thus heat away from the planet39s surface Dark asphalt have low albedo they absorb sunlight and heat away from the planet39s surface Positive feedback loop Changes caused by an initial event that then accentuate that original event for example a warming trend gets even warmer Negative Feedback loop Changes caused by an initial event that trigger events which then reverse the response for example warming leads to events that eventually result in cooling Milankovitch cycles Predictable variations in Earth39s position in space relative to the Sun which affect climate gt Orbital Eccentricity The shape of Earth39s orbit around the Sun varies over a 100000 year cycle from mostly round to more elliptical gt Axial Tilt The angle of Earth39s tilt as it spins on its axis changes in a 41000 year cycle The greater the angle the greater the extremes between seasons hotter summers and colder winters gt Axial Precession Earth quotwobblesquot on its axis changing not the angle but the direction the axis points in a 20000 year cycle This changes the orientation of Earth to the Sun and affects the severity of the seasons When earth is tilted toward Vega it is also tilted toward the Sun during summer making summers hotter in the Northern Hemisphere Volcanic eruptions and changes in solar irradiance like sunspot cycles are also considered natura forcers Climate models computer programs that allow them to make future climate projections by plugging in all the current values Anthropogenic Caused by or related to human action Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change An international group of scientists who evaluate scienti c studies related to any aspect of climate change to give thorough and objective assessment of the data gt In 2011 the atmospheric concentration of C02 was 390ppm gt It was 280ppm before the industrial revolution gt The United States was the biggest emitter of C02 in modern history gt In 2007 China took the lead it releases more than any other country in the world gt The United States sti releases more per capita gt The upper limit of C02 that we should not cross is at 560ppm gt Maple syrup is highly dependent on climate Mitigation Efforts intended to minimize the extent or impact of a problem such as climate change Carbon taxes Governmental fees imposed on activities that release C02 into the atmosphere usually on fossil fuel use gt The United States refused to sign the KYOTO contract because it set much higher reduction requirements for developed countries than it did for developing nations Wicked problems have more than one response Solutions often offer trade offs so there is no one x solution One that challenges the bedrock of modern civilization energy use gt Technological Fix Human ingenuity and science will solve the problems someone else will x it Evaluate and respond Move forward based on the best available solution Gloom and doom There is nothing we can do Rosy Optimism Don t worry everything will work out Frontier Resources are used for our own need and we39ll nd others to provide for us nature will provide the solution VVVV Precautionary principle Acting in a way that leaves a safety margin when the data is uncertain or severe consequences are possible Some places will bene t gt In Greenland warmer temperature have enabled farmers to grow a wide variety of crops that they couldn39t grow before gt Warmer weather has opened routes in the summer such as the Northwest passage a shipping route through the Arctic Ocean that will signi cantly reduce transports time for ships In Canada the coldrelated health problems will go down and warmer daytime temperature increases the number of freezethaw cycles there promoting a maplesyrup boom Approach to reducing climate change VVVVV V Release fewer greenhouse gases Carbon taxes Green taxes Cap and trade Resistance forestry Impacts of climate changes and adaptation strategies Health Impacts The spread of waterborne pathogens lead to increase incidence of infectious diseases an additional 60 million or more people in Africa would be exposed to malaria Adaptation lmprove disease surveillance implement sanitation improvements in ood pronounce areas and establish emergency action plans Crop Productivity Overall global crop yields are projected to increase 5 20 with a temperature increase of 1 3 C But at temperatures higher than that overall production is expected to decrease 2040 yields will decrease sooner in some areas due to water stress Adaptation Use erosioncontrol techniques to improve agricultural productivity choose crops to t new conditions Coastal erosion and ooding 10 to 300 million people will be affected at temperature increases of 2 to 4 C Adaption Relocation of some coastal communities may be necessary construct protective barriers like seawalls and restore wetlands in coastal areas to protect inland areas Biodiversity losses Some species may bene t and expand their ranges but many face extinction A 2 C increase will likely lead to the extinction of many Arctic species like polar bear a 3 C increase is predicted to put a 2050 of land species at risk for extinction Wildlife and habitat management to provide migration corridors or relocation assistance protect vulnerable habitats from further human impact Drought The proportion of land area in severe drought is projected to increase from today39s levels of 13 to 30 by 2090 Focus on methods to capture and conserve water including desalinization in coastal areas practice pollution prevention to increase and protect water supplies Fire Risk Fire has already increased in some areas it has more than doubled in boreal North America and is projected to increase even more in the future Pursue better reprevention management including prescribed burns thinning of forests to reduce combustible material and improve direresponse plans Adaptation Efforts intended to help deal with a problem that exists such as climate change Chapter 24 Sun Wind and Water Energy Samso is home to a small windswept community of Danish farmers Turned their power to wind energy in 2003 Renewable energy Energy from sources that are replenished over short time scales or that are perpetually available Sustainable energy source Energy sources that are renewable and have a low environmental impact Wind energy Energy contained in the motion of air across Earth39s surface at According to the US Energy Information Administration as of 2010 renewable sources of energy contributed to 18 of the total energy production worldwide The United States only uses 7 of the energy from renewable In 2010 the world39s largest wind farms were located in Texas the leading producer of wind energy in the United States Wind energy Pros Cons Stops and starts irregularly Renewable energy Not cheap None pollutant Threatens birds and bats Can create noise and not be quotpretty to look atquot Glass windows from sky scrapers are the deadliest to birds killing from 300 million to 1 billion deaths Ferrel cats come second killing Solar energy Energy harness from the Sun in the form of heat or light gt 05 is the amount of energy produced in the US by solar energy Photovoltaic PV cells Also called solar cells PV cells convert solar energy directly into electricity These are active solar technologies Active solar technologies The use of mechanical equipment to capture convert and sometimes concentrate solar energy into a more usable form Solar thermal system An active technology that captures solar energy for heaUng Passive solar technologies The capture of solar energy heat or light without any electronic or mechanical assistance lntermittency sun does not shine at night wind do not blow all day Geothermal energy The heat stored underground contained in either rocks or uids Geothermal heat pump A system that actively moves heat from the underground into a house to warm it or removes heat from a house to cool it Payback time the amount of time it would take to save enough money in operation costs to pay for the equipment Geothermal power plants Power plants that use the heat of hydrothermal reservoirs to produce steam and turn turbines to generate electricity Between 20052010 the use of geothermal energy worldwide has increased by 20 Hydropower The energy produced from moving water 10 in the US and 20 worldwide uses hydropower Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River is the thirdlargest dam However sacri ces land and types of sh salmon disappeared in the Grand Couee This is because the dam blocked the way Chapter 24 Urbanization and Sustainable communities Urban areas Densely populated regions that include cities and the suburbs that surround them Urbanization The migration of people to large cities South Bronx outside New York City where all the garbage used to get dumped Tokyo is the most populated area in the world The united Nations predict that by 2015 29 cities will surpass the population of 10 million mostly located in Asia 7 out of 205 million people are slum dwellers in Mumbai More than one billion of the world39s population lives in slums Urban ight The process of people leaving an inner city area to live in surrounding areas Suburban sprawl Lowpopulationdensity developments that are built outside of a city Exurbs Towns beyond the immediate suburbs whose residents commute into the city for work Urban planner A person who develops landuse plans in and around cities New Urbanism A movement that promotes the creation of compact mixeduse communities with all of the amenities for daytoday living closeby and accessible In ll development The development of empty lots within a city Smart growth Strategies that help create walkable communities with lower ecological footprints Green buildings Construction and operational designs that promote resource and energy ef ciency and provide a better environment for its inhabitants
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