Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide ANTHROP 3300
Popular in Human Origins
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHROP 3300 at Ohio State University taught by Debra Guatelli-Steinberg in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR FIRST MIDTERM covering weeks 05 This study guide is NOT comprehensive it highlights some key concepts though Shading grey or white represents different lectures TaunCI Child significance cause of death first Australopithecus discovered had casing of the brain from southern Africa controversial at the time of ethnocentric racism idea that brain evolved first before teeth and foramen magnum Fossils and fossilization factors promotingpreventing fossilization Preventing acidic soils bacteria scavenging promoting under sediments alkaline soils in limestone caves Olduvai gorge Taphonomy burial laws study of the processes that occur after death including fossilization but not only community to death assemblage to deposition to fossilization then repeat try to understand how fossils got to be where they are crowned eagle and Tong child study the Killer Ape Hvoothesis Dart thought killer instinct made humans different from apes smarter and more brutal because of bone deposits in caves that he thought were used as weapons had enormous influence on paleoanthropology for a long time the bones were actually brought in by other animals humans were being hunted not the ones hun ng discovered by Bob Brain using skulls from cave and a mandible of a leopard found in the cave trees growing around cave entrances because of limestone bones drop down into the caves called Leopard Refuse Hyaena den Porcupine collection some bones are chewed on my porcupines Relative datino methods Suoerposition Biostratidraphv Fluorine analvsis relative establishes one object as older than another superposition based on undisturbed stratigraphy biostratigraphy faunal correlation fuorine dating based on fluorine content in bone more is older Trends in hominin evolution 6 trends from lecture Trend 1 Bipedalism homininsexclusive bipedalism defining feature of hominins as old as 44 million years Trend 2 Shift to Terrestriality early hominins had small bodies long arms and curved fingers Homo erectus was an obligate biped 1 8MYA semi circular canal Trend 3 Increasing brain size and complexity from about chimp size 400cc to modern size 1350cc communication and language relationship of brain weight to body weight across mammals the encephalization quotient Trend 4 CultureTool Making beginning at 26MYA stone tools at Gona Ethiopia tools become more sophisticated through time Trend 5 Meat in Diet faunal remains at Olduvai Gorge scavenging and hunting cooking hypothesis cooking was key to human evolution Trend 6 Prolonged Growth Periods human life vastly extended tooth growth period correlated with length of overall growth periods Encephalization Quotient can predict brain weight expected at given body weight EQ actual brain weight divided by predicted brain weight Expensive Tissue Hvoothesis trade off brain vs gut meat is more easily digested gut is expensive energy wise Chronometric dating C14 PotassiumArgon Fission Track Electron Spin Resonance Using lndex Fossils for dating archaeologists use fossil index to compare new fossils found and relative similarities to fossils intheindex Datind the Sequence of Paleomadnetic Reversals based upon the idea that different times during Earth s history the poles have switched apparent in sea floor spreading led to idea of tectonic plate movement Paleoecoloov Methods includind O16O18 ratio in forams 013 in ancient soils and lndicator Species study of past ecosystems An indicator species is an organism whose presence absence or abundance reflects a specific environmental condition can signal a change in the biological condition of a particular ecosystem and thus may be used as a proxy to diagnose the health of an ecosystem use O16O18 ratios to determine temperature in the past forams are shells that store oxygen by creating calcium carbonate shells to protect themselves decreased 018 in the ratio means a warmer temperature C13 in ancient soil well underneath the ground is also an indicator of temperature patterns Milankovitch Cycles and Climate natural global warming and cooling orbital and axial variations lead to long term natural cycles of global warming and cooling more eccentricity warmer Microevolution vs Macroevolution micro changes in gene pools that do not result in new species macro changes in gene pools that result in new species genera families Biolooical Species Concept Reproductive lsolatind Mechanisms Speciation mechanisms allobatric peripatric parapatric svmpatric Reinforcement allopatric populations occupying different and disjunct geographical areas original population gtinitial step of speciation happens with barrier gtevolution of reproductive isolation gt new distinct species after equilibrium of new ranges peripatric peripheral isolates original gt new niches entered little group gt adapts to new environment in new niche and speciate small subpopulation in a new niche happens fast because its a small population parapatric new niche is entered but population isn t out off still possibility for gene flow differentiation speciation adjacent populations metaltolerant and intolerant grasses developing different flowering times populations right next to each other with different breeding hab s sympatric within the same place differentiation of species within same population fish in great rift lakes initial differentiation based on diet females would only mate with a certain color sexual selection Anaqenesis vs Cladooenesis Anagenesis one species transformed into another Cladogenesis gene pool splits gives rise to one or more new species both modes of macroevolution thletic Gradualism vs Punctuated Equilibrium Phyletic Gradualism most speciation by anagenesis miss transitions because fossil record is imperfect speciation is happening very fast so they do pop up in fossil record Punctuated Equilibrium peripatric speciation speciation is abrupt by cladogenesis only stasis within lineages transitional forms not found mainly because speciation is FAST explains abrupt changes in species in fossil record Homoloov vs Homoolasv arising from parallelism converqence or reversals Homology similar structure in different taxa due to common descent similarities in form or structure that are of interest to systematists in building classifications are called homologous when they are shared among two species and their common ancestor Homoplasy similar characteristics acquired independently not from common descent any resemblance not due to inheritance from a common ancestry convergence parallelism acquired separately in related groups reversals Evolutionarv Taxonomv taxonomy should reflect evolutionary relationships in part but also key differences science of classifying and naming life forms Linnaeus Systema Naturae 1758 binomial nomenclature two names Genus species Nested hierarchy of taxa Class Order Genus species eves within levels within levels like a Russian nesting doll nested because all species within the Class shared a common ancestor and same within Order and within Genus Phene cs back to Linnaeus based on all similarities too hard to figure out which similarities are due to common descent Cladistics Be able to solve cladistics problems Cladistics terminoloov plesiomorphv abomorphv svmplesiomorphv svnapomorphv autapomorphy plesiomorphy primitive trait apomorphy derived trait symplesiomorphy the similar character existed in the ancestry of the two groups before the evolution of their nearest common ancestor making it a shared primitive trait synapomorphy shared derived characteristic key to cladistics autapomorphy the similar character originated in a common ancestor of the groups and is shared by all of that ancestor s descendants making it a shared derived character acquired by a phylogenetic line after it has branched from its sister Eras of Phanerzoic Eon and major events and innovations in vertebratemammalian evolution e vert col 39aws limbs e Tiktaalik amniotee middle ear bones Paleozoic Era 540225MYA Cambrian period explosion of life lots of fossils mouthparts and hard parts Burgess Shale incredibly well preserved Cambrian set of fossils diversity of forms early Chordate has stiffened rod down the back allows muscles to pull against it and swim back and forth first vertebrates jawless fish then jaws some with cartilage skeletons some with bone Coelacanth lobed fleshy fins still around today Lungfish primitive lung if water sources dry up gave rise to tetrapods 4 limb animals fishlike tetrapod Tiktaalik 375MYA front fin with wrist and elbows head flattened top to bottom lungs and gills first amphibians appear just after Problems of life on land desiccation drying out skin food sources during Paleozoic all continents connected as Pangea Mesozoic Era Age of Reptiles 2 continents Laurasia N and Gondwanaland S Reptiles completely terrestrial vertebrates waterproof skin amniote egg prevents desiccation dinosaurs dominate mammallike reptiles therapsids lay eggs heterodont multicusped teeth all mammals hair produce milk endotherms heterodont 3 bones of the middle ear one group of therapsids gave rise to 3 modern mammalian sublcasses Monotreme lay eggs but still produce milk lack teeth Marsupial pouches Placental nurse embryo through placenta diversity of mammals end of Cretaceous period 75 of all species extinct mammal diversity low due to impact of huge crater in the Yucatan Cenozoic Era 65MYA adaptive radiation from early mammalian insectivores Primate characteristics and trends generalized skeleton plesiomorphies clavicle 5 digits adaptable tendency towards erect posture prehensile hands and feets opposable toethumb nails not clawstactile pads deemphasis on olfaction emphasis on vision forward facing eyes stereoscopic color in diurnal primates post orbital bar auditory bulla formed from petrosal bone surround middle ear increasing brain size relative to body size longer periods of infant dependency tendency to live in social groups Orioins of these trends arboreal vs visual predation vs anoiosoerm exoloitation hvootheses Arboreal Hypothesis most primates live in trees tree living is responsible for traits associated with primates grasping hands and feet for climbing depth perception needed in complex environment Visual Predation Hypothesis orbital convergence in animals that are visual predators needs to be able locate its prey owls big cats for example squirrels live in trees without all these characteristics came from small animal that needs grasping for small support branches with orbital convergence to locate prey GraspLeaping like vertical leapers today but grasp onto support with all four limbs and leaped need prehensile opposable depth perception Angiosperm Exploitation Hypothesis angiosperm flowering plants began to adapt to flowering plants that began to diversify around time primates came about made room for new niches need to be able to grasp onto small supports and depth perception to locate fruits and flowers at end of branched Prosimians vs Anthroboids and Strepsirhines vs Haplorhines and Platvrrhines vs Catarrhines Prosimii lemurs lorises tarsiers characteristics smaller brains relative to body size as compared to Anthropoidea not T wet nose not T enhanced sense of smell eyes are not fully forward Not T orbits not enclosed part T many nocturnal tooth comb not T unfused mandible frontal bone Anthropoidea monkeys apes and humans characteristics larger brains relative to body size dry noses eyes forward post orbital closure most diurnal no tooth comb fused mandible and frontal bone Strepsirhini quotsplit nosequot lemurs and lorises Haplorhini quotsingle nosequot tarsiers share many common traits with anthropoids tarsiers monkeys apes and humans Platyrrhini New World Monkeys flat nosequot dental formular 2133 prehensile tails broad flat noses round nostrils almost all arboreal Catarrhini Old World monkeys apes and humans narrow noses nostrils point down 212 3 dental formula none with prehensile tails Cercopithecoids vs Hominoids Cercopitehcoidea Old World Monkeys tails large brains usually terrestrial quadrupedal stable elbow joint short digits bilophodont molars two crests that connect cusps Hominoidea apeshumans no tails larger brains suspensory adaptations mobile shoulder joint scapula on back elongated clavicle ball and socket joint in shoulder long arms curved finger bones reduced thorax and short lumbar region bunodont Y 5 pattern incestral trait Hominoid families Hvlobatids Ponoids Hominids Hylobatidae gibbonssiamangs lesser apes brachiators Pongidae orangutans Asian Great ape Honinidae african apes humans Hominid subfamilies Hominines vs Gorillines Hominine tribes Panins vs Hominins Gorillinae gorillas knuckle walkers Honininae chimpsbonobos and humans Panini chimps and bonobos Homini humans and bipedal ancestors Sexual dimorphism and mating svstem Sexual Dimorphism any difference between the sexes that is not related to the genitalia bodycanine size dimorphism and mating system Gorillas vs Gibbons Mating System Gorillas harems one male for several females greater competition for mates Gibbons monogamous mating system everyone is paired up not great competition Chimps multi male multi female not as much competition not as much sexual dimorphism huge testes more spermmore chance of fertilizing but physically lntermembral index ratio length of forelimb to length of hindlimb x 100 HRFTx100 humerus radius fibula tibia related to type of locomotion Vertical Clinging Leaper 70 Quadrupedal 80100 Brachiating gt100 Kay s Threshold lnsectivores Kay s Threshold 500 grams lose a lot of heat quickly high metabolic rate more energy per gram body weight but less total energy Frugivores and Folivores need more than 500 grams don t need more energy per gram body weight just need more total energy more time for food to digest Teeth and diet Fruit broad incisors low round molar cusps Leaves welldeveloped molar shearing crests small incisors Gum stout incisors lnsects sharp cusps Temporalis and Masseter muscles Temporalis origin side of craniumsagittal crest insertion coronoid process of mandible can tell something about its size from where it attaches Masseter origin zygomatic arch insertion gonial angle of mandible Jaw Lever Svstem based on Masseter muscle tal ascending ramus gives more length to lever arm greater mechanical advantage helps us understand what it is more adapted for diet wise Be able to make inferences about fossils based on these Epochs of Cenozoic PEOMPPHolocene Paleocene primates Plesdiadapiformes Carpolestes ClimaticGeolooicGeoaraphic chances in Paleocene Eocene Olidocene earlv Miocene Paleocene Geography paleo old Eurasia and N America connected Climate warm humid climate Wyoming would have been tropical Eocene Geography Antartica moves over south pole and develops glaciation and kills off many of the warm temperature species on it really fucking cold decrease in life during the ice age Climate hot broadleaved rainforests far north Oligocene Geography North America breaks from Eurasia Africa separated from Eurasia by the Thethys Sea South America closer to Africa than North America important to keep in mind when looking at distribution Climate End of Eocene Antarctic glaciation global cooling woodlands replace tropical forests in N America and Eurasia Early Miocene Geography antarctic melts Climate warmer wetter with many rainforests many African hominoids Eocene primates Adapoids Omomyoids Eosimias Catopithecus Euprimates north america and eurasia petrosal bulla postorbital bar orbits diverge less larger brain case EQslt1 shonersnout retain four premolars nails opposable big toes Adapoids arboreal diurnal most gt 500g some molars with shearing crests others low bulbous index 70 Ida well preserved skeleton Messa Cave Omomyoids arboreal nocturnal most lt 500g pointy molar cusps long hindlimbs Adapids lemurlike but no dental comb Omomyids tarsierlike but no postorbital closure Basal anthropoids Esomias China 44MYA found with an Omomyid Adapoid and Tarsier dentition looks anthropoid like major anthropoid synapomorphies fused frontal bone eyes forward post orbital closure fused mandible reduced snout The Fayum one of richest fossil sites sandy dessert today but was a swampy area millions of years ago earliest definite anthropoid Catopithecus 37MYA fused frontal forward facing eye orbits post orbital closure mandible not fused dietary adaptation Olioocene primates Aeovotobithecus Parapithecus orioin of New World Monkevs primate nearly absent in Oligocene northern hemisphere well represented only in the Fayum mentioned above Aegyptopithecus Catarrhine Plesiomorphies snouty small cranium EQ 153 Anthropoid traits postorbital closure fused frontal and mandible small eye orbits Catarrhine trait of 2123 dental formula Y5 molar primitive for catarrhines Mosaic Parapithecus Platyrrhine traits 2133 dental formula arboreal quadruped Platyrrhines first see in Bolivia BraniseIa 27 MYA African origin argument molecular evidence CatPlat split 4OMYA anthropoids only in Africa at this time Africa was closer to So America porcupinelike rodents in Africa and S America Earlv Miocene primates Victoriapithecus monkevllApes Proconsul Morotooithcus Proconsul The First Ape debated 2217MYA Tanzania tropical forest with open floor nearby river system Catarrhine plesiomorphies Y 5 molars narrow central incisors no brow ridge low EQ for ape shoulder monkeylike inflexible wrist flexible lumbar region intermembral index 8090 Hominoid apomorphies notaH elbow flexibility pace of dental development Cercopithecoid early miocene 2317mya Victoriapithecus bilophodont molars like Old World Monkeys Morotopithecus 2021mya chimp sized short stiff lumbar region enlarged glenoid cavity in scapula Exam is mostly multiplechoice amp truefalse There will be two questions which require written responses Hint on these concentrate on cladistics problems and class discussions based on ereserve readings dating whats it good for time range how does it work know where the fossils we talked about fit in to the line anatomy what they might be ancestral to know series of major innovations what happens first Tektaalikll mammalian middle ear bones jaws major innovations whats the significance know taxonomic chart for modern primates review book notes for topics not on this study guide jaw lever system recognize the pictures will it work fast or slow
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