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by: Michaela Humby

bio240study.pdf Bio 240

Michaela Humby
GPA 3.5
General Genetics
Dr. Andreas Nebenfuehr

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About this Document

These are the homework and quizzes with all of the correct answers. I hope this helps!
General Genetics
Dr. Andreas Nebenfuehr
Study Guide
Biology, Bio 240, Biology 240, Genetics, Genetics 240
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michaela Humby on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 240 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Andreas Nebenfuehr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see General Genetics in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
If children obtain half of their genes from one parent and half from the other parent why aren t siblings identical This is because the particular combination of chromosomes and hence gene alleles one inherits from hisher parents is random due to random segregation of homologs in meiosis I Two black Labrador retrievers were mated and over several years produced 15 black and 6 brown offspring Explain these results by giving the genotypes of the parents and progeny The parents were both heterozygous for the fur color gene Bb with black B being dominant over brown b The black progeny were either BB about 5 of them or Bb about 10 of them while the brown progeny were all bb In jimsonweed purple ower P is dominant to white p and spiny pods S are dominant to smooth s In a cross between a jimsonweed homozygous for white owers and spiny pods plant A and one homozygous for purple owers and smooth pods plant B determine the phenotype of plants resulting from two backcrosses of the F1 to the two parental plants The F1 will have purple owers and spiny pods but be heterozygous for both traits Pp Ss Backcrossing these plants to the parent A pp SS will result in 50 purple owers spiny pods and 50 white owers spiny pods For the backcross to plant B PP ss the progeny will be 50 purple owers spiny pods and 50 purple owers smooth pods You perform a cross between a heterozygous tall pea plant and a homozygous short pea plant and obtain 30 tall plants and 20 short plants in the F1 generation Assuming standard Mendelian inheritance of this character how many tall and short plants would you have expected among 50 offspring Is the observed deviation from this expectation large enough to reject the null hypothesis of single gene Mendelian dominantrecessive inheritance Provide Chi square value and degrees of freedom The expectation is 25 tall and 25 short plants 11 ratio To calculate the chi square value determine the square of the di erence between expected and observed 25 for both phenotypes divide this number by the respective expected values 2525 and add the resulting numbers 1 1 to obtain ChiSquare 2 With one degree of freedom the probability of obtaining such a chisquare value by chance is gt 005 Thus there is not enough evidence to suggest the null hypothesis What is meant by Independent Assortment Describe two mechanisms that ensure the Independent Assortment of Alleles described by Gregor Mendel Independent assortment means that alleles from dij rent genes are segregated independently of one another between generations Independent assortment occurs because the two chromosomes of a pair of homologs are randomly segregated into daughter cells during meiosis I Thus alleles from di erent genes can appear in new combinations Crossing over further shu les the allele combinations contained on individual chromosomes thus leading to even more more independent assortment Field mice can have either black or grey fur color It is known that this is a single gene trait where black is dominant over grey You catch a black mouse and want to determine whether it is homozygous or heterozygous What do you do Explain your reasoning and the anticipated outcome I cross the black mouse to a grey mouse Since grey is recessive the grey mouse will be homozygous for the recessive allele If the black mouse was homozygous all the o spring would be black If the black mouse was heterozygous then half of the o spring would be black while the other half would be grey From the data provided can you explain which allele is dominant Based on this conclusion define gene symbols and give the possible genotypes of the parents of each cross CASS P409941 Yellow White a yellow x white 55 60 b yellow x yellow 36 0 0 white x white 0 65 d yellow x yellow 92 30 e yellow x white 44 0 From cross d we can assume that yellow Wf is dominant to white wf a wafx wfwf b WfoX Wfoor WfoX waf c wfwfx wfwf d wafx waf e WfoX wfwf Chromatids exist only for a limited time during the cell cycle Describe how when and how they are formed how you can recognize them how long they exist and what happens to them when they are no longer found in a cell Chromatids are formed during Sphase when DNA is replicated They can be identified by being attached to their sister chromatid at the centromere They exist until anaphasetelophase when they turn into chromosomes The phenotype of vestigial short wings vg in Drosophila melanogaster is caused by a recessive mutant gene that independently assorts with a recessive gene for hairy h body Assume that a cross is made between a y with normal wings and a hairy body and a y with vestigial wings and normal body hair The wild type Fl ies were crossed among each other to produce 1024 offspring Which phenotypes would you expect among the 1024 offspring and how many of each phenotype would you expect Phenotypes wildtype vestigial hairy vestigial hairy Numbers expected WT 576 vestigial 192 hairy 192 vestigial hairy 64 Fur colors in horses are controlled by a single gene that can lead to multiple phenotypes chestnut brown cremello almost white palomino golden coat with lighter mane and tail A number of matings between these varieties were carried out with the following results Parents Offspring 1 chestnut X chestnut chestnut 2 cremello X cremello cremello 3 chestnut X cremello palomino 4 palomino X palomino 14 chestnut 14 cremello 12 palomino First assign gene symbols for the genetic control of coat color on the basis of these data Then give the genotypes of parents and offspring for the last two matings Chestnut is the dominant allele cremello is the recessive allele and palomino is heterozygous and is the incomplete dominance allele Chestnut 2 CC cremello 2 cc and palomino Cc In cross 3 the parents39 cross is chestnut x cremello so the genotype cross of the parents is CC x cc The genotype for all o spring in cross 3 is Cc so all o psring will be palomino In cross 4 the genotypes of the parents are Cc x Cc 14 of the o spring of cross 4 will have the genotype CC 2 will have the genotype Cc and 4 will have the genotype cc In cats the black and yellow pigments of their fur are controlled by an X linked pair of alleles Females heterozygous for these alleles have areas of black and areas of yellow in their coat called tortoise shell or calico if there are also patches of white hair A calico cat has a litter of eight kittens one yellow male two black males two yellow females and three calico females Assuming there is a single father for the litter what is his probable color EXplain your reasoning The father must be yellow since the two yellow female kittens must have received two copies of the yellow allele from their parents one from the father and one from the mother A couple arrives at your genetic counselling service and asks about the risk of inherited diseases In this case the woman has a male cousin on her mother s side with Duchenne muscular dystrophy which is a rare seX linked recessive disorder Neither the woman s aunt the cousin s mother nor her own mother are affected by the disease What is the probability that the woman s first child will have Duchenne muscular dystrophy EXplain your reasoning by providing the possible genotypes of the woman her mother her aunt and her grandmother The genotypes are Dd for the grandmother and the aunt The mother and the woman are D meaning we don t know the second allele The woman has a 50 chance of inheriting the recessive allele if her mother is heterozygous Her mother has a 50 chance of inheriting the recessive allele from the grandmother This means that the woman has a 14 12 12 chance of being a carrier Only her sons will be a ected 12 of her children and of those only 12 This means that the chance of her first child having DMD is 116 The cross EE FF x ee is made and the F1 is then backcrossed with the recessive parent The progeny genotypes are inferred from the phenotypes The progeny genotypes are in the following proportions Ee Ff 26 Ee ff 16 ee Ff 16 ee ff 26 These ratios do not conform to typical Mendelian segregation ratios Give a detailed explanation why some genotypes are more frequent than others The parental allele combinations E F and e fare more frequent than expected from a 111 ratio because they reside on the same chromosome ie they are linked The recombinants E f and e F add up to onethird of the progeny giving a 333 recombination frequency Thus the two genes are 33 3 map units mu apart In barley three genes L M and R lie near each other on chromosome 5 according to the following map L 10 mu M 20 mu R You create a trihybrid plant L M Rl m r by crossing true breeding L M RL M R and l m rl m r parents In testcross of the trihybrid how many L m Rl m r plants would be expected in a progeny of 1000 if there were no interference If the coefficient of coincidence were 03 how would this change your answer This requires a double crossover in the trihybrid parent Without interference we can simply multiply the crossover frequencies map units of the anking genes 01 02 002 i e 20 of the 1000 progeny will be double recombinant but only half of them will be L m R the others are lM r i e we can expect 10 L m R plants If the coejficient of coincidence is 03 observed crossoversexpected crossovers 03 obs002 therefore obs 00203 0006 or 6 individuals but only half of them are L m R so the answer is 3 A recessive X linked character appears in 40 percent of males and 16 percent of females in a randomly interbreeding population Assume only two alleles are present What are the allele frequencies How many females are heterozygotes How many males are heterozygotes In males the allele frequencies for the males are 40 for the recessive allele and 60 for the dominant allele The allele frequencies for the females will be 40 for the recessive allele and 60 for the dominant allele 48 of the females will be heterozygous and there will be no heterozygous males because they can only receive one X chromosome for the X linked allele You backcross an allotetraploid plant to one of its progenitor species The allotetraploid species has 2n 30 chromosomes whereas the progenitor species has 2n 16 chromosomes The offspring are all sterile How many chromosomes does the sterile progeny possess and what are the chromosome numbers of the two progenitor species Explain your answer The sterile progeny will have 23 chromosomes 1 5 from the allotetraploid parent and 8 from the progenitor species The two progenitor species had n18 and n27 chromosomes ie 2n116 and 2n214 respectively An Hfr strain of genotype a 19 C strg is mated with an F39 strain of genotype b C39s At various times a small sample of the culture is removed and shaken vigorously to separate the mating pairs The cells in these samples are then plated on agar of the following three types Medium Str A B C 1 3 Str streptomycin an antibiotic A B C nutrients a plus indicates the presence of the compound in the agar a minus indicates its absence Nutrient A allows growth of a39 cells Nutrient B allows growth of b39 cells and nutrient C allows growth of c cells Colonies appear on type 1 agar only if the mating had been allowed to proceed for at least 7 minutes For type 2 agar the mating had to continue for at least 17 minutes In the case of type 3 agar colony growth required a minimum mating duration of 12 minutes a What donor genes are being selected on each type of agar b In what order are the genes a 19 and c arranged behind the F plasmid on the chromosome Type I agar selects for c cells Type 2 agar selects for a cells Type 3 agar selects for 9 cells 9 The order of the genes is c 9 a since the first colonies appear on agar type I which selects for c cells and the last colonies appear on the type 2 agar which selects for a cells In your microbiology lab you are working with auxotroph mutants of E coli Your disorganized lab partner gives you two unlabeled tubes with E coli cultures and says that one that contains an arginine auxotroph and the other that contains a histidine auxotroph Unfortunately he doesn t remember which is which Develop an experiment that allows you to determine which tube contains which kind of auxotroph Be sure to explain the anticipated outcome of the experiment Grow each sample on I minimal media negative control 2 complete media positive control 3 minimal arginine and 4 minimal histidine and observe growth on the various media The arginine auxotroph will only grow on complete and minimal arginine medium The histidine auxotroph will only grow on complete and minimal histidine medium Your friend obtained several pairs of golden brown rabbits in order to establish his own breeding colony To his amazement the F1 generation contained not only 56 golden brown rabbits but also 37 brown 35 very light brown 4 almost white and 3 dark brown individuals Explain to your friend what mode of inheritance could most easily explain these results Make sure to include an explanation of the observed phenotype ratio This is an example of polygenic inheritance The di erent phenotypes can be considered as di erent degrees of brownness and could be explained by a system of two genes with two alleles each that work in an equal and additive manner The parents would be Aa Bb A cross between two such individuals would produce a ratio of 39439639439I in terms of doses if we consider the dominant alleles are functioning and the recessive ones as nonfunctioning in terms of producing pigment In Arabidopsis thaliana the genes for jagged leaves and short stem are both on chromosome 5 approximately 20 map units apart Assume that a jagged leaf plant was crossed with a plant with short stems and that the resulting Fl round leaves tall stem were crossed to jag ged leafed short plants What would be the expected phenotypes and in what numbers would they be expected among 1000 offspring jaggedtall 400 roundshort 400 wild type roundtall 100 jagged short 2 I 00 You cross two true breeding mutant plants with white owers and obtain progeny that all have the wild type purple ower color Explain the mechanism of inheritance and predict which phenotypic ratio you expect if the F1 plants were allowed to self This is complementation of two genes in the same pathway The next generation should have 916 wildtype purple and 716 white plants Inbreeding is shunned in all human societies since genetic defects particularly those caused by rare recessive alleles are more frequent in matings among relatives than in the general population Explain why this is the case The likelihood that two individuals inherit the recessive allele from a common ancestor who was either a carrier or homozygous recessive is much higher than the probability among two random individuals in the population being carriers Autosomal dominant osteoporosis type II is caused by a rare allele of the CLCN7 gene on chromosome 16 In a mating involving a man and a woman that are affected by the disease what would be the probability that their three children have normal bone development Assume that both parents are heterozygous since the condition is rare Explain your answer Since the parents are heterozygotes the probability of each child being healthy ie homozygous recessive is 14 For all three children to have normal bones these probabilities have to be multiplied 14 14 14 164


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