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by: Tremaine Medhurst


Tremaine Medhurst
Texas State
GPA 3.63

T. Chumbley

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T. Chumbley
Study Guide
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Popular in Agriculture and Forestry

This 36 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tremaine Medhurst on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AG 2215 at Texas State University taught by T. Chumbley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/212854/ag-2215-texas-state-university in Agriculture and Forestry at Texas State University.




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Date Created: 09/23/15
Analamy a a Ham AG ms MW m u M mum 7mg pan m we me that faHs hm we wall rm bag nmng Mme wk mmema ew behmd me Mann rm W m g39ow mg mm m age We wk wilharsr me mm pm m a mm The mum shove me showy b ades am We ayes Wm M sadd e goes Banal r The mam body ayes 9mg hovse endosmg the m age and mtema uvgans Loins The area rig ht behind the saddle extending from the last rib to the croup Croup The top line of the horse s hindquarters Dock The point where the tail connects to the horse Hindquarters The large muscular area of the hind legs This is considered to be the most powerful part of the equine anatomy Hock The large joint on the hind legs Fetlock The part of the lower leg situated above and behind the hoof Pastern The connection between the coronet and the fetlock Coronet The ring of soft tissue above the hoof that blends into the skin Stier thejoint corresponding to the human knee in the hind leg of a four legged animal Flank Where the hind legs and the barrel of the horse meet Elbow The joint of the front leg where the belly of the horse meets the leg Chestnut a small callus found on the inside of each leg Hoof The foot of a horse This is considered to be the most important part of the equine anatomy A horse is only as good as his feet Cannon The area between the knee or hock and the fetlockjoint Knee The large joint in the front legs above the cannon bone Girth The area behind the elbow of the horse where the girth of the saddle goes Forearm The area of the front leg between the knee and elbow Shoulder Runs from the withers to the point of the shoulder Point of Shoulder The joint at the front of the chest Chin Groove The part of a horse s head behind the lower lip and chin Frog The wedge shaped mass on the underside of the hoof Muzzle The chin mouth and nostrils of a horse s face 39 2 u 32 2 13 5 mg 2 7 j 9 w 5 E25 6 An namavia Tadlock 1 YheSkuH 2 Manama 3 Swims a AME 5 Am 5 Scams Damage 7 Venehme EHmm 9 Femm 1DHackJmm MCanrmnEane 2nt 13 smmm a Shun PasteFM mSemnd WW 2n KneeJmm 21 Radms 22 Emawmm 23 Humems Parts of the Horse and Conformation AG 2215 By Ty Chumbley Parts of a Horse Parts of a Horse 1 Poll The poll is the bony prominence lying between the ears Except for the ears it is the highest point on the horses body When it is standing With its head up 2 Crest Moderately lean in mares but inclined to be more full stallions Curved topline of the neck Forehead The forehead should be broad full and at 4 Nostrils The nostrils should be capable of made dilation to permit the maximum inhalation of air yet be rather ne Parts of a Horse 5 Muzzle The head should taper to a small muzzle the lips should be rm and the lower lip should not have the tendency to sag 6 Point of Shoulder The point of shoulder is a hard bony prominence surrounded by heavy muscle masses 7 Breast The Breast is a muscle mass between the forelegs covering the front of the chest 8 Chest An ideal chest is deep and contains the space necessary for vital organs A narrow chest can lead to interference with the front legs Chest muscles should be well developed and form an inverted quotVquot The prominence of chest muscling depends on the breed Parts of a Horse 9 Forearm The forearm should be well muscled it extends from the elbow to the knee 10 Knee The knee is the joint between the forearm and the cannon bone 11 Coronet The coronet is the band around the top of the hoof from which the hoof wall grows 12 Hoof The hoof refers to the horny wall and the sole of the foot The foot includes the horny structure and the pedal bones and naVacular bones as well as other connective tissue Parts of a Horse 13 Pastern The pastern extends from the fetlock to the top of the hoof 14 Sesam0id 15 FleXor Tendons The exor tendons run from the knee to the fetlock and can be seen prominently lying behind the cannon bone When it runs parallel to the cannon bone it constitutes the desired quot at bonequot 16 Fetlock The fetlock is the joint between the cannon bone and the pastern The fetlock joint should be large and clean Sesamoid Injuries Sesamoid injuries are most common in race horses presumably due to speed and over extension of the fetlock joint In 2 year olds early signs of stress can be seen radiographically as Wide channels running through the sesamoid bone termed quotsesamoidiusquot This channeling may be due to increased blood supply demands by the bone in response to increased quotpoundingquot As the work load increases the channeling in the bone represents weak zones and puts the bone at higher risk of fracturing The bone fractures most commonly in three different places Sesamoid Bone curnus runes cannon me u 1 mew LI san SuspanEty39y garneer suspengmy ngml Eggarrange bganwnls Parts of a Horse 17 Cannon The cannon bone lies between the knee and fetlock joint and is Visible from the front of the leg It should be straight 1398 Underline The back should be short and strong with a long underline The horse should have a long moderately sloping croup The length of the croup is important because it is essentially the quotenginequot that powers an equine athlete A long croup more readily accommodates more muscle mass 19 Hock The hock is the joint between the gaskin and the cannon bone in the rear leg The bony protuberance at the black of the hock is called the point of hock 20 Gaskin The gaskin is the region between the sti e and the hock Parts of the Horse 21 S e The sti e is the joint at the end of the thigh corresponding to the human knee 22 Flank The ank is the area below the loin between the last rib and the massive muscles of the thigh 23 Loin The loin or coupling is the short area joining the back to the powerful muscular croup rump 24 Group The croup rump lies between the loin and the tail VVhen one is looking from the side or back it is the highest point of the hindquarters Parts of a Horse 25 Back The back extends from the base of the withers to where the last rib is attached 26 Withers The withers is the prOminent ridge where the neck and the back join At the withers powerful muscles of the neck and shoulders attach to the elongated spines of the second to sixth thoracic vertebrae The height of a horse is measured vertically from the withers to the ground because the withers is the horse39s highest constant point 27 Throat Latch The neck should be ne at the throat latch to allow the horse ease of exation 28 Neck Lightweight horses should have reasonably long necks for good appearance and proper balance It should blend smoothly into the withers and the shoulders not appear to emerge between the front legs Parts of a Horse 29 Shoulder Shoulders should be overlain with lean at muscle and blend well into the withers 30 Barrel The barrel should be narrower at the shoulders and widen at the point of Coupling loins 31 Girth This is the point that a horses should be measured to determine the heart girth which can be used to determine the horses weight Parts of a Horse 32 Elbow The elbow is a bony prominence lying against the Chest at the beginning of the forearm 39 33 Hindquarters The hindquarters give power to the horse They should be well muscled when Viewed from the side and rear Pal ts of a Horse Ix 392 ml Mum on m 5m m n Horse Conformation Conformation Keeping it all in Balance Although a horses basic body conformation will vary by breed all horses should have basic quotathleticquot structural attributes A horses conformation determines how Well it can perform the functions asked of it Good conformation includes Proper balance and mass Structural correctness Desirable breed and sex characteristics Fads at times have skewed the importance of one trait or another but all are important no matter the purpose for Which the horse is intended Balance Balance refers to the even smooth blending of all parts and musclingi Balance is determined by s the length of the neck 0 the back and the croup Of utmost importance is that the angle of the shoulder should be adequate Angle of the Shoulder Many breeders believe that the slope of the shoulder will determine a horse39s agility because the slope de nes the length of the neck If the slope of the shoulder is too steep the neck will appear short and the back long The angle of the shoulder will also be the angle of the pastern If the shoulder is steep the angle of the pastern will be steep which results in a rough short stride A horse with a long moderately sloping shoulder will typically have a long neck a short back and a smooth stride The length of the neck determines the length of the stride as well as the horse39s exibility In a performance horse especially the neck must be long to allow for proper exing at the poll which is required in any performance event Balance The back should be short and strong With a long underline The horse should have along moderately sloping croup The length of the croup is important because it is essentially the quotenginequot that powers an equine athlete A long croup more readily aCcommodates more muscle mass Balance also accounts for the evenness of muscling All the parts of a horse39s body should blend smoothly into each other and present a pleasing pictures Long sloping shoulders short strong back long underline and a long croup increase the probability that your horse can become a good quotathletequot Balanca Mass and internal body capacity 39 A horse39s muscling should be long patterned and de ned Muscle mass can most easily be determined When Viewed from directly in front of or behind the horse As VlCWCd from the front the horse should show significant Width from shoulder to shoulder a large circumference to the forearm and a prominent quotVquot in the front muscling As Viewed from the back the horse should be Wide from sti e to sti e and the quarter should tie in deep to strong gaskins Rear Muscle Mass and Internal Capacity quot When Viewed from the side a horse should have strong forearms a deep quarter strong gaskins and a long croup to accommodate a large amount of muscle mass through a prominent sti e In addition the horse should have a largecircumference heart girth For halter horses the more muscle mass the better 39 FOr performance horses muscle mass should be no more than adequate to perform the tasks at hand because increased muscle bulk detracts from the uidity of the horse39s stride Mass and Internal Capacity Mass and Internal Capacity The internal body capacity of a horse determines the room available for lung and heart functions The more lung capacity a horse has the more air it can take in With each stride making the horse capable of more powerful and ef cient perfOrmance and greater stamina Internal body capacity also determines the ability of a potential broodmare to carry a large foal Structural correctness Structural correctness affects the action and soundness of horses Wh en the front legs are Viewed from the front a line should bisect the forearm knee cannon fetlock and the bulb of the heel quot If the toes point outward the horse is splayfooted if the toes point inward the horse is considered pigeontoed Typically pigeontoed horse s wing out and splayfooted horses wing in when walking When the front legs are Viewed from the side the knees should be at Front Leg Structure Figure 1 A Straight legs good front 5 Spray feared C Pigeonroad D Knockknead narrow front base wide E Basenarrow F Bow knead Rear Leg Structure 39 When a horse is VieWed from behind a line should bisect the gaskin hock cannon fetlock pastern and foot 39 If the horse39s hocks turn inward the horse is considered cow hocked When the legs are Viewed from the side a straight line drawn downward from the back of the buttock should touch the back of the hock cannon and fetlock 39 If the horse has too much angle in the hocks then it is considered to be sicklehocked If the leg is forward of this line and too straight the horse is considered postlegged Rear Leg Structure Figure 3 Figure 3 A Straight regs B Sligh y sawhooked 7 Extremely sawhacked sprayfooted D BawIegged Dr handylegged 0 quot100 wide pigeon cred E Basenarrow or stands close F Basewide or stands wide Hock and Rear Leg Structure Figure 4 A Correct skeieta structure B Correct reg set C Sicklehacked or too much set D Postlegged or too straight boonfoored E Camped under or stands under Structure Pasterns should be of medium length be strong but exible and have a medium slope The hoof should have the same angle as the pastern and should be of moderate size but deep and Wide at the heel and free of rings The slope of the shoulders and pasterns combined With the expansion of the heel provides shock absorption When the horse is in motion Bones should be of adequate size and should show definition of joints and appear at When Viewed from the side Structure Figure 2 A Correct good bone B Paetern 00 straight C Pastem too fang and at angle different than foot coonfooted D Calf kneed shon straight pastern E Buckknead or over on the knee F Tied in or ne bone beiow the knee Structure Deviation from these points of structural correctness predisposes a horse to unsoundness and wasted motion Bone spaVins bogs thoroughpins and weakness are common among sicklehocked horses Jarring from short straight pasterns and shoulders predisposes a horse to side bones stiffness bogs and lameness V V hite hoofs are softer and wear faster than black or red hooves Horse Conformation An outstanding horse will always exhibit superior conformation Some horse judges support fads and are more forgiving of certain faults than others However a horse39s form is related directly to function In the long run whenever you sacrifice certain qualities of conformation a limitation in ability will occur When evaluating horses the ideal will always be in demand there is no substitute for quality


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