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by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

R. Rogers

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R. Rogers
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 3350 at Texas State University taught by R. Rogers in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/212845/psy-3350-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.




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Date Created: 09/23/15
B Mod Test 2 Shaping used to develop a target behavior that a person does not currently exhibit Differential reinforcement involves the basic principles of reinforcement and extinction Differential reinforcement occurs when one particular behavior is reinforced and all other behaviors are not reinforced in a particular situation As a result the behavior that is reinforced increases and the behaviors that are not reinforced decrease through extinction Successive approximations shaping steps include babbling word sounds part words whole words strings of words and sentences Starting behavior identify an existing behavior that is an approximation of the target behavior SUCCESSIVEAPPROXIMATIONS T0 LEVERPRESSING The rat moves to the side where the lever is located N The rat faces the lever UJ The rat approaches the lever Jgt The rat rears up on its hind legs U39I The rat makes a movement toward the lever with a paw CD The rat touches the lever l The rat presses the lever As you can see from these examples shaping can be used in thefollowing ways 1 generating a novel behavior language in a young child leverpressing in the laboratory rat tricks from the dolphin 2 Reinstating a previously exhibited behavior walking which Mrs F was refusing to do 3 Changing some dimension of an existing behavior the time between urination for Mrs S SHAPING GUIDELINES 1 De ne the target behavior 2 Determine whether shaping is the most appropriate procedure 3 Identify the starting behavior 4 Choose the shaping steps 5 Choose the reinforcer 6 Differentially reinforce successive approximations 7 Move through the shaping steps at a proper pace CHAPTER 9 SUMMARY 1 Shaping is a behavioral procedure in which successive approximations of a target behavior are differentially reinforced until the person engages in the target behavior Shaping is used to develop a target behavior that the person does not currently exhibit 2 Successive approximations or shaping steps are behaviors that are increasingly more similar to the target behavior 3 Reinforcement and extinction are involved in shaping when successive approximations to the target behavior are reinforced and previous approximations are put on extinction 4 Shaping may be used inadvertently to develop problem behaviors When a mild problem behavior is put on extinction and the problem worsens during an extinction burst the parent may then reinforce the worse behavior If this process continues a number of times the problem behavior may become progressively worse through a process of differential reinforcement of worse and worse instances more intense more frequent or longer durations of the behavior 5 The following steps are involved in the successful use of shaping De ne the target behavior Determine whether shaping is the most appropriate procedure Identify the starting behavior Choose the shaping steps successive approximations Choose the reinforcer to use in the shaping procedure Differentially reinforce each successive approximation Move at a proper pace through the shaping steps Fading one way to transfer stimulus control from the prompts to the SD Response prompt the behavior of another person that evokes the desired response in the presence of the SD Type ofResponse Prompt Level qf39lntrusiveness 1 Verbal Least weakest a When the verbal behavior of another person results in the correct response in presence of the SD 2 Gestural Moderately low a Any physical movement or gesture of another person that leads to the correct behavior in the presence of the SD 3 Modeling Moderately high a He told Matt how to hit the ball and showed him the desirable behavior 4 Physical Most strongest a Aka physical guidance Stimulus prompt involves some change in a stimulus or the addition or removal of a stimulus to make a correct response more likely Response prompts The behavior of another person evokes the correct response 0 Withinstimulus prompts Changing the SD 0 Extrastimulus prompts Adding another stimulus or cue to the SD TRANSFER OF STIMULUS CONTROL 0 Prompt fading The response prompt is eliminated gradually o Prompt delay After the SD is presented the prompt is delayed to provide the opportunity for an unprompted response to occur In this procedure you present the SD wait a certain number of seconds and then if the correct response is not made you provide the prompt The time delay between the presentation of the SD and the prompt may be constant or progressive o Stimulus fading The stimulus prompt is eliminated gradually through this process to transfer stimulus control to the natural SD GUIDELINES FOR PROMPTING AND TRANSFERRING STIMULUS CONTROL Choose the most appropriate prompting strategy Get the learner s attention Present the SD Prompt the correct response Reinforce the correct behavior Transfer stimulus control by fading or prompt delay mmwal l Continue to reinforce unprompted responses CHAPTER 10 SUMMARY 1 A prompt is the behavior of another person delivered after the presentation of the SD a change in the SD or the addition of a stimulus with the SD Prompts are used to increase the likelihood that a correct behavior will occur in the correct situation in the presence of the SD 2 Fading is the gradual elimination of a prompt Fading is used to get the behavior to occur in the presence of the SD without any prompts 3 Response prompts occur when the learner s behavior is evoked by the behavior of another person Stimulus prompts involve a change in some aspect of the SD or some other stimulus change that makes a correct discrimination more likely 4 Response prompts include verbal prompts gestural prompts physical prompts and modeling 5 Transfer of stimulus control is the elimination of the prompt to get the behavior under the stimulus control of the relevant SD Transfer of stimulus control procedures involve fading and prompt delay In fading a response prompt or a stimulus prompt is eliminated gradually until the response occurs in the presence of the SD without any prompt In a prompt delay procedure a period elapses between the presentation of the SD and the delivery of the response prompt Steps in Using Extinction 1 Collect data to assess treatment effects 2 Identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior through functional assessment 3 Eliminate the reinforcer after each instance of the problem behavior 0 Have you identified the reinforcer 0 Can you eliminate the reinforcer o Is extinction safe to use 0 Can an extinction burst escalation of the problem behavior be tolerated 0 Can consistency be maintained 4 Consider the schedule of reinforcement for the problem behavior 5 Reinforce alternative behaviors 6 Promote generalization and maintenance FIVE QUESTIONS YOU MUST ADDRESS BEFORE USING EXTINCTION 0 Have you identified the reinforcer 0 Can you eliminate the reinforcer ls extinction safe to use Can an extinction burst be tolerated Can consistency be maintained When the authors quit providing token reinforcement for social interactions extinction the interactions decreased to zero for both subjects After this extinction period the authors once again reinforced social interactions with tokens However one subject continued to receive a token each time he talked to a person continuous reinforcement and the other subject received tokens on an intermittent schedule The extinction procedure decreases the frequency of the problem behavior and the reinforcement procedure increases an alternative behavior to replace the problem behavior Because a problem behavior serves a particular function for the person results in a particular reinforcing consequence the reinforcement procedure will increase a desirable behavior that serves the same function or results in the same consequence When an alternative behavior produces the same reinforcing consequence as the problem behavior had done it is less likely that the problem behavior will occur again after extinction spontaneous recovery The main point to remember is that you should use a reinforcement procedure in conjunction with extinction or any other procedure that decreases a problem behavior Generalization of the behavior change after the use of extinction means that the problem behavior will stop and the alternative behavior will occur in all relevant circumstances 0 To promote generalization extinction must be implemented consistently by all change agents and must be implemented in all circumstances in which behavior change is expected Maintenance means that the behavior change will last over time 0 To promote maintenance of the behavior change it is important to implement the extinction procedure after the initial suppression of the behavior whenever the problem behavior occurs again Sensory extinction a procedural variation of extinction that issued for automatic positive reinforcement when the reinforcer for the behavior is nonsocial and involves the sensory stimulation produced by the behavior itself 0 The sensory extinction procedure involves changing or eliminating the sensory stimulation that reinforces the behavior CHAPTER 14 SUMMARY 1 Extinction is a procedure in which the reinforcer maintaining a problem behavior is eliminated to decrease the behavior To use extinction you must rst conduct a functional assessment to identify the consequence that is reinforcing the problem behavior 2 Five questions must be addressed before using an extinction procedure 0 Have you identi ed the reinforcer for the problem behavior 0 Can you eliminate the reinforcer following the problem behavior o Is extinction safe to use 0 Can extinction burst be tolerated 0 Can consistency be maintained in the use of extinction 3 The schedule of reinforcement for the problem behavior before extinction should be considered because extinction proceeds more rapidly when the behavior is reinforced on a continuous schedule than when it is reinforced on an intermittent schedule before extinction 4 When using an extinction procedure you should always reinforce alternative behaviors to replace the problem behavior If alternative behaviors are occurring in place of the problem behavior the problem behavior is less likely to occur again in the future 5 As with any behavior modification procedure you should program for generalization and maintenance of the behavior change produced with the extinction procedure Extinction should be implemented consistently by all change agents to promote generalization It should be used consistently over time whenever and wherever the problem behavior occurs Finally alternative behaviors should be reinforced to take the place of the problem behavior when extinction is used n I of behavior DRA behavioral procedure used to increase the frequency of a desirable behavior and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors The desirable behavior is reinforced each time it occurs When to Use DRA Before implementing DRA you must decide whether it is the right procedure in a particular situation To determine whether DRA is appropriate you must answer three questions 1 Do you want to increase the rate of a desirable behavior 2 Is the behavior already occurring at least occasionally 3 Do you have access to a reinforcer that you can deliver after the occurrence of the behavior How to Use DRA 1 De ne the desirable behavior 2 De ne the undesirable behaviors 3 Identify the reinforcer 0 Observe the client and identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior 0 Observe the client and identify highrate behaviors 0 Ask the client parents or teachers 0 Use reinforcer questionnaires 0 Present potential reinforcers and measure approach behaviors 0 Present potential reinforcers contingent on an operant response and measure response rate or duration 4 Reinforce the desirable behavior immediately and consistently 5 Eliminate reinforcement for undesirable behaviors 6 Use intermittent reinforcement to maintain the target behavior 7 Program for generalization Variations GfDRA n g o ofan39 quot 39 behavior DRI alternative behavior is physically incompatible with the problem behavior and therefore the two behaviors cannot occur at the same time 0 Differential reinforcement of communication DRC aka functional communication training In this procedure the individual with the problem behavior learns to make a communication response that is functionally equivalent to the problem behavior Differential reinforcement of other behavior DRO This means that the reinforcer is no longer delivered after the problem behavior extinction but the reinforcer is delivered after an interval of time in which the problem behavior does not occur 0 You will reinforce the absence of the problem behavior IMPLEMENTING DRO Identify the reinforcer for the problem behavior Identify the reinforcer to use in the DRO procedure Choose the initial DRO time interval Eliminate the reinforcer for the problem behavior and deliver the reinforcer for the absence of bUJNQ l the problem behavior WHOLEINTERVAL DRO 0 Behavior is absent throughout the entire interval 0 Reinforcer is delivered MOMENTARY DRO 0 Behavior is absent when the interval ends 0 Reinforcer is delivered Differential reinforcement of low rates of responding DRL reinforcer is delivered when the rate of the problem behavior is decreased to a criterion level In the DRL procedure you do not reinforce the absence of the behavior rather you reinforce a lower rate of the problem behavior FULLSESSION DRL 0 Fewer than X responses occur in the session 0 Reinforcer is delivered SPACEDRESPONDING DRL 0 Response occurs after an interval of time o Reinforcer is delivered INTERVAL DRL 0 similar to spacedresponding DRL o Interval DRL involves dividing a session into intervals 0 providing the reinforcer if no more than one response occurred in each interval Stereotypic behavior repetitive behavior that does not serve any social function for the person Such behaviors often are called selfstimulatory behaviors because they produce some form of sensory stimulation for the person Interresponse time IRT seconds between responses CHAPTER 15 SUMMARY 1 P U DRA involves reinforcing a desirable behavior and extinguishing undesirable behaviors that may interfere with the desirable behavior The desirable behavior must be occurring at least occasionally so that it can be reinforced DRO involves reinforcing the absence of the problem behavior during intervals of time When the problem behavior does not occur in the interval the reinforcer is delivered and when the problem behavior occurs the interval for reinforcement is reset DRL involves reinforcing a lower rate of the problem behavior The reinforcer may be contingent on fewer than a set number of responses occurring in a time period or the reinforcer may be contingent on the behavior when a speci ed interresponse time IRT occurs DRA should be used when you want to increase the frequency of an existing desirable behavior DRO should be used when you want to eliminate a problem behavior DRL may be used when you want to decrease but not necessarily eliminate a target behavior Reinforcement is involved when the alternative behavior DRA the absence of the behavior DRO or a lower rate of the behavior DRL is reinforced Extinction is used when the problem behavior occurs DRA and DRO or when the rate of the behavior exceeds the criterion for reinforcement DRL Negative reinforcement is used in DRO or DRA when termination of an aversive stimulus is the reinforcer for an alternative behavior DRA or the reinforcer for the absence of the problem behavior DRO Timeout loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period contingent on the problem behavior The result is a decrease in the future probability of the problem behavior Timeout from positive reinforcement EXCLUSIONARY TIMEOUT o The person is removed from the room the reinforcing environment where the problem behavior occurred and is taken to another room This removes the person from all sources of positive reinforcement NONEXCLUSIONARY TIMEOUT o The person remains in the room while being removed from access to positive reinforcers 0 With extinction the problem behavior is no longer followed by the reinforcing event that previously maintained the behavior 0 With timeout the person is removed from access to all sources of reinforcement contingent on the problem behavior 0 With response cost a speci c amount of a reinforcer the person already possesses is removed after the problem behavior CHAPTER 21 SUMMARY 0 Habit behaviors are repetitive automatically reinforced behaviors that often occur outside of the person s awareness that is the person does not discriminate each instance of the behavior When the frequency or intensity of a habit behavior becomes extreme it may be considered a habit disorder 0 Nervous habits tics and stuttering are three categories of habit behaviors o Habit reversal procedures consist of a number of treatment components including awareness training to teach the person to discriminate each instance of the habit behavior the use of a competing response contingent on the habit behavior and social support procedures that motivate the person to continue using the competing response to eliminate the habit behavior 0 For each category of habit behavior the competing response is different For motor tics the person engages in a competing response by tensing the muscles involved in the tic For a nervous habit the person engages in an incompatible behavior using the muscles used in performing the habit behavior eg holding an object to compete with nail biting In a competing response for stuttering the person engages in an incompatible pattern of breathing and speaking called regulated breathing o The effectiveness of habit reversal procedures is related to the use of the competing response which functions as a punisher for habits and tics or as an alternative behavior to replace the habit behavior in the case of stuttering The effectiveness of increased awareness by itself has not been fully investigated CHAPTER 22 SUMMARY 0 A token economy is a behavior modi cation procedure in which conditioned reinforcers called tokens are used to strengthen desirable behaviors in clients participating in a treatment or educational program Research has demonstrated that the token economy can be used successfully with children and adults in a variety of treatment settings 0 In a token economy target behaviors are identi ed and tokens are delivered contingent on their occurrence Tokens are later exchanged for backup reinforcers at a predetermined exchange rate 0 Response cost in which the occurrence of problem behaviors results in the loss of tokens may be implemented as a component of a token economy when one goal is to decrease the occurrence of undesirable behaviors o A variety of items may be used as tokens in a token economy see Table 222 for examples Tokens must be easy to carry and deliver by the change agent immediately after the target behaviors The client must be able to accumulate tokens earned in a token economy 0 The advantages of a token economy are that tokens can be delivered immediately after the target behavior they are easy to dispense and accumulate they can be quanti ed and they don t lose their value as reinforcers The token economy is highly structured can accommodate a response cost procedure and can teach the recipient planning skills Disadvantages of a token economy include time effort and cost CHAPTER 24 SUMMARY 0 A fear is composed of operant and respondent behaviors A particular stimulus situation elicits autonomic arousal as a respondent behavior and the person engages in escape or avoidance responses as the operant behavior when the fearproducing stimulus is present The bodily responses involved in autonomic arousal are called anxiety 0 Relaxation exercises are used to help a person replace autonomic arousal with a relaxation response in the anxietyproducing situation 0 Relaxation can be produced by four basic techniques progressive muscle relaxation exercises in which the person tenses and relaxes each major muscle group in the body diaphragmatic breathing exercises in which the person breathes slowly and deeply attentionfocusing exercises in which attention is directed away from the anxietyproducing stimulus and toward a calming scene and behavioral relaxation training a technique that focuses on relaxed postures All relaxation exercises address muscle tension proper breathing and attention focus 0 Systematic desensitization and in vivo desensitization are procedures to help a person overcome a fear ln systematic desensitization the person relaxes and imagines scenes of fearproducing situations arranged in a hierarchy from least to most fearproducing o In invivo desensitization the person is exposed gradually to the actual fearproducing situations arranged in a hierarchy from least to most fear producing while maintaining relaxation or engaging in a behavior opposite to escape or avoidance The important component of systematic and in vivo desensitization is the progression through a hierarchy that results in gradual exposure to more fearproducing scenes or situations The advantage of in vivo desensitization is that the client makes actual contact with the feared stimulus so generalization is enhanced The disadvantage is the time and effort involved in conducting the procedure The advantage of systematic desensitization is that it is easier and more convenient to carry out The disadvantage is that the results may not fully generalize to the actual fearproducing situation Cognitive behavior another type of covert behavior focuses on analyzing and modifying Behavioral L f39mitions ofCognitiie Behaviors and Their Corresponding Labels When the client sees people talking he thinks llThey re talking about me When the client sees someone walking behind him he thinks llThat person is following me o Paranoid thoughts A person thinks quotI can do this I can succeed at this job wi do well 0 Selfefficacy A person thinks quotI wish I would just die What s the point of going on Nobody cares it would be better for everyone if I were dead 0 Suicidal thoughts A batter in a softball game says to herself quotI can hit this pitcher I m better than she is I m going to win this game 0 Selfcon dence The right elder says to himself quotI hope he doesn t hit it to me I don t know if I can catch it wish this game would end 0 Low selfcon dence As a driver is looking for an address she thinks llI m supposed to turn left at the rst light and go three blocks to a stop sign Then I turn left and go until I see the white house on the left 0 Selfinstructions Reconstructing ABC s of Behavior 0 Activating Experience 0 BeliefSystem o Emotional Consequence Problem Solving Steps Cognitive restructuring Cognitive behavior modi cation procedures are used to help people change cognitive behaviors Cognitive coping skills training designed to teach new cognitive behaviors that are then used to promote other desirable behaviors STEPSINCOGNITlVERESTRUCTURlNG 1 Identify distressing thoughts and situations 2 Identify emotional response or behavior that follows the thoughts 3 Work to decrease distressing thoughts and replace them with more rational or desirable thinking Cognitive therapy help people change their behavior including their distorted thoughts or selftalk Cognitive distortions types of distorted thinking that a depressed person may report Examples of Cognitive Distortions Allornothing thinking You see everything in terms of black or white with no shades of gray If something is not perfect it is not acceptable Overgeneralization You take a single negative event as evidence that something is all bad or is always going to be bad Disqualifying the positive In a situation or event there are usually some positive and negative aspects You discount or ignore the positive aspects and instead focus on the negative aspect of the event even when the situation or event was largely positive Jumping to conclusions You arbitrarily jump to negative conclusions that are not supported by the facts This may involve mind reading making assumptions about what other people are thinking or predicting negative future events without any evidence Magni cation and minimization You blow negative events out of proportion or minimize the importance of positive events Labeling and mislabeling You put negative labels on events or on yourself which in uences how you view yourself or events in the world Personalization You assume responsibility for the occurrence of negative events even when there is no evidence that you are responsible Selfinstructions She instructed herself to sit back down in her chair and pay attention to the teacher STEPS lN SELFINSTRUCTIONAL TRAINING 1 Identify the problem situation de ne the desirable behavior to be increased and identify competing behaviors 2 Identify the selfinstructions to be used in the problem situation 3 Use behavioral skills training to teach the selfinstructions Steps in Behavioral Skills Training Used to Teach SelfInstructions 1 The therapist recites the selfinstructions out loud and engages in the desirable behavior 2 The therapist and the client recite the selfinstructions out loud and engage in the desirable behavior 3 The client recites the selfinstructions out loud and engages in the desirable behavior without assistance from the therapist 4 The client recites the selfinstructions in a progressively softer voice and engages in the desirable behavior 5 The client recites the selfinstructions without producing any sound and engages in the desirable behavior 6 The client recites the selfinstructions covertly without moving her lips and engages in the desirable behavior Acceptance and commitment therapy the client learns that he or she has not been able to control troublesome thoughts and feelings in the past and that attempts to control thoughts and feelings have made the client s problem worse CHAPTER 25 SUMMARY 1 Cognitive behavior is de ned as thoughts images or selfstatements that occur covertly 2 A cognitive behavior can serve as a CS an SD or an E0 when it is an antecedent to another behavior or it can serve as a reinforcer or punisher when it is a consequence of another behavior exhibited by the person 3 In the cognitive restructuring procedure the therapist helps the client identify distressing thoughts and replace them with more desirable thoughts 4 To help people change their thinking the therapist rst helps the client identify maladaptive thoughts that contribute to emotional or behavioral dif culties The therapist then asks a series of questions to help the client critically evaluate the logic or accuracy of his or her thoughts Through this process the client begins to think in more accurate or logical ways which alleviates emotional or behavioral problems 5 The selfinstructional training procedure includes two basic components Using behavioral skills training procedures the therapist teaches the client to make selfstatements or self instructions Therapist and client practice the selfinstructions and the desirable behaviors in roleplays that simulate a problem situation The client later recites the selfinstructions and engages in the desirable behavior in the problem situation


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