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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Stephanie Bauch on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MC 3367 at Texas State University taught by J. Gibson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/212893/mc-3367-texas-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Advertising Review 3 How cost is determined for all ads in these chapters Selecting media to advertise in 0 Selecting the most appropriate media mix for an advertising campaign requires two distinct skills understanding the unique characteristics of the various media alternatives and determining which medium will most efficiently and effectively reach the campaign s target audience Special magazine buys o Bleed pages cover positions inserts and gatefolds and special sizes such as junior pages and island halves Magazine geography A magazine may also be classified as local regional or national 0 Local city magazines Most major cities have a local city magazine Their readership is usually upscale business and professional people interested in local arts fashion and business 0 Regional publications are targeted to a specific area of the county such as the West or the South Sunset Southern Living National magazines sometimes provide special market runs for specific geographic regions Time Newsweek Women 5 Day Sports Illustrated all allow advertisers to buy for a specific region 0 National magazines range from those with enormous circulations such as TV Guide to small lesserknown national magazines such as Nature and Volleyball Monthly Magazine ad rates 0 Costs Per Thousand CPM divide the fullpage rate by the number of thousands of subscribers 0 Frequency Discounts Volume Discounts 0 Premium Rates magazines charge more for special features Magazine circulation 0 Primary Circulation represents the number of people who buy the publication either by subscription or at the newsstand 0 Secondary Readership an estimate determined by market research of how many people read a single issue ofa publication 0 PaidCirculation the recipient must pay the subscription price to receive the magazine 0 Controlled Circulation publisher mails the magazine free to individuals who the publishers in uence the purchase ofadvertised products Magazine ad sizes types 0 Types 0 Consumer magazines purchased for entertainment information or both are edited for consumers who buy products for their own personal consumption Time Sports Illustrated Glamour Good Housekeeping O O 0 Sizes 0 OOO Farm publications are directed to farmers and their families or to companies that manufacture or sell agricultural equipment supplies and services Farm journal Progressive Prairie Farmer Successful Farming Business Magazines by far the largest category target business readers The include trade publications for retailers wholesalers and other distributors Progressive Grocer Bakery News business and industrial magazines for businesspeople involved in manufacturing and services Electronic Design American Banker and professional journals for lawyers physicians architects and other professionals Archives of Optham ology Large 4 col X 170 lines 9 38 X 12 18 in eX Life Flat 3 col X 140 lines 7 X 10 in eX Time Newsweek Standard 2 col X 119 lines 6 X 8 12 in eX National Geographic Small pocket or digest 2 col X 91 lines 4 12 X 6 12 in eX Reader s Digest Horizontalvertical publications 0 Vertical covers a specific industry in all its aspects 0 Horizontal deal with a particular job function across a variety of industries They are a very effective advertising vehicle Pros and cons of magazine ads 0 Cons 0 00000 0 Pros 000000 00 Lack of immediacy that advertisers can get with newspapers and radio Limited reach many magazines must be used to approach the national reach of broadcast media Inability to deliver mass audiences at a low price Long lead time for ad insertion sometimes two or three months Heavy advertising competition High cost per reader Declining circulations especially in the single copy sales is an industrywide trend that limits an advertisers reach Flexibility in readership and advertising Color gives readers visual pleasure Authority and believability enhance the commercial message Permanence gives reader time to appraise ads in detail Prestige for products advertised in upscale or specialty magazines Audience selectivity is more efficient in magazines then any other medium Cost efficiency because wasted circulation is minimized Selling power of magazines is proven and results are usually measurable O O 0 Reader loyalty that sometimes borders on fanaticism Extensive passalong readership Merchandising assistance Pros and cons of newspaper ads Pros O O O 0 OOO Cons 00000 0 Mass medium most people read a newspaper Local medium with a broad reach Comprehensive in scope it covers an extraordinary variety of topics and interests Geographic selectivity is possible with zonal editions for specific neighborhoods or communities Timeliness papers primarily cover today s news and are read in one day Credibility studies show that newspaper ads rank highest in believability Selective attention from the relatively small number of active prospects Creative exibility An active medium rather than a passive one A permanent record in contrast to the ephemeral nature of radio and tV Reasonable cost Lack of selectivity of specific socioeconomic groups Short life span Low production quality Clutter each competes with another Lack of control over where the ad will appear Overlapping circulation some people read more then one newspaper Newspaper sizes Newspaper ad sixes categories Display advertising includes copy illustration or photos headlines coupons and other visual components Ex reading notice Classified ads provides a community marketplace for goods services and opportunities of every type Public notices for a nominal fee newspapers carry legal public notices of changes in business and personal relationships Preprint inserts the advertiser prints the inserts and delivers them to the newspaper plant for insertion into a specific edition Online advertising most major local newspapers have developed online editions which carry several types of advertising ROP RunofPaper advertising rates entitle a newspaper to place a given ad on any newspaper page or in any position it desires Pros and cons of television cable ads 0 Pros 0 Mass coverage over 99 of all American homes have a tv 0 Relatively low cost per viewer 0 Some selectivity television audiences vary a great deal depending on the time of day day of the week and the nature of the program 0 Impact television offers a kind ofimpact that other forms of advertising cannot achieve 0 Creativity the various facets of the TV commercial permit infinite original and imaginative appeals o Prestige because the public considers TV the most authoritative and in uential medium 0 Social dominance o Cons 0 High production costs High airtime costs Long lead times Limited selectivity In eXibility networks offer a limited number of commercial formats and tend to impose rigorous standards to which advertisers must adhere o Brevity studies show that viewers can t remember the product or company advertised o Clutter o Zipping and zapping people who use TiVo and other things like it Participation sponsorship etc o Sponsorship an advertiser who underwrites the cost ofa program 0 Participation Most network TV is sold on a participation basis 0 Inventory commercial time o PLA programlength advertisement infomercial 0000 Product placement 0 Where brands are woven into the content of shows ROS o Runofstation similar to ROP in newspaper advertising however this leaves total control of spot placement up to the station AvailsMakegoods o Makegoods refer to free advertising time an advertiser receives to compensate for spots the station missed or ran incorrectly or because the program s ratings were substantially lower than guaranteed Audience Measurements o RatingTVHH tuned to a specific programTotal TVHH in area 0 Audience ShareTVHH tuned to a specific programHH with a TV turned on 0 Cost per thousand CPMCostThousands of people 0 Cost per rating point CPPCostRating Types of charges for television commercials Infomercials 0 Full length commercial Pros and cons of radio ads 0 Pros 0 Audience the average adult listens nearly three hours a day radio builds a large audience quickly 0 Selectivity specialized radio formats with prescribed audiences and coverage areas enable advertisers to select the market they want to reach 0 Cost efficiency radio offers one of the lowest costs per thousand and radio production is inexpensive o Visualization creative radio spots can create imagery every bit as graphic as visual media 0 Other timeliness immediacy local relevance and creative exibility o Cons 0 Limitations of sound heard but not seen 0 Segmented audiences ifa large number of radio stations compete for the same audience advertisers who want to blanket the market have to buy multiple stations 0 Clutter stations with the greatest appeal for advertisers have more commercials Formats DMA o Designated market areas geographic areas in which local TV stations attract the most viewing Cume persons CPP AQH o AQH Average quarterhour audience identifies the average number of people listening to a specific station for at least 5 minutes during an average 15minute period or any given daypart AQH personspopulation 100AQH Rating AQH persons of a stationAQH persons of all stations100AQH share Gross impressions AQH personsnumber of spotsGross impressions Gross rating points Gross impressionspopulation100GRPs o Cume persons total number of different people who listen to a radio station for at least five minutes in a quarterhour within a reported daypart also called unduplicated audience or reach Viral marketing 0 The internet version of wordof mouth advertising via email Affiliate marketing 0 Paying a percentage of the transaction cost to the publisher of the referring page Search Engine marketing 0 The column on the right and the light blue section at the top ofGoogle hold the marketing of companies Types of Internet ads Banner a little billboard that spreads across the top or bottom of the Web page Skyscraper the vertical ad that appears on one side of the page Buttons smaller versions ofbanners Landing pages a marketing tool that leads people into the purchasing or relationship building process Interstitial term for a variety ofads that play between pages on a Web site popping up on the screen while the computer downloads a Web site the user has clicked on Rich mail allows graphics video and audio to be included in an email message Sponsorship corporations sponsor entire sections ofa publisher s Web page or sponsor single events for a limited period of time Classified ad Web sites ex Craigslist Email advertising 77 of marketers send these to customers who have asked for it Customer retention and relationship management CRM Measuring Internet ad success Ad impression an opportunity to deliver an advertising element to a Web site visitor Click rate a click occurs when a visitor moves the mouse s pointer to a web link and clicks the mouse to get to another page Pros and cons of Internet advertising Pros o Truly interactive medium 0 Enormous audience 0 Immediate response 0 Highly selective targeting 0 Proximity to purchase 0 Af uent market 0 A rapidly growing industry that provides tremendous profit opportunities for the savvy direct marketers 0 Provides indepth information about a company and its products 0 Reaches businesstobusiness users 0 Advertorials are effective tools for advertisers and often are incorporated into WWW publications 0 Virtual storefronts Cons 0 Medium is not standardized o Targeting costs used to be among the most expensive relative to any other medium 0 Slow downloads due mostly to bandwidth still hamper many users from the full online experience 0 Security and privacy concerns still prevent many users from engaging in online purchases 0 Global marketing limitations Pros and cons of outof home ads 0 Pros 0 Accessibility outdoor carries the message 24 hours per day and can not be fastforwarded put aside zapped or turned off 0 Reach for the same dollars outdoor reaches over 86 compared with spot TV radio and newspaper 0 Frequency most people reached with outdoor advertising see it daily 0 Geographic exibility can be placed wherever they want 0 Demographic exibility messages can be concentrated in areas frequently traversed by a certain demographic 0 Cost the lowest cost per exposure of any major advertising medium 0 Impact perfect for a short simple message 0 Creative exibility offers a large display and the spectacular features oflights animation and brilliant color 0 Cons o Fleeting messages customers pass quickly 0 Environmental in uence 0 Audience measurement it is difficult to measure audience demographics 0 Control difficult to inspect each poster panel 0 Planning and costs require six to eight weeks for print and post time and initial costs are high 0 Availability of locations demand for a good spot exceeds the supply 0 Visual pollution Billboard types sizes Bulletins measure 14 by 48 feet plus any extensions Legislation controlling billboards O O progr Types of 00 Mobil Trans The Highway Beautification Act of 1965 Each state regulates administers and enforces outdoor advertising permit ams through its department of transportation H media e Billboards Electronic Signs Parking meters public phones and more it advertising includes bus and taxicab advertising as well as posters on transit shelters terminals and subways 0 Transit terminal shelter buying space on bus shelters and backs of busstop benches Terminal posters space sold for one two and three sheet terminal posters Inside and outside cards and posters inside card is placed in a wall rack above the vehicle windows Outside posters are printed on high grade cardboard and often varnished for weather resistance Taxi cab exteriors and sold for space Outdoor advertising uses scientifically located structures to deliver an advertiser s message to markets around the world 0 O 0 Bulletin structures Poster panels consists of blank panels with a standardized size and border 12 by 25 foot board Eightsheet posters offer a 5 by 11 foot printing area on panel surfaces 6 feet wide and 12 feet high Spectaculars giant electronic signs the usually incorporate movement color and ashy graphics to grab attention Figuring cost for media 100 ShowingGRPS 100 Showings basic unit of sale for billboards or posters One rating point equals one percent of a particular market s population Pros and cons of direct mail Pros O OO O O OO Cons 0 000 00 Selectivity direct mail helps advertisers communicate directly with the people most likely to buy Intensive coverage and extensive reach Everyone has a mailbox Flexibility directmail advertising can be uniquely creative limited only by the advertiser s ingenuity and budget and postal regulations Control preprinted directmail pieces enable an advertiser to precisely control circulation and reproduction quality Personal impact advertisers can personalize direct mail to the needs wants and whims of specific audiences without offending other prospects or customers Exclusivity there are no distractions from competitive ads Response direct mail achieves the highest response Testability High cost per exposure Delivery problems Lack of content support Selectivity problems depends on correctly identifying the target audience and getting a good list Negative audiences many consumers think of direct mail as junk mail and throw it away Environmental concerns some see it as a landfill fodder Antispam laws CANSPAM Act and similar laws impose many requirements Types of direct mail Dimensional direct mail Email Sales letters Postcards Business reply mail Folders Brochures Self mailers Statement stuffers House organs Catalogs Types of advertising specialties Consumer specialties Business to business specialties Advertising Review Test 2 Chapter 6 and 7 Know steps in the research process 0 Marketing Research Identify consumer needs identify marketing segments gather information to develop new products gather information that helps to recruit new customers retain existing customers regain lost customers 0 Advertising Research Systematic gathering and analysis of information to help develop or evaluate advertising strategies individual ads and entire campaigns Systematic gathering analysis develop evaluate o 1 Situation analysis and problem definition 2 Informal exploratory research 3 Construction of research objectives 4 Formal research 5 Interpretation and reporting of findings Pros and cons of data collection 0 Primary Data information collected from the marketplace about a specific problem Acquiring it is expensive and time consuming 0 Secondary Data Information previously collected or published usually used for some other purpose It is readily available and can be gathered quickly and inexpensively Roles ofpeople involved in research process 0 The Account Planner Nurtures relationships between customer and brand assures that advertising is relevant to target audience brings a wealth of information to the planning process What sorts of tests help prepare effective tests pre and post 0 PreTest Increase the likelihood ofpreparing the most effective advertising messages to companies 0 PostTest Provides the advertiser with useful guidelines for future advertising What are the basic methods to collect data quantitative 3 and qualitative o Qualitative Research that elicits indepth openended responses Use 2 methods projective and intensive techniques Most common intensive technique is the focus group 0 Quantitative Used to gain reliable hard statistics about specific market conditions or situations 3 basic methods observation monitor s people actions experiment measure actual causeeffect relationship Survey gains information on attitudes opinions or motivations by questioning Types ofpre and post tests o PreTests Consumer juries Matched samples Portfolio tests Storyboard tests Mechanical devices Psychological rating scales 0 PostTests Aided recall Unaided recall Attitude tests Inquiry tests Sales tests Levels of Customer Interaction 0 Basic Transactional The company sells the product but does not follow up in any way 0 Reactive The company sells the product and encourages customer to call if they encounter any problems 0 Accountable The company phones the customer shortly after the sale to check whether the product meets expectations and asks for product improvement suggestions and any specific disappointments o Proactive The company contacts customers from time to time with suggestions about improved product use or helpful new products 0 Partnership The company works continuously with customers to discover ways to deliver better value Know advertising pyramid o Create awareness develop comprehension develop conviction move customers to desire the product some who desire will take action Components of Advertising Strategy 0 Creative Strategy Guide for those developing the advertising defines the target audience restates the objective of the advertising specifies the key benefits to be communicated and offers support for those benefits 0 Media Strategy Provides direction to the media planners defines the communication objectives that must be achieved and then describes how they will be accomplished through the use ofmedia vehicles Top down and bottom up marketing plans 0 TopDown Used by most large companies Situation analysis Marketing objectives Marketing strategy Marketing tactics o BottomUp Popular with small company plans Marketing tactics Marketing strategy Marketing results Strategy Objective Tactics Rational 0 Parts ofa situation analysis Presents all the relevant facts about the company s history growth products and services distribution services past advertising programs marketing research studies company capabilities strengths and weaknesses and other pertinent information Different ways to budget an ad campaign 0 Percentage of Sales Ad budget is determined by allocating a percentage of last year s sales anticipated sales for neXt year or some combination of the two 0 Percentage of Profit Like above but the percentage is applied to profit rather then sales 0 Unit of Sales A specific dollar amount is set for each box case barrel or carton produced Used primarily in assessing members of coops or trade associations for ad costs 0 Competitive Parity Allocates dollars according to amounts spent by major competitors 0 Share of Market Allocates dollars by maintaining a percentage share of total industry advertising comparable to or slightly ahead of desired share of market Objective Task Defining objective determining strategy and estimating the cost to execute that strategy 0 Chapter 8 and 9 Left vs Right brain thinkers Different roles of people on a creative team 0 Copy Writer Develops the verbal message the copy words within the ad 0 Art Director Responsible for the nonverbal aspect of the message the design which determines the look and feel of the ad 0 Creative Director Ultimately responsible for the creative product the form the final ad takes 2 things that make an ad great 0 Audience Resonance The ad makes the viewer stop and think it quotresonatesquot within them 0 Strategic Relevance Does the ad get you to think what it wants you to and reinforce the right feelings What is a creative brief 0 A creative briefis a document used by creative professionals and agencies to develop creative deliverables visual design copy advertising web sites etc The document is usually developed by the requestor in most cases a marketing team member and approved by the creative team of designers writers and project managers In some cases the project39s creative brief may need creative director approval before work will commence The creative process 0 The Explorer searches for new information paying attention to unusual patterns 0 The Artist experiments and plays with a variety of approaches looking for an original idea 0 The judge evaluates the results of experimentation and decides which approach is most practical o The Warrior overcomes excuses idea killers setbacks and obstacles to bring a creative concept to realization 0 Know the different parts of an ad 0 Creative pyramid Attention Interest Credibility Desire 0 Action Steps of the creative strategy 0 The basic problem the advertising must address 0 The objective of the advertising 0 A definition of the target audience 0 The key benefits to communicate 0 Support for those benefits 0 The brand s personality 0 Any special requirements 4 roles creativity play s o Helps advertising inform o Helps advertising persuade o Helps advertising remind o Put s the quotboomquot in advertising Brainstorming o A process in which two or more people team up to generate new ideas Design vs Layout 0 Design refers to how the art director graphic artist or graphic designer chooses and structures the artistic elements of an ad 0 Layout an overall orderly arrangement of all the format elements of an ad visuals headlines subheads body copy slogan seal logo and signature Steps in the design process 0 Thumbnail Sketches 0 Rough Layout 0 O O O o Dummy 0 Comprehensive and Mechanical 0 Approval Basic quotrulesquot of design 0 A design in balance 0 Space within the ad that is broken up into pleasing proportions o A directional pattern that is evident so that the reader knows in what sequence to read 0 A force that holds the ad together and gives it unity 0 One element or one part of the ad that has enough emphasis to dominate all others Different types of headlines o Benefit Headline used to promise the audience that experiencing the utility of the product or service will be rewarding o NewsInformation Headline announces news or promises information o Provocative Headline provokes the reader s curiosity to stimulate questions and thoughts 0 Question Headline asks a question encouraging readers to search for the answer in the body of the ad 0 Command Headline orders the reader to do something so it might seem negative 0 Writing effective body copy 0 The keys to a good body copy are simplicity order credibility and clarity 0 Four basic format elements are used to construct long copy ads the lead in paragraph interior paragraphs trial close and close 0 Types ofbody copy 0 Straight sell copy Institutional copy Narrative copy DialogueMonologue copy Picturecaption copy 0 Device copy 0 Writing radio copy 0 A script resembles a twocolumn list On the left side speakers names are arranged vertically along with any sound effects and music On the right is the dialogue called audio To attract and hold listeners radio copy must be intrusive 0 Stages of TV commercials 0 Same twocolumn list but the left side is titled Video and the right side is Audio The video column describes the visuals and production camera angles action scenery and stage directions The audio column lists the spoken copy sound effects and music 0 Types of commercials 0 Straight Announcement Presenter Testimonial Demonstration Musical Slice of Life Problem Solution Lifestyle 0 Animation 0 Advertising on web sites 0 The key to advertising on the web is interactivity if used correctly it can help with brand loyalty and sales Company web sites banner ads and viral ads 0 Keys to international advertising 0 A vital consideration for international ads is language 0 O O 0 000000 0 Chapter 10 The translator must be an effective copywriter must understand the product should translate in their native tongue and the advertiser should give the translator easily translatable English copy Printing terminology O O Trap where in the printing process one color overlays the edge of another to keep the paper from showing through Bleed colors type or visuals that run all the way to the edge of the age CMYK The method for printing color advertisements with tonal values such as photographs and paintings Based on the principle that all colors can be printed by combining the three primary colors plus black Halftone a combination of dots when printed makes a halftone an optical illusion of shading as in a photo Line Art any artwork that is comprised ofa solid color such as black Blueline a proof that is created by shining light through the negatives and exposing a lightsensitive paper that turns from white to blue Know stages of printing process 0 O O O Preproduction Production Prepress Printing and distribution Know steps of recording a radio commercial 0 Preproduction the advertiser and agency perform a variety of tasks that allow production to run smoothly on time and within budget Production All of the elements to be used in the commercial voices music sound effects come together and are recorded at a session Postproduction After the commercial is recorded a number of times a selection is made from the best takes Know steps of producing a TV commercial 0 Preproduction all the work prior to the actual day of filming Live action animation special effects planning production Production the actual day or days the commercial is filmed or videotaped Quiet on the set lights camera action staging and talent Postproduction all the work done after shooting to edit and finish the commercial The film editor sound mixer and director actually put the commercial together Settings for digital media 0 Mass audience venue 0 Private audience venues 0 Personal audience venue
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