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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tomomi Hiramine on Thursday September 18, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 103-G at University of Miami taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/18/14
BL103 Introduction to Ecology Study Guide for Examl Environmental science Science connecting information and idea from 1 Natural Science 2 Social Science 3 Humanities Sustainability the capacity of the Earth39s natural systems and human cultural systems to survive in a very long time 3 principles for sustainability all interconnected 1 Reliance on Solar Energy 2 Biodiversity 3 Chemical cycling nutrient cycling Plants create their own food by taking in nitrogen and converting it to nitrate but people get energy by eating organisms provided by the Earth Therefore Environment Everything around us Significant environmental changes have been happening at least for 3 billion years such as dinosaurs extinction and end of glacial period Natural Capital Natural Resources Natural Services 3 types of resources 1 Perpetual resources Everlasting resources Ex solar energy 2 Renewable resources takes time to renew sometime several hundred years Ex forests fossil fuels 3 Nonrenewable resources Limited quantity available if people run out of these it s over Ex Natural gas Coals Recycle We can recycle and reuse 8090 of the resources that we now use Ecological footprint measure of human demand on the Earth39s ecosystems It is a standardized measure of demand for natural capital that may be contrasted with the planet39s ecological capacity to regenerate If a footprint is larger than biological capacity for replenishment UNSUSTAINABLE Per Capita Footprint Average ecological footprint of an individual Sources of pollution 1 Point sources Pollution to a specific area limited damage 2 Nonpoint sources Pollution to a wire region not to a specific area wide damage Types of property or resource rights 1 Private property single owner ex house 2 Common property have an accessright to use a specific area ex School 3 Open access renewable resources Open public area ex Sea Tragedy of the commons No2 Common property and No3 Open Access can be overuse because they don t belong to individuals The damages add up and eventually harm the environment IPAT equation I P x A x T I Environmental Impact P Population A Affluence TTechnoogy Ecological Tipping Point Irreversible shift in the behavior of a natural system Time consuming People don t know when this may happen Ex Easter Island Theory 1 3 Major cultural events for increasing population and harming the environment 1 Agricultural revolution 2 Industrial medica revolution 3 Information Globalization revolution This leads to Population Growth Major cause of environmental problem 4 Basic Causes of Environmental problems Population growth Due to the cultural events above Wasteful Resource Use High level consumption High level pollutants Poverty When people struggle to survive they tend to care less of nature No Environmental Cost Our economic structure doesn t have a law to charge environmental tax on sales Who would compensate for the loss of nature Prices don t include the value of natural capital 39gtS quotquot Affluence can be good and bad Pro Funding for Technology development Con More consumption amp More waste Poverty has harmful environmental and health effects Population growth affected Due to No birth control and Luck of education Malnutrition Lack of nutrients Premature death Limited medical care access Limited access to clean water Major cause of diseases 39gtS quotquot Education is the key to solve problem Ethics and morality Need to work as a society and even individuals do matter Scientific Process Observation Hypothesis Experiment Collect Data amp Analysis Conclusion Theories Uquot39gtS quot Scientific theory must be widely tested supported by extensive evidence and accepted by most scientists Scientists are creative skeptical and open to the unknown matters Science has some limitations due to 1 Bias 2 Environmental Phenomena 3 Estimation errors Statistics and Probabilities Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass we cannot see Elements If you break down god mercury into small pieces they are still god mercury Unique Property Compounds Two or more elements or atoms bonded together Separable and change its format Not Unique Atomic number Number of protons Mass number Number of Protons and Neutrons Isotopes Same number of protons but different number of neutrons Carbon 14 isotope Often used to investigate how long has been passed since a person dead Ph value number of H measure of acidity Lower pH value the substance is acidic Higher pH value the substance is basic
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