Exam #1 Study Guide
Exam #1 Study Guide BSCI-10110-002
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erin Shattuck on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSCI-10110-002 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Bade in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Biological Diversity in Biology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Hierarchal Organization Atom5 gt Molecule5 gt Organellesgt ells gt Tissue gt Organs igt Organ ystems Population Speems Community Ecosystem Biosphere scientific method Emergent Properties New properties that emerge as you move up the hierarchal level cannot be deduced from looking at part by itself Ex Looking at individual cells give little info on animal Deductive vs Inductive Reasoning Deductive uses general principles to guess speci c responses inductive uses speci c info to guess general phenomena Reductionism Studying complex systems by reducing it to its working parts Basic vs Applied Research Basic extends the boundries of what we know work done in research labs where as applied research takes what we already discovered and makes it applicable to daily life Malthus Stated populations grow geometrically but food grows additively lead Darwin to start thinking that something must be happening Analagous structures Similar function but different evolutionary origins EX Wings of birds vs Wings of butter ies Homologous Structures Same evolutionary origin but different structure and function EX Arm of human and leg of a horse Cell Theory Cels are life39s most basic unit Al organisms consist of cells 3Domains 1 Bacteria 2 Archaea 3 Eukarya Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics Devised by Lamarck Changes that individuals acquired during their lives get passed on to their offspring Doesn39t think about variation HardyWeinberg Requirement No mutation takes place No genes transferred immigrationemigration doesn39t occur Mating is random Population size is very large No selection wewwe Hardy Weinberg equations PQ1 P22pqq21 P dominant Qrecessive Pq heterozygous individuals 5 Agents for Evolutionary Change 1 Mutation a Ultimate source of genetic variation typically occurs at low rates 2 Gene Flow a Movement of alleles from 1 population to another 3 Genetic Variation 4 Nonrandom Mating 5 Selection Natural vs arti cial selection Arti cial Selection Phenotypic traits favored by humans selection produces major changes Assortative vs Dissortative Mating Assortatitive Type of nonrandom mating where phenotypically similar individuals mate Dissortative Phenotypically different individuals mate which produce heterozygotes Genotypes selection favors 1 Selection to avoid predators 2 Selection to match climate 3 Selection for disease resistance Fitness How reproductive success is quanti ed Number of surviving successful offspring left in next generation Disruptive Selection Selection acts to eliminate intermediate types Directional Selection One extreme is eliminated Stabilizing Selection Both extremes are eliminated intermediate is favored 3 Conditions for Evolution to Occur 1 Phenotypic variation within population 2 Variation leads to differences among individuals in lifetime reproductive success 3 Phenotypic variation must be able to pass to next generation Industrial Melanism Peppered moth Darker individuals come to predominate over lighter ones as pollution increases darker population increases FossHs Preserved remains fossi age recognized by depth and radioactive isotope Fossis formed via amber permafrost caves and rock Vestigial Structure No apparent function to organism Ex Appendix for humans hip bone for whale Convergent Evolution Parallel evolutionary adaptions of organisms in similar environments EX Placental and marsupial mammals Sympatric Speciation Differentiation of species within a common geographic loca on EX killer whale pods in Washington Reproductively Isolated Populations that do not breed and produce fertile offspring Postzygotic Isolation Hybridization produces infertile offspring PreZygotic Isolation Geographic isolation Ecological isolation Temporal isolation Behavioral isolation Mechanical isolation Prevention of gamete fusion P P PP NI Biological species concept De nes a species as a group of interbreeding natural populations whom are reproductively isolated from other groups Allopatric Speciation Occurs when populations are geographically isolated Paces of Evolution Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium Gradualism Accumulation of small changes through a long time Punctuated Equilibrium Long periods of no change followed by rapid change Character Displacement Natural selection favors those indiviudals that use resources not used by other species How populations on different islands emerge Adaptive Radiation Few species and lots of resources EX Victoria Lake Cichlids Systematics Study of evolutionary changes Phylogeny Hypothesis about patterns of relationships among species Cladistics Technique used to create phylogenys More closer together more related Shared Derived Characteristics Similarity that is shared by a group inherited from the most recent common ancestor of that group Ancestral characteristics similarity that arose prior to the common ancestor Character States Distinguishing characteristics that could potentially separate a species EX Hair teeth tails etc Outgroup Organism that is known to be closely related to the study organism Monophyletic Includes most recent common ancestor of the group and all of its descendants Paraphyletic Includes most recent common ancestor Polyphletic Does NOT include most recent common ancestor Fossil RecordsRelative Age Radioactive DecayAbsolute age First organisms came between 3825 BYA Miller Urey Experiment Tried to replicate original atmosphere First cells Microfossilsstromatolites ancient life in sedimentary deposits Biomarkers Certain chemicals only biological organisms can crate Dramatic shifts of climate have lead to mass extinctions affecting evolution Endosymbiosis Process in which 1 organism engulfed another organism and began to live together
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