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by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

R. Archer

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R. Archer
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 4391 at Texas State University taught by R. Archer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 196 views. For similar materials see /class/212829/psy-4391-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
Describe Titchener s Structuralism 1 Structuralism a Approach of functionalists b Opposed elemental conceptions of human experience A Be sure to connect it to and describe introspection structure for the school and its problems critics Method lntrospection research technique of Structuralists careful retrospection on the contents of the mind a lntrospection series of introspections made under standard conditions A Defining method of psychology B Based on Wudnt C Stimulus Error descriptions of the physical event itself rather than of the mental experiences resulting from the event A quotI saw a green light i Start with careful descriptions of descriptions of its subject matter ii Scripture s Dissertation best example of introspection 1 Preparation 2 Influence make a choicedecision 3 Explanationadding detail 4 After Effect pg 148 2 Titchener39s Psychological System Functionalism a Threefold task of psychology A ldentify Elements of Mind B Explain Their Connections C Correlate Them to the Nervous System c SchooStructuralism i Consciousness 1 Structure of the Mind a Pulled approach out ofJS Mill b Legos analyze one lego piece 2 Titchener s Building Blocks of ConsciousnessElementary Mental Processes a Sensation i The quotfeelsquot of our perceptual world b Images i Come from objects that are not physically present ii Also called quotideasquot c Feelings i Emotional reactions that accompany mental experiences d Criticisms 39 Introspections are always retrospections with a time period as much as 20 minutes intervening between the experience and the repost Suggests possibility of distortion After affect Introspective reports of consciousness seem remote from consciousness as it is actually experienced They are dull irrelevant and have no functional value iquot lntrospection itself is a conscious process and so must interfere with the consciousness it aims to observe Immanuel Kant was not a fan 2 Dunlap s llThe Case Against lntrospection 1 Not the slightest evidence for the reality of introspection as the observation of consciousness Explain why Musterberg became interested in Applied Psychology 1 Why he became interested a University of Freiburg 39 Appointed Privatdozent Published llActivity of the Will Critisized by Tichener iv Established Germany s 2nd psychological lab b Contact with William James ln llPrinciples of Psychology referred to his book as lla little masterpiece ii Chose him to head the Harvard lab c Move to Harvard i Published his 1st major book Principles of Psychology 2 What does he think it is all about a Contrasts Titchener i Had no patience with restrictive approaches ii Dismissed his structuralism 3 What areas did he do groundbreaking work in 3 areas a ML39insterberg39s Clinical Psychology Role of Therapist 1 Purposeful agent of therapy and sought to impose his will on patients Use of Suggestion 1 Used direct suggestions and autosuggestions and encourages the patient to quotexpectquot to get better 2 Reciprocal antagonism used to overcome bad ideas or impulses quotPsychotherapyquot 1 Countered myths about mental illness Reported success with those techniques for many different illnesses 2 v Bad experience with a female patient who developed a paranoid delusion about him and threatened him with a gun when he was leaving a lecture b Forensic Psychology c lndustrial Psychology DESCRIBE MCDOUGALL S TWO CONTRIBUTIONS TO EARLY PSYCHOLOGY THAT MADE HIM quotOUT OF STEP 1 Theory of lnstinct a Psychical research i Espousal of a doctrine of instinct in which evergrowing lists of instincts were said to explain human behavior 2 Social Psychology a Concept of a group mind i That although the crowd degrades the individual below his normal level it is only by group life that man rises above the level of animal life 3 Parapsychology 4 He supported the Lamarkian hypothesis a Acquired characteristics are inherited Describe Psychaphysics 1 Psychophysics mathematical and precise measurements of sensation psychological link between the physical a Fechner i One of Fechner s first studies was the visual sensations that continue after the visual stimulus is gone 1 He stared at the sun and his eyes went bad ii Weber 1 De Tactu a Describing experiments on touch 2 Absolute Threshold a Between the intensities of not sensing a very weak stimuli but nearly always sensing a very intense one 3 Twopoint Discrimination Threshold a Between two extremes of perception was a threshold where one touch sensation becomes two or two become one b Just Noticeable Difference 4 Weber39s Ratio a Provided precise description of the relationship between the physical and psychological worlds Fechner was seeking 5 Weber s table Sensation increments psychological output X stimulus intensity physical input 2 How is its view of perception similar to the view that Gestalt psychology takes a Gestalt psychology theory of mind and brain positing that the operational principle of the brain is holistic parallel and analog with selforganizing tendencies Why did Ebbinghaus use nonsense syllables in his memory research 1 WhyProblem different languages were a problem a Transferring data lost in translation b Some terms are more frequent than others a Memory Nonsense syllables i Two consonants with a vowel in the middle ii People had to remember these syllables 1 Curve of forgetting how long they remembered them b Savings Effect you made neurological changes in memory and cannot necessarily recall it off hand but if prompted then you remember Number of Repetitions Relearning Times Savings Scores Forgetting Curve anhmgp Neisser39s Challenge i Examine memory under realworld conditions 3 How does Bartlett s research take a different approach to memory a Sir Frederick Bartlett and the War of the Ghosts i Research via Demonstration ii Schemas themes iii Method of Repeated Reproduction b Bartlett s work an ecologically valid alternative to Ebbinghaus i Native American Folk Tales llThe War of the Ghost Who was Clever Hans and how did Stumpf and Pfungst investigate him a llClever Hans Van Austen ii Allegedly a horse who does mathematics iii To see if this is legit they 1 Isolating horse and questioner from spectators so no cues could come from them Using questioners other than the horse39s master By means of blinders varying whether the horse could see the questioner Varying whether the questioner knew the answer to the question in advance a Very low success rate P94quot iv Microexpressions are to blame for signaling when to stop tapping b What is the significance of this story for modern psychology v The Point of this case Leads into work on Experimenter Bias Experimenter Expectancy Effect 1 Robert Rosenthal a Experiment with rats and students i Maze dumb and maze bright rats they were really randomly selected 1 Score more errors on rats you think were dumb and clock better times for the quotsmart rats b Experiment with students and student experimenters i Choose schizophrenic people out of pictures 1 Group that was supposedly quotsmartquot and one that was quotdumbquot a Showing a card longer b Facial expressions c Not as attentive to the quotdumb people c Did teacher expectancy study i Self Fulfilling Prophecy What was the Zeigarnik Effect and how is it related to Gestalt concepts of perception 1 The Generality of Gestalt Principles a The Zeigarnik Effect i Memory for unfinished tasks people tend to remember a task if it hasn t been completed ii She gave 1822 tasks and interrupted half 1 Recalled 90 better uncompleted b Alpha the Chimpanzee i Intended to complete the picture by coloring c Principles of Perception i Similarity ii Proximity iii Closure Describe Kahler s ideas and studies an insight learning conceptualizatian and how does it di 39er from the norm 1 Kohler insight learning aka epiphany a lnsight learning does not depend on the reward i Disagreed with Thorndike ii Pg 226 Sultan the Chimpanzee 1 Had two rods puts two rods together to make on big rod He then uses that to draw the bananas to him The bananas were not a reward because they chimp did it before he thought about the bananas The bananas are an incentive instead and used free thinking Don t need payoff to learn 2 Claimed they used perceptual thought and insight learning 3 Helped to have a familiar area fellow chimps around b Include its properties and trace the various methods used to investigate it i Properties of Insight Learning 1 Positive Transfer if we have an epiphany it transfers to other situation 2 Perceptual Restructuring thinking about what you can do with things and you realize you can do something differentproblem solving 3 Don t need payoff to learn No reward just incentive ii Versus TrialandError Learning What does Lewin sformua BfPE mean 1 Explain the concept and its origins in the idea of life space and give a concrete example a Life Space i Origins 1 Discovered after he conceptualized quotfield theory in physics a Field Theory examines patterns of interaction between the individual and the total field or environment ii Concept 1 Person s psychological activities occur within a psychological field of life space 2 Consists of all events in our past present and future that help shape and affect us 3 Consists of a person s needs in interaction with the psychological environment 4 Social Psychology B fPE behavior is a function of the person and their environment Heuristic not quantifiable 2 Original concept a Gave importance to a person39s momentary situation in understanding his or her behavior rather than relying entirely on the past How did western views of abnormal behavior and treatment change over time 1 Began with Greek and Romans 2 EuropeMalleus Mallificarum 3 Witchcraft in the New World a Salem witch trials i 8 young girls started it ii Ergot poisoning might be to blame 4 Early Institutions a 19 h century ill were treated like criminals b St Mary of Bethlehem was the 1st asylum i Whipped chained purged ii James Norris was a famous example 1 Had an iron collar iii Charles Dickens wrote about it 5 Reformers a Started in late 1700 s 6 Treatments a Bloodletting i lllness thought to be bc of blood ii Brunonian system of medicine 7 Benjamin Rush quotFather of American Psychiatryquot publishing the first textbook on the subject in the a United States Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind 1812 b Built separate mental ward occupational therapy therapeutic approach of addiction HistoryApproaches of Abnormal Behavior 1 SinReligious Approach a Malleus Mallificarum i llHammer of the Witches 1 Proof witches exist and why of actions 2 Characteristics 3 How to examine and ensure full confessions ii Defined characteristics iding and punishment of witches in Europe iii Supported by the Pope and king of Rome 2 Medical Model a Hospital Asylum 3 Reformers a Pinel i Father of Scientific Psychology ii llWild Boy of Aveyron pg 260 1 More than likely he was autistic llincurable idiot 2 Even taught him how to talk iii Reforms 1 Remove the physical restrictions and replace with kindness 2 Ended bloodletting emetics etc b Dorthea Dix 4 Community of Mental Health a Problem Shutting down big hospitals but did not replace them to accommodate the displaced patients 5 Establishment of Clinical Psychology a Lightner Witmer 6 Radical Physical and Pharmacological Treatments of Insanity a Psychosurgery Prefrontal Leucotomy b Shock Therapy c Drug Therapies 7 Mesmerism and Hypnosis Who was Dorothea Dix and how did she manage to reform many American mental hospitals 1 First saw horrors when she had to teach prisoners and many were just ill 2 Becomes an activist Creates program b Obtain the facts about a certain state c Publicize abuses d Gain public and legislative support e Campaigned in Washington for a land grant What were Freud s psychoanalytic techniques for treating hysteria 1 First started with self treatment with cocaine 2 Studied under Charcot 3 Started with a Baths massage electrotherapy etc 4 Then turned to hypnotism 5 Psychoanalysis a Catharsis imp for the patient relationship b Transference Projecting emotions and images from past onto therapist i Cou ntertransference therapist s response 6 How did they differ from Breuer39s a Based on Breuer s i Man with the Golden Touch ii Catharsis release of tension by recalling episodes was intensely emotion iii He got too close to his female patient llAnna O 1 She even had fake birthing cramps 7 Explain how Freud s changed his Seduction Theory 8 Fleiss a Convinced Freud about sexual development and how it works b Human beings are capable to attraction to same sex Freud s Seduction Theory Real sexual relationships with parents that are at the bottom of psychological issues ll Fantasy Sexual Relationships 1 Changed mind from real sexual relationships a b Oedipus Complex Boy wants mother Electra Complex Girl wants father Jl P5 Thinks ll must have had a penis and lost it Freud claims think mutilated women they are Searches a husband like her father Women do not make the complete psychological shift Karen Horney disagrees a Women are better because we can produce children b Men try and compensate because they cannot bear children c Why did Masson and others criticize the change a Mason this was controversial since incest was an under spoken problem Not fantasy but incest Capstone Test 1 Introduction Describe what history is Then explain the difference between the Zeitgeist Times Theory and the Great ManG reat Woman Theory of History 0 History 0 Zeitgeist Times Theory the leading historian of psychology Edwin Boring described it as quotspirit of the times 0 Broca studied on the localization of speech in the human brain Broca considered women as inferior products of evolution and their brain size was less Broca s area Nonfluent Aphasia Failure to question research findings that agree with prevailing political and O philosophical ideology represents on of the effects of the Zeitgeist 0 Great ManGreat Woman Theory of History philosophical theory that aims to explain history by the impact of quotgreat menquot or heroes highly influential individuals who due to either their personal charisma intelligence and wisdom or Machiavelliahism used power in a way that had a decisive historical impact Who was Sumner and how did his life affect AfricanAmericans o Intended to study quotrace psychology 0 First AfricanAmerican to receive an earned doctorate in any American university 0 Sumner challenged his students to work hard and under his guidance they received a quality education One such student was Kenneth Bancroft Clark Clark39s psychological research on prejudice discrimination and segregation in the developing child was used in the 1954 Supreme Court case Brown v The Board of Education 0 Sumner was an official abstractor for both the Journal of Social Psychology and the Psychological Bulletin Chapter 1 Describe how Socrates and Galileo s stories are related to the issue of Freedom of Inquiry and Tenure o Socrates a teacher tried for quotcorrupting the morals of the young 0 The trial of Socrates refers to the trial and the subsequent execution of the classical Athenian philosopher Socrates in 399 BCE Socrates was tried on the basis of two notoriously ambiguous charges corrupting the youth and impiety in Greek asebeia More specifically Socrates accusers cited two impious acts failihg to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges and ihtroducihg new deities A majority of the 501 dikasts Athenian citizens chosen by lot to serve as jurors voted to convict him Consistent with common practice the dikasts determined Socrates punishment with another vote Socrates was ultimately sentenced to death by drinking a hemlockbased liquid 0 Galileo a researcher who published findings that Church officials said he could believe only in private 0 Galileo was ordered to Rome to stand trial on suspicion of heresy in 1633 quotfor holding as true the false doctrine taught by some that the sun is the center of the worldquot against the 1616 condemnation since quotit was decided at the Holy Congregation on 25 Feb 1616 that the Holy Office would give you an injunction to abandon this doctrine not to teach it to others not to defend it and not to treat of it and that if you did not acquiesce in this injunction you should be imprisonedquot29 A panel of theologians consisting of Melchior lnchofer Agostino Oreggi and Zaccaria Pasqualigo reported on the Dialogue Their opinions were strongly argued in favour of the view that the Dialogue taught the Copernican theory 0 Under oath Galileo denied teaching that the Earth moves It is a popular notion that after his denials he muttered under his breath quotEppur si muovequot translation quotAnd yet it movesquot However there is no contemporary scholarly evidence that he actually did so 0 Galileo was found guilty and the sentence of the Inquisition was in three essential parts Galileo was found quotvehemently suspect of heresyquot namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe that the Earth is not at its centre and moves and that one may hold and defend an opinion as probable after it has been declared contrary to Holy Scripture He was required to quotabjure curse and detestquot those opinions 2 He was originally ordered to be imprisoned however due to his advanced age 70 at the time of the trial the sentence was later commuted to house arrest for the rest of his life 3 His offending Dialogue was banned and in an action not announced at the trial publication of any of his works was forbidden including any he might write in the future What were Plato s beliefs about and approach to gaining knowledge 0 Only way to increase the accuracy of our knowledge of the world is through measurement and deductive reasoning o Rationalist Perspective 0 Distinguished people by what guided their souls reason spirit or appetite 0 Freedom of Inquiry o Empiricism I Observationsexperiences I Making connections I Passive mind I John Locke o Tabula rosa o Sensation and reflection 0 Applications 0 Systemofeducation I Public 0 Psychotherapy forfeardesensitization I Berkeley What were Aristotle s beliefs about and approach to gaining knowledge 0 Three basic principles of association continuity similarity and contrast 0 Associationism I Processingorganizing I Finding I Active mind finding connections between thoughts I Hume o Causation o Resemblance o Contiguity 0 Time 0 Space 0 James Mill I Just continuity I Additive like stringing a string of pearls o JS Mill I lt s congruity 0 Interactive llmental chemistry Chapter 2 Describe Descartes Dualism and critics reactions to it o Believed the interfaceconnection between mind and body as the pineal gland because it is unitary and the rest of the brain has two halves 0 Critics I Delamettrie not religious a mechanist There is no interaction or distinction between mind and body all one thing I Malebranch occasionalism God is in charge of all I Spinoza double aspect theory everything is God instead of atoms I Leibnitz parallelism God made the universe and everything is synchronized Explain what Empiricism and Associationism are Why did empiricism lead to Locke to the notion of applications and which ones did he put it to o Empiricism o Observationsexperiences 0 Making connections 0 Passive mind 0 John Locke I Tabula rosa I Sensation and reflection I Applications 0 System of education 0 Public 0 Psychotherapy for feardesensitization 0 Berkeley I Perception o Is everything a figment of imagination o AssociationismProcessingorganizing 0 Finding 0 Active mind finding connections between thoughts 0 Hume o Causation o Resemblance o Contiguity I Time I Space I James Mill 0 Just continuity o Additive like stringing a string of pearls I JS Mill 0 It s congruity 0 Interactive llmental chemistry Why are Leibniz and Kant called Cou ntervoices What do they disagree with in general What psychological views did each hold 0 Leibnitz Monad innate idea Counter to Locke and Berkeley 0 Indestructible immutable allow to organize and process ideas 0 Thresholds for consciousness o Kant Subjectivist nativist rationalist Counter to the two Mills That using reason without applying it to experience will only lead to illusions while experience will be purely subjective without first being subsumed under pure reason A prior and a posterior though iquot Category iv Categoricalimperative v Moral Development 1 Heteronomy a Autonomy Chapter 3 Describe Phrenology its claims and its mistakes Phrenology Gall and Spurcheim Why Phrenology went wrong It was also proven that the skull does not conform to brain proven by Florence Bronte and Sherlock Holmes used characteristics in their books similar to this theory What were Phineas Gage and Mary Rafferty Cases Why were they important to knowledge of the CNS Gage as a railroad construction foreman now remembered for his incredible survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head destroying one or both of his brain39s frontal lobes and for that injury39s reported effects on his personality and behavior effects so profound that friends saw him as quotno longer Gagequot Mary Rafferty Had a circular hole in skull as a result of a whale bone from a wig Dr Bartholow inserted needles to various parts of the brain and stimulated them to see the results Motor responses were observed How did socalled llBrain Stimulation Research change over time Trace the direct study of brain functions up to today 1 2 3 4 5 7 Hans Pagenstecher injected white wax and tallow between skull and brain in dogs Fournie Made small opening in animal s skull and injected corrosive substances First to stimulate brain electronically Simonoff He implanted electrodes in an animal s skull Most important early stimulation Fristch and Hitzig Most important work Ferrier o Homunculus HughlingsJackson 0 Wife was ephileptic Bartholow Mary Rafferty Pachon and Marsalet electrodes in dogs Chapter 4 In Describe the approach to psychology what Wundt fathered In what Senses does the term llschoo apply to it 0 Philosophy Wundt Neurophysiology Father of Psychology 0 Psychology 0 SubjectConsciousness 0 School Structuralism Voluntarism I Mental Chemistry 0 Method for Research come from lab work especially lntrospection I lntrospection about training up a person so they can become like a human measuring instrument What was Wudnt s ThreePart Program for Psychology How are the Parts remembered today 1 Experimental methods llbrass instrument 2 Volkerspsychologic people psychology a Religion social customs language b Nonexperimental techniques instead 3 Preliminary Science 4 Think of an iceberg in that order


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