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by: Kristen Eckert

studyguideexam2.pdf Bi Sci 004

Kristen Eckert
Penn State
Biological Science
Maria Krasilnikova

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Answers to study guide for exam 2 in Bi Sci 004. Answers with definitions.
Biological Science
Maria Krasilnikova
Study Guide
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This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Eckert on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bi Sci 004 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Maria Krasilnikova in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Biological Science in Biology at Pennsylvania State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Lecture 7 Cell Division and Cancer Practice Questions 1 O 2 0 w 8 What is an initial event that starts cancer When a single cell divides when it should not What are the benign and malignant tumors Benign slow growing tumors that do not invade surrounding structures Malignant tumors that invade surrounding tissues are cancerous What is metastasis Cells of a malignant tumor that can break away and start new cancers elsewhere How do cancer cells travel around the body Can enter either the cardiovascular or lymphatic system to distant sites How are cancer cells different from normal cells of the body Do not show contact inhibition 0 Continue to divide pile up on one another and form a tumor What are sister chromatids Two identical molecules which have been very compacted with special proteins What is the cell cycle What are the four phases of the cell cycle Events that take place in going from a parent cell to daughter cells during cell division Four Phases 0 lnterphase Synthesis S phase Mitosis Cytokinesis What happens in S Phase Which events happen in Mphase What happens in mitosis What happens in cytokinesis 03032015 5 Phase chromosomal DNA replicates MPhase cell division phase 0 Mitosis Division of the nucleus 0 Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm Starts before completion of mitosis What are the four stages of mitosis What happens at each stage Four Stages of Mitosis o 1 Prophase DNA that was just replicated condenses and forms sister chromatids two identical molecules nuclear membrane begins to break down mitotic spindle forms 0 2 Metaphase chromosomes attach to mitotic spindles and form a line at the center of the cell 0 3 Anaphase sister chromatids separate move to two different poles o 4 Telophase nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes at each pole mitotic spindle disassembles overlaps with cytokinesis 10 What are the checkpoints What are they for 0 Normal cells stop the cell division process at checkpoints to ensure that favorable conditions have been met for the process to continue 11 What is a cell cannot pass a checkpoint What is the programmed cell death called What happens if a cell starts to ignore checkpoints If any problems found at a checkpoint the process stops and cell dies via apoptosis or programmed cell death LO 0 When cell starts to ignore checkpoints unregulated cell division occurs and leads to large masses of cells called tumors 12 Why is blood supply important for a tumor 0 Blood brings nutrients and carries away wastes allowing continued growth 13 What is contact inhibition Does is limit cancer cell growth 0 Contact inhibition when cells divide until form a single layer of cells and stop dividing when contact a neighbor Cancer cells continue to divide and to form tumors therefore do not have contact inhibition 14 Can cancer cells divide inde nitely in cell culture 0 Cancer cells are immortal therefore continuously dividing 15 Is there just one mutation usually found in a tumor 0 Can start from a mutation in a single cell and allows it to uncontrollably divide 16 How does chemotherapy help to cure cancer 0 Chemicals that kill dividing cells 17 Which cells do chemotherapy and radiotherapy kill Which normal cells are affected by chemotherapy Chemotherapy and radiotherapy kill dividing cells 0 Normal cells affected 0 Hair follicles 0 Red blood cells white blood cells 0 Cells that line digestive track 18 Which cancer is the most deadly How many times a chance to get lung cancer is higher for a smoker Lung cancer is deadliest o 15x higher 19 What can cause cancer Mutations in genes that code for proteins regulating cell cycle at checkpoints o Viruses Mutations caused by exposure to certain chemicals or radiation Carcinogens 20 What are carcinogens How can viruses cause cancer Carcinogens chemicals that can cause mutations in genes that regulate cell division 0 Ex chemicals in tobacco alcohol in excess formaldehyde benzene pesticides Viruses may have cancercausing genes among their genes which enter the host cell 0 Viral DNA may be inserted into host DNA at a site that disrupts cell division in a host 0 May interfere with immune system 21 What type of cancer is sarcoma Carcinoma Leukemia Lymphoma Melanoma sarcoma cancer of muscle bone cartilage carcinoma cancer in epithelial tissue leukemia cancer of blood or bone marrow lymphoma cancer of lymphatic tissues melanoma skin cancer Practice Questions 1 What are the four main tissues of the human body 0 Epithelial Connchve Muscle Nervous Where can you nd epithelial tisues Cover organs and outer surfaces 0 Line hollow organs vessels and body cavities 3 Which end of the epithelium is an apical end 0 The free surface is the apical and is exposed to the body uids or the environment 4 What is the other end of the epithelium attached to Is it made of cells 0 The other end of the epithelial tissue is the basement membrane which is a noncellular layer made of polysaccharides and proteins What do the exocrine glands secrete into What do they secrete Secrete hormones into the bloodstream What kind of gland is the mammary gland exocrine or endocrine Exocrine and endocrine o Secretes estrogen into blood stream 0 Secretes milk into ducts 7 What kind of glands secrete saliva tears acid in the stomach a Exocrine glands 8 What kind of gland is the ovary Endocrine gland 9 How is a onecell epithelium layer called How is multiple layers epithelium called No mm 0 Simple epithelium is a onecell epithelium layer 0 Multiple layers epithelium is called strati ed epithelium 10 How are the cells in squamous cuboidal and columnar epithelium different Which one has at cells Squamous epithelium attened cells in layers is strati ed 0 Cuboidal tightly packed cells not at NOR tall Columnar columnshaped cells with nucleus near attached surface 11 Which type of cell junctions seals the space between cells Make channels between cells Helps to build structures from cells 0 Tight junctions seal the space between cells Gap junctions make channels between cells Adhesion junctions connect cells in structures 12 What are the types of connective tissue 0 1 Loose connective tissue 0 2 Dense connective tissue 0 3 Adipose tissue 0 4 Cartilage 5 Blood 0 6 Bone 12 Which cells make loose and dense connective tissues What kind of bers do they secrete Loose and dense connective tissue cell broblasts o Secrete collagen and elastic 13 What is the function of adipose tissue What is the other name for it Connects skin to underlying structures Insulates and protects structures 0 Other name fat 14 What layer is right beneath the epithelial layer of the skin What layer is deeper inside What is the other name for it What layer is under it 0 Layer right beneath epithelial layer of skin loose connective dermis Layer deeper inside dense connective dermis 0 Layer underneath fatty connetive tissue of hypodermis 15 Which cells form the cartilage Cartilage cell chondrocytes 16 Which cells the bone is made of 0 Bone cell osteocytes 17 What kind of tissue is blood What cells is it made of Are platelets cells What are they for 0 Bone rigid connective tissue 0 Cells osteocytes Platelets small cell pieces 0 Blood cotting 18 Which blood cells protect us from infections 0 White blood cells immune system protect us from infections 19 What are the three kinds of muscles 0 Cardiac Skeletal smooth 20 Which muscle type is not striated Smooth muscle is NOT striated 21 Which muscle type is responsible for voluntary movements Skeletal muscle responsible for voluntary movements 22 What kinds of cells can be found in nervous tissue What is the function of neuroglia Nervous tissue cells neurons and neuroglia Neuroglia supports and nourishes neurons 8Practice Questions 1 What are the two main cavities of the human body What are the two cavities in the dorsal cavity In the ventral cavity Dorsal o Cranial cavity 0 Vertebral cavity 0 Ventral o Thoracic cavity 0 Abdominal cavity 2 What lines the body cavities What are the four main types of the body epithelial membranes Epithelial tissues lines the body cavities o 4 Main Body Membranes o 1 Mucous membranes 0 2 Serous membranes 0 3 Cutaneous membranes 0 4 Synovial membranes 3 What do the mucous membranes line What are their functions Mucous membranes line the digestive respiratory reproductive urinary system 0 Functions secrete substances that protect the body from bacterial and viral infection 4 What do the serous membrane line Which two tissues constitute the serous membranes What is the uid that they secrete Serous membrane line thoratic and abdominal cavities Tissues peurae pericardium peritoneum Secrete serous uids that lubricates the organs 5 What does the cutaneous membrane line 0 Lines connective tissue of cells 0 Forms dry skin 6 Where is the synovial membrane found Which membrane only consists of connective tissue Synovial membrane lines the cavities of freely movable joints such as the knee Secrete uid that lubricates the joints Composed of connective tissue 7 What is homeostasis What is maintained at the same level in the human body ls homeostasis maintained by positive or negative feedback loops Homeostasis ability to maintain relatively constant conditions under extreme situations 0 Heart rate blood pressure water and mineral balance temperature bloodglucose level maintained at same level Maintained primarily through negative feedback mechanisms 8 What are the negative and positive feedback loops 0 Negative feedback the production of a process inhibits the process 0 Positive feedback when the product of the process intensi es the process 9 Make an example of a negative feedback loop 0 10 What does the integumentary system consist of Composed of skin derivatives of the skin 0 Derivatives of the skin 0 Hair 0 Nails 0 Sweat glands 0 Oil glands o Wax glands 11 What are the layers of the skin Layers of the skin epidermis and dermis o Epidermis thin outer layer 0 Dermis thicker inner layer containing nerves blood vessels and glands 12 Which layer of the skin has keratinocytes and melanocytes o Epidermis 13 What is the name of pigment cell in skin Where is it located What is the name of pigment that it makes How does it protect us from cancer Pigment cells melanocytes located in epidermis o Produces melanin o Melanocytes respond to UV radiation by increasing production of melanocytes 14 Which type of skin provides a better protection from skin cancer Which type of skin can make more vitamin D epidermis provides better protection from skin cancer where melanocytes located 15 Which layer is right below the skin and contains adipose tissue Hypodermis contains adipose tissue not part of skin but lies right underneath 16 What two layers is dermis composed of Does dermis consist of epithelial or connective tissue What is the main cell type in dermis Two layers loose connective and dense connective tissue Consists of primarily connective tissue 17 Which layer of skin does not contain blood vessels 0 Epidermis 18 What kind of glands can be found in the skin Are they endocrine or exocrine glands Glands in the skin oil glands sweat glands wax glands Exocrine glands Practice Questions 1 Which types of connective tissue are included in skeletal system Connective tissues include cartilage tendons ligaments and bone 2 What are the terms for the middle part and the ends of a long bone 0 Middle part of a long bone Diaphysis 0 End parts of a long bone Epiphysis 3 What type of bone is closer to the surface of a long bone Closer to the inside 0 Compact bone is closer to the surface of a long bone Spongy bone is closer to the inside 4 What does the spongy bone contain Spongy bone contains red bone marrow 5 What are the cavities in which osteocytes are located How are those cavities connected What is the substance in which lacunae are located Osteocytes are found in lacunae cavities Cavities are connected by canaliculi The substance in which lacunae are located is called lacuna 6 What is an osteon What is the function of central canal Which cells dissolve the bone to make central canals Osteon what compact bone is composed of 0 Central canal function location where nutrients and waste materials diffuse thorugh in the lucanae cavity Which cells deposit the new bone Osteoclasts cells that help dissolve the old bone for bone remodeling and repair Osteoblasts lay down new bone Where in the long bone is the articular cartilage located Articular cartilage is located at the top of the long bone connecting part of long bone 9 What do the bast and the cyte in the names of the cells mean blast for proliferating cells stem cells such as broblast osteoblast myoblast l 00 cyte cells which are completely formed and mostly do not divide osteocyte adipocyte 10 In which form is the skeletal system rst formed in a fetus Begin to develop as cartilage at 6 weeks 11 What is a term for the cartilage to bone replacement in development Ossi cation cartilage is replaced with bone 12 How do bones grow in childhood What is the name of a plate where the cartilage growth happens When is it eliminated Bones begin to develop in utero as hyaline cartilage As bony skeleton develops cartilage is replaced with bone through ossi cation The growth plate or epiphyseal layerl has four zones 0 Close in woman at age 18 0 Close in men around age 20 13 Which hormone secretion signals to break down the bone Which gland secretes it Which cells break down the bone Parathyroid hormone signals to break down the bone Parathyroid gland secretes parathryoid hormone Osteoplasts cells that break down the bone 14 Which hormone promotes the bone formation Which gland releases it Which cells form more bone 0 Calcitonin hormone promotes bone formation 0 Thyroid gland secretes calcitonin hormone Osteoblasts cells that form more bone 14 List the steps in the repair of a fractured bone 0 1 Mass of clotted blood cells form called hematoma o 2 Fibroblasts migrate into fracture lay down cartilage between broken ends 0 3 Osteoclasts remove broken ends of the bone break down hematoma 4 Osteoblasts lay down new bone 15 How many bones does human body have 0 206 bones 16 What are the two main skeletons of the human body Which bones form the axial skeleton 4 parts 0 Axial skeleton 0 Skull 0 Sternum o Ribs o Vertebra Appendicular skeleton 17 What are the facial bones of the skull 4 bones Frontal bone Parietal bone Nasalbone Zygomatic bone 18 What does the cranium protect Which bone has a role in swallowing What are the sinuses Cranium protects sight smell hearing and taste sense organs Hyoid bone role in swallowing Sinuses air pockets within bones of the face 19 How many vertebrae do human have 0 33 vertebrae 20 What are the regions of the vertebrae column 5 regions Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacrum Coccyx 21 How are the ribs connected to the sternum Ribs are connected to the sternum by costal cartilage 22 What are the parts of the appendicular skeleton 0 Bones of the pelvic girdle pectoral shoulder girdle limbs 23 What is the name of the cartilaginous joint at the front of the pubic bones o Pubic symphysis 24 What is the pelvic inlet and who has it larger males or females 0 Pelvic inlet females have it larger 25 Name the bones of the lower limbs 6 bones o Femur Patella kneecap Tibia shin Fibula back of shin Tarsals metatarsals phalanges 26 List the bones of the pectoral girdle 2 bones Scapula o Clavicle 27 Name the bones of the upper limbs 6 bones o Clavicle Scapula Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals metacarpals phalanges 28 What are the three types of joins sorted by how they move Ballandsocket joint hip o Hinge joint knee 0 Pivot joint neck Practice Questions 1 What are the skeletal muscle origin and insertion Origin attachment ona stationary bone 0 lnsertion attachment on the bone that moves 2 What are the antagonistic muscle pairs Biceps and triceps 3 What are the different levels of organization of the skeletal muscle Skeletal musce bundles f muscle cells bundle of muscle cells called a fascicle a muscle cell consists of myo brils 4 What is a fascicle Muscle ber Myo bril Sarcomere Actin Myosin Fascicle bundle of muscle cells 0 Muscle ber skeletal muscle cell many myo brils tg o Myo bril contains two types of laments myosin and actin Sarcomere contractile unit of a skeletal muscle contains actin and myosin myo laments o Actin protein thin laments o Myosin protein thick laments 5 What makes a muscle ber look striated What is each stripe Striated due to the regular arrangemet of myo laments Each stripe is a myo lament 6 A movement of each lament head makes a muscle contract 0 Actin slides over xed myosin laments pulls sarcomere ends with them 7 What is the role of creatine phosphate in muscle contraction Creatine phosphate is brown down in order for muscle contraction to occur 8 What is a role of myoglobin Pigment that makes muscles red and binds oxygen required for muscle contraction 9 The state of which element in myoglobin is responsible for the color of meat 0 The charge of iron is responsible for the color of meat 10 Which cell delivers a signal for muscle contraction Which ion is released when muscle gets the signal What happens to actin and myosin in the presence of this ion 0 The neurotransmitter acetylcholine sets up excitatory signal 0 Calcium ions are released 0 Actin slides over xed myosin laments 11 What are the differences between the fast twitch and lowtwitch muscles Which of them contract faster Which has more actin and myosin Which has more mitochondria Which has more myoglobin o Fasttwitch muscles contract rapidly and powerfully but with less endurance o More actin and myosin Lowtwitch muscles contract slowly with great endurance o More mitochondria o More myoglobin 12 How can you more likely increase the muscle weight by weight lifting or aerobic exercise 0 Weight lifting Practice Questions 1 What are the two types of cells in the nervous system What are the effectors Neurons and neuroglia Effectors signals that travel to muscles and glands 0 Help the body respond to environmental changes 2 What detects the sensory inputs What are the general senses What are the special senses Sensory inputs detected by sensory receptors 0 General senses Temperature Pain Touch Pressure 0 Body position Special sense 0 Taste 0 Smell o Equilibrium 0 Hearing 0 Vision What makes the central and peripheral nervous systems Central nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system network of nerves radiating from the CNS throughout the body 4 What carries signals to a neuron body From a neuron body neurons carry signals to a neuron body axons carry signals from a neuron body What are the three categories of neurons 1 Sensory neurons 2 Motor neurons 3 lnterneurons link sensory and motor neurons within the brain or spinal cord 0000 UL U39l 01 Which neurons carry signal from CNS To CNS Sensory neurons carry signal TO CNS 0 Motor neurons carry signal FROM CNS 7 What cells forms the myelin sheath of neurons Are they neuron or glial cells What is the function of myelin sheath GIiaISchwann cells form the myelin sheath of neurons Myelin sheath insulates neurons and increase transmission speed Which neurons form white and gray matter Nonmyelinated CNS axon form gray matter Myelinated CNS axon form white matter What are nerves and nerve tracks Nerves bundles of myelinated axons in the PNS Nerve tracts myelinated axons bundled together in the CNS 10 What is the structure that transmits signal between two neurons What is the name of a substance that transmits the signal Synapse structure that transmits signal between two neurons Neurotransmitters substance that transmits the signal 11 Name three diseases associated with neurotransmitters defects Which neurotransmitters are they associated with 0 Alzheimer s diseaseacetylcholine Parkinson s disease dopamine ADD dopamine 12 What is the synaptic integration 0 Combined effects of excitatory and inhibitory effects at any given moment 0000 L0 13 How do different drugs of abuse effect neurotransmission Stimulate release of neurotransmitter o Inhibit release of neurotransmitters 14 What are the mechanisms of drug addiction 0 Drugs needed for physical or psychological wellbeing Articular cartilage it i Epiphysis spongy bone contains red bone marrow uompact none Medullary cavity contains yellow bone marrow Diaphysis Blood vessel priphysis 2 d red axial skeleton has sternum middle rib cage and vertebra goes all the way down yellow appendicular skeleton Frontal bone Parietal bone a Nasal bone Zygomati C bone lVlaxilla Mandible c Front View of slltul showing facial bones 2012 Pearson Educrsllion Inc hyoid bonel tan part right before larynx larynxlj white tube esophagusl red tube in the back left side 112 ribs white partl costal cartilage bone down middlel sternum point at bottom of sternuml xiphoid process femurl rst long bone patellal kneecap tibial shin bone bulal narrow bone behind shin bottom is tarsals metatarsals phalanges top bone across clavicle scapula is oval part underneath clavicle humerus rst long bone coming down radius bone on the right underneath humerus ulna bone on the left underneath humerus carpals metacarpals phalanges a ball and socket joint hip b Hinge joint knee c pivot joint neck consists of consists of many many lbundles myofibrilsi of muscle cells Skeetal muscle A muscle cell A bundle of muscle cells is called a fascicle a A section of a skeletal muscle 9 2012 Pearson Education Inc I up 2012 Pearson Education Inc purple partl nucleus yellow partl cell body yellow branchesl dendrites each orange circlel schwann cell yellow line through schwann cellsl nodes of ranvier The Sensory Systems 92315 1041 AM Practice Questions 1 What are the five senses 0 Taste smell touch sight hearing 2 What are the five types of sensory receptors 0 Mechanoreceptors respond to a shape change in the receptor or nearby cells Thermoreceptors sense temp change Photoreceptors respond to m Chemoreceptors react to chemical stimuli 0 Pain receptors nociceptors respond to tissue damage or extreme temperatures 3 Which type of the receptors is only the externoreceptor Externoreceptors sense external conditions allowing us to respond to the environment 0 Photoreceptors external stimuli 4 What are the somatic general senses 0 Touch pressure vibration temperature pain and body and limb 5 Where are the special sense organs located 0 Located in the head 0 Special senses sight hearing taste smell and equilibrium 6 What is perception 0 Our interpretation of a sensation 7 What is sensory adaptation o If a stimulus continues over a regular span of time perception is TURNED DOWN a process called sensory adaption 8 What is the sensor for body position 0 Muscle spindles type of muscle fiber that has sensory nerve endings wrapped around them that sretch to help maintain muscle tone and maintain position in space 9 When do the touch receptors transmit signals 0 When they are deformed 10 Which type of receptor senses the extreme temperatures 0 Pain receptors free nerve endings found in skin joints bone and blood vessels 11 What is referred pain Damage to internal organs often manifests itself as pain in a different area of the body 12 What are the taste receptors called 0 Taste buds9 located in papilla and about 100200 in each papilla In total 10000 taste buds 13 How many taste cells are there in a taste bud 25 taste cells in each taste bud 14 What is the term for the smell receptors 0 Olfactory receptors respond to smells 15 What kind of receptors are in the ear 0 Mechanoreceptors one set senses sound waves one set provides info on position of head helps maintain balance 16 What is the fluidfilled tube responsible for hearing 0 Cochlea 17 Which cells helps us to hear sounds of different frequencies 0 Inner hair cells 18 Which part of the eye is inflamed in viral eye infections and for the lens users 0 Cornea 19 What is the muscle that adjusts the pupil What holds the lens in place What is its function Iris muscle that adjusts the pupil Cilary muscles hold the lens in place they also pull on and flatten the lens so eye can see obiects far away 20 What is the cataract 0 When lens become cloudy bc its proteins become malformed 21 What part of the eye is modified in LASIK surgery 0 Cornea 22 What are the photoreceptor cells Which is responsible for the black and white vision in the dark and which for the color vision 0 Photoreceptor cells and w o Rods very sensitive and function in night vision 0 Cones record color and detail The Endocrine System 92315 1041 AM Practice Questions 1 What are the two main types of hormones Which of them can diffuse through the membrane Lipid and protein hormones o Lipidsoluble hormones can pass through cell s plasma membrane 2 What are the main glands of endocrine system Make organs with other functions that can secrete hormones Hypothalamus and pituitary gland 3 Which other gland does hypothalamus mostly control 0 Hypothalamus secretes hormones that regulate pituitary gland 4 Which gland produces oxytocin and which one releases it What are the effects of oxytocin Hypothalamus produces oxytocin Pituitary gland releases oxytocin In males facilitate sexual behavior and transport of sperm 0 In females stimulates the urine contractions of childbrith and m ejection from the mammary glands 5 Which gland makes the growth hormone What diseases are associated with growth hormone Pituitary gland synthesizes and secretes the growth hormone 0 Associated with gigantism abnormallly high GH Pituitary dwarfism not enough GH 6 Which gland secretes prolactin and what effects does it have 0 Pituitary gland secretes prolactin Stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk 7 What other glands does pituitary affect What are adrenal glands responsible for Where are they located How are the inside and outside of the adrenal gland called Which hormones each of them secretes Pituitary effects thyroid adrenal and ovariestestes Adrenal Glands 0 Located at M of kidneys o responsible for fight or flight response resistance and exhaus on o inner region Adrenal Medulla secretes adrenaline epinephrine and noradrenaline norepinephrine o outer region Adrenal Cortex secretes9 gonadocorticoids glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids 8 Where are the hormonesecreting cells located in pancreas Which hormones does pancreas secrete Hormonesecreting cells located in pancreatic islets in pancreas Secretes glucagon and insulin 9 What causes diabetes mellitus Which hormone is decreased in diabetes Which hormones do thyroid and parathyroid glands secrete How do they regulate the calcium level Abnormally high levels of glucose in blood Insulin is decreased in diabetes mellitus Thyroid thyroid hormone and calcitonin Parathyroid parathyroid hormone o Increases levels of calcium in the blood 10 Which thyroid hormones require iodine for their synthesis What causes goiter Goiter9 results from a diet deficient in iodine 11 What causes the Graves disease What are the symptoms of hypothyroidism Oversecretion of TH 0 Symptoms include increased metabolic rate and heart rate protruding eyes from fluid accumulation sweating nervousness and weight loss 12 What is melatonin and which m produces it What are the harmful effects of sleep deprivation Pineal gland Promotes sleep reduces jet lag may slow aging 0 Effects of sleep deprivation 13 Which hormones does thymus produce What is the role of thymus Secretes thymosin and thymopoietin9 promote maturation of T lymphocytes The Blood 92315 1041 AM Practice Questions 1 What kind of tissue is blood Connective tissue 2 What are the functions of blood Transports nutrients oxygen carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes 0 Regulation of body temperature water volume pH and fighting infections 3 How many liters of blood do we have What proportion of blood loss is lethal 5 liters 0 loss of less than 13 of the blood volume 4 What is plasma Which proteins does it contain What is the function of albumins Yellowish liquid portion of blood Proteins albumin globulin clotting factors Albumins transport materials in the blood that are NOT water soluble maintain tissue water balance by preventing the osmotic flow of water from the blood to the soluterich body tissues Which in does blood contain Are platelets cells 0 Red and white blood cells 0 Platelets are cell pieces that make the blood clot 6 What is serum 0 Plasma without clotting factors 7 Where are the new blood cells born and how is this process called 0 Born from stem cells in the bone marrow of the long bones 0 Process is hematopoiesis 8 What is the function of erythrocytes Do they have organelles 0 Red blood cells that transport oxygen 0 Lack a nucleus and other organelles 9 Which protein in erythrocytes transports oxygen 0 Erythropoietin 10 Which metal binds oxygen in hemoglobin How does the color of hemoglobin change if oxygen is released 0 Iron 0 If oxygen is released the color of hemoglobin becomes purple 11 What is the function of leucocytes Do they have organelles U39l 0 White blood cells that attack invadinq organisms and remove toxins wastes and damaged cells throughout the body 0 Contain a full range of organelles 12 Which cell do the platelets originate from and where is it located 0 Come from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow 13 Which organ secretes the hormone for increase in production of erythrocytes What is this hormone s name kidneys hormone is erythropoietin 14 What are the blood groups Which blood type individual can accept any type of blood 0 Blood groups are A B AB and O 0 AB can accept any type of blood 15 What is the name of the reaction that occurs when the blood is mismatched Agglutination 16 What is the Rh factor Which combination of the Rh of mother and fetus is problematic Rh factor is that a person with the Rh protein is Rh and someone without the molecule is Rh Anyone can receive Rh blood but Rh blood transfused into an Rh recipient may cause agglutination An Rh fetus mixed with AntiRh antibodies may pass into fetus blood and cause blood cells to burst 17 How long do erythrocytes live 0 4 months 18 Where are the old erythrocytes recycled Liver and spleen 19 Which protein makes a net for blood clotting Collagenfibrin The Cardiovascular System 92315 1041 AM Practice Questions 1 What are the components of the cardiovascular system 0 Vascular system the heart and the blood 2 What are the components of circulatory system Lymphatic and cardiovascular system 3 What are the functions of the circulatory system 0 Moving fluids nutrients hormones salts and dissolved gasses throughout the body Exchanging these substances with body tissues 4 What are the types of the blood vessels in circulatory system Arteries Veins Capillaries 5 What are the layers of the large blood vessels walls How are the smaller blood vessels called and how are their wall different 0 Elastic tissue and smooth muscles make up the walls Arterioles smallest arteries lack elasticity bt are encircled by smooth muscle 6 What is vasoconstriction and vasodilation Vasconstriction reduces diameter to reduce blood flow and increase pressure Vasodilation increases flow and reduces blood pressure 7 What is the pulse 0 Wave of blood 0 Used to measure heart rate 8 What are the names of the largest artery and the largest vein 0 Largest artery is aorta Largest veins are inferior vena cava and superior vena cava 9 What is the inside of the capillaries lined with 0 Single layer of endothelium 10 What happens at capillary beds Why does liquid come out Where does it enter back 0 Capillary beds exchange of gases wastes nutrients between blood stream and the body 0 Higher pressure at the arterial end forces material out o Venous end of the capillary osmosis pulls water inside 11 Why does the blood accumulate in veins What is the difference between veins and arteries walls What proportion of blood is there 0 Blood accumulates bc it collects blood from the capillaries Veins have thin nonelastic walls that are stretchy 23 of the body s blood 12 What happens with veins during exercise Veins constrict during exercise 13 How is the backflow of blood in veins prevented Valves close to prevent regurgitation of blood into the ventricles 14 What is the respiratory pump 0 Breathing movements help move blood through veins 15 What are the components of the lymph Where does the lymphatic fluid come from Lymph capillaries and lymph ducts From tissues and white blood cells 16 What is the blood pressure 0 Force of blood against arterial walls 17 Which factors can contribute to hypertension 0 Excess salt intake psychological stress genetics and obesity 18 What happens to arteries in atherosclerosis Plaque within artery walls causes high blood pressure 19 What are the systolic and diastolic pressures Systolic pressure as pressure in the cuff is reduced blood enters the artery and makes a sound 0 Diastolic pressure the cessation of sounds indicates the artery is fully open 20 What is the aneurysm 0 Hypertension increases this risk 0 A bulge in a blood vessel that may rupture and cause disability or death 21 What are the risks associated with the high blood pressure What is the difference between thrombus and embolus 0 Hypertension thrombus large accumulation of material inside a blood vessel high blood pressure can dislodge a thrombus producing an embolus floating mass that can cause a blood vessel blocked blood vessels that serve brain can result in a stroke 22 How many pumps does the heart consist of What is the name of the wall that separates them 0 Two pumps 0 Septum 23 What are the two chambers of each pump With which valves are they connected 0 Atrium is thinwalled and ventricle is thickwalled Atrioventricular valves connect the atra and ventricles of both sides of the heart 24 Which valves prevent the backflow of blood in the heart 0 Semilunar valves 25 What can a heart murmur indicate 0 Indicate valve disease 26 What are the pulmonary and systemic circuits 0 Pulmonary circuit9 moves blood between the lungs and the heart 0 Systemic circuit9 takes oxygenated blood from the heart and pumps it to the rest of of the body 27 What is the name of the heart muscle What is the coronary circulation Myocardium Coronary circulation provides blood to the heart muscle itself 28 What causes myocardial infarction What condition usually precedes the myocardial infarction If plaque blocks a coronary artery 29 What condition usually precedes a cardiac arrest 0 Unusual heart rhythm known as arrhythmia 30 What is angioplasty Susing a stent to prop open the walls 31 Where do the new blood vessels come from in a coronary bypass surgery 0 May come from the patient or may be a synthetic or hybrid vessel from a synthetic scaffold The Immunity System 92315 1041 AM Practice Questions 1 What are the three lines of defense against infection 0 Physical and chemical surface barriers Internal cellular and chemical defenses Adaptive immune response What is the first line of defense based on Innate response keep foreign organisms and molecules otu 3 What cells is the second line of defense based on Innate response 0 Attack any foreign organism or molecule that has gotten past the surface barriers 4 How do macrophages and neutrophils fight microbes Engulf pathogens What is the function of eosinophils Natural killer cells 0 Attack pathogens that are too large for phagocytosis Natural killer cells kill abnormal cells including cancer cells 6 Which cells release histamine What does histamine cause Why does the infected tissue swell Basophils and mast cells 0 Histamine promotes inflammation Delivers defensive cells and removes dead cells and toxins bc blood vessels dilate 7 What are pyrogens 0 Causes fevers 0 Chemicals that reset the brain s thermostat to a higher temperature 8 What are the cell of adaptive immune system Lymphocytes o B lymphocytes 0 T lymphocytes 9 What are antigens Nonsef substance or organism that triggers an immune response 10 What are the two classes of lymphocytes Which class secretes antibodies Which class attacks infected cells In which organs are the B and T lymphocytes produced 0 T cells and B cells 0 B cells secrete antibodies N U39l o T killers of T cells kill cells infected by viruses 0 Produced in bone marrow 11 How many antigenbinding sites does an antibody have What is the other term for antibodies 0 19 they only bind to a specific antigen 0 immunoglobulins 12 Does antibody bind to a specific antigen or any antigen 0 Specific antigen 13 Make examples of autoimmune diseases 0 Multiple sclerosis insulindependent diabetes lupus and Rheumatoid arthritis 14 What is the mechanism of vaccinations Injections made up of some harmless part of a diseasecausing organism 0 Causes immune response and memory cells are stored to respond to the same infection in the future 15 What are memory B and T cells Longlived cells that remember the invader and mount a quick response when it is next encountered 16 Which cells are antigenpresenting cells and what do they present antigens to Dendritic cells and macrophages 0 Present antigens to T cell 17 What happens if an antigen on antigenpresenting cells matches the receptor on a Tlymphocyte If an antigen matches the receptor 0 Immune system attacks normal body cells resulting in autoimmune response 18 Which cells does HIV attack Helper T cells which activate all the immune system cells Infectious Diseases 92315 1041 AM Practice Questions 1 What are pathogens What proportion of world deaths are caused by pathogens 0 Diseasecausing organisms 13 of deaths 2 What are the three shapes of bacteria 0 Rod shaped bacilli Spherical cocci Spiral spirochetes 3 What are the bacterial cells missing comparing to eukaryotic cells What do they have that eukaryotic cells don t lacking membranebound organelles 0 cell wall 4 Where do the antibiotic resistance genes usually located in bacteria 0 On plasmids 5 Which cells are smaller bacterial or mammalian Bacteria 6 What are bacterial flagellum and pill for o Locomotion and transfer of materials 7 How often do bacteria divide Doubles about every 20 minutes 8 How do bacteria cause diseases 0 Cause an infection that uses nutrients from cells thus preventing the cell from functioning normally 9 What anaerobic bacteria can cause paralysis Botulism 10 What disease is caused by bacteria that lives in soil Tetanus 11 What are the benefits of normal flora Competes with pathogenic organisms which prevents them from colonizing the intestinal tract 12 Can viruses replicated without host 0 No 13 Which nucleic acid can a virus have in its genome What is the viral capsid DNA or RNA 0 Viral capsid is the protein coat surrounding the virus 14 How does virus kill the cell 0 Causes the cell to burst 15 What type of virus causes common cold 0 Rhinovirus 16 Which disease does EpsteinBarr virus cause Mononucleosis 17 Why is it more difficult to treat infections caused by eukaryotic organisms Cells are more similar to human cells harder to detect 18 Make an example of a fungal infection 0 Athlete s foot joke itch 19 What are prions bacteria viruses or proteins 0 Proteins 20 What is the vector for infection 0 Intermediate organism


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