Exam 1 Study Guide: From Plato to Street
Exam 1 Study Guide: From Plato to Street PHIL 1000 - 01
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by William Bartek on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Philosophy 1000 Exam 1 Study Guide Does anything really matter or did we just evolve to think 50 Sharon Street Basic Concepts 0 Validity An argument is valid if it s impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false 0 Soundness A valid argument with true premises Plato 0 According to Plato there are three kinds of good 0 Those welcomed for their own sake and not because of the results 0 Those welcomed only because of the results 0 Those welcomed for their own sake and also because of the results 0 The Ring of Gyges example a summary 0 NOTE In the instances I use them in quotimmoral is the same as quotunjust o A man finds a ring in a chasm When he puts on the ring he is invisible to all others allowing him to act immorally without being caught This turns the man from a moral person to an immoral one by simply taking away the fact that he might get caught being immoral 0 Highlights Plato s thought that anyone would be immoral if they could get away with it but because they can t they act moral o Glaucon s argument for the life of the immoral being better than the life of the moral 0 Look at the most extreme cases of the just life vs the unjust life I Ifjustice is better in itself than injustice then the life of the most just person is better than the life of the most unjust person I The life of the most just person isn t better 0 An unjust person has loads of immoral wealth while the just person has no wealth I So justice in itself is not better than injustice Thomson What you ought to do vs what is rational to do 0 You ought to do something only if it s rational for you to do it 0 You are rational to do something only if it profits you 0 Thus you ought to do something only if it profits you Penicillin example 0 A young boy gets sick with a nondeadly disease The father is told to believe that the only cure penicillin will cause a deadly allergic reaction to his son What should the father do 0 Thomson says the father ought to give the penicillin to his son to make him better but it s not rational for him to do so because he was not well informed Revised thesis because of Penicillin example 0 You ought to do something only if it would be rational to do it were you well informed 0 You re rational to do something if and only if it maximizes expected value 0 Thus you ought to do something only if it maximizes expected value were you well informed o If doing something maximizes expected value when you re well informed it profits you on balance when you re well informed 0 Therefore you ought to do something only if it would profit you on balance if you were well informed Thomson s objection to Glaucon and Adeimantus 0 They believe the question is hard because they are assuming quotYou ought to do something only if it profits you 0 Then you must figure out if being just is profitable 0 However it s an easy question if you simply look at it that if an act is just you ought to do it Hume 0 Two types of reason 0 Demonstrative Reason Judges the relation of ideas 0 Probable Reason Judges matters of fact 0 According to Hume o Reason s role is to judge of truth and falsity o Passion s role is to move us to act 0 Willful Murder Example 0 Suppose someone commits a willful murder 0 When you look at it from a purely reasonbased standpoint you cannot find the passion behind the crime how brutal the killing was 0 The Brave Adversary Example Suppose two nations go to war Then suppose an enemy soldier commits a brave act such as dying to save his comrades From a reason based standpoint we should not admire that soldier s bravery because he is the enemy and it s not beneficial to us to praise it Yet since we do admire those acts it goes to show that social virtues are not based on selflove o Egoism v Altruism O O O O O O O O O O Egoism We do what we do always in order to pursue selfinterest Altruism We sometimes do what we do at least partly in order to promote the interests of others Humanity is at its core altruistic I Look to how we react our feelings indicate we do care about others This is a natural occurrence and not taught in school or church No one can be completely indifferent to the good of humanity quotAn ought cannot be derived from an is Reason can tell you the is what is the case Reason cannot tell you the ought what ought to be the case Therefore if a piece of reasoning tries to derive an ought from an is it s faulty reasoning quotReason is the slave of passion Reason alone cannot move the will Passion cannot judge of truth and falsity Therefore passion requires reason but reason has no other purpose than to serve passion Kant o Hypothetical Imperatives If you want X you ought to do Y o Categorical Imperatives You ought to do Y period 0 Good Will 0 Only the will can be unconditionally good 0 Everything else is good only if it s in good will 0 Good will does what conforms to duty and does it from duty 0 Shopkeeper Example If a shopkeeper gives correct change they re conforming to duty by doing the right thing If they only do it to get better business however the act isn t from duty so their will isn t good I Look at it like doing the right thing for the wrong reasons 0 The Categorical Imperative 0 quotTo act only on the maxim which you can will into universal law 0 To determine whether or not to do something see if it would be rational for the entire world to do said thing 0 If you cannot will it into universal law then it is not morally responsible action I Universal Law Kant has in mind a regularity always followed 0 Humanity Principle 0 You should treat people with respect because they aren t just means to an end 0 Right acts treat others and oneself always as means in themselves 0 Kant s Master Argument 1 Morality applies to all rational beings irrespective of their desires 2 The only thing that can apply to all rational beings irrespective of their desires are laws of reason 3 Therefore morality derives from the law of reason Street 0 Genealogies o Vindicating genealogies provide reason to think a belief is true I Having a bad feeling about a stranger asking for directions then remembering later heshe was on America s Most Wanted reaffirms your suspicions o Undermining genealogies provide no reason to think a belief is true I Thinking Rutherford B Hayes was the 20th President confidently then finding out it was a lie implanted by a hypnotist make you doubt yourself 0 MindIndependent v MindDependent values 0 We will always value mindindependent values no matter what I Ex Saving your sondaughter o If we stopped valuing minddependent values they would stop being valuable I Ex Money fashion
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