Because paying the daily fee doesn't even give the whole study guide. Poor program.
PSY150A1: Structure of Mind and Behavior
Study Guide for Midterm Exam #1
Chapter 1: History and Approaches to Psychology
∙ What is the hindsight bias?
After learning an outcome you have the tendency to believe that you would have foreseen it. “I knew it all along” phenomenon
∙ What is psychology? What are the two things that psychologists primarily study? Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
∙ How did the fields of physiology and philosophy inform the birth of psychology? How were Hippocrates, the phrenologists, and John Locke examples of this influence?
Physiology is the study of biological workings and philosophy uses logic and speculation to understand humanity. They are the roots of psychology. Hippocrates was a physiologist who saw illness as an imbalance of fluids or “humors”. Phrenologists predicted someone’s personality based upon bumps on the skull. Phrenology marked the first study of brain regions. John Locke was a philosopher who believed we are all born with a “blank slate” (tabula rasa) and what we experience in life makes us who we are.
Don't forget about the age old question of What is Ardipithecus Kadabba/ramidus?
∙ Describe the primary difference between the structuralists and the functionalists.
Structuralists focus on uncovering the fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kinds of mental states and activities. Functionalists concentrated on what the mind does-the functions of mental activity-and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments.
∙ What is gestalt psychology? What are perceptual units?
Gestalt psych focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a whole sense rather than on the individual elements of perception. Our understanding of objects is greater and more meaningful than the individual elements that make up our perceptions. Perceptual units are the way that the brain organizes incoming info to simplify the world. If you want to learn more check out what are The six steps in the scientific method for conducting research?
∙ Describe the basic concepts of psychoanalysis. Who is the most famous psychologist associated with psychoanalysis?
We also discuss several other topics like what is cultural capital?
Psychoanalysis argues that unconscious inner forces that the individual has little control over motivate behavior. There is tension between thoughts and behavior. Sigmund Freud.
∙ What is behaviorism? How was it a reaction to the fields that came before it?
Behaviorism is the approach that suggests that observable, measurable behaviors (and how we learn them) should be the focus of study. Proponents of the behavioral perspective rejected psychology’s early emphasis on the inner workings of the mind.
∙ How were humanistic psychology and cognitive psychology reactions to behaviorism?
Humanistic psych rejected the view that behavior is determined by unfolding biological forces, unconscious processes, or the environment. It emphasized the growth potential of healthy people. Cognitive psych focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world. Cognitive psych studies how information is stored and worked with. It says our brains are like hardware and mental processes are the software.
Chapter 2: Research Methods
∙ Describe the 5 steps of the scientific method. Be sure your answer includes the following terms: hypothesis, variable, operational definition, theory.
1. Identify a problem 2. Make a hypothesis. 3. Carry out research and collect data using operational definitions (translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed). 4. Communicate findings and create a theory. 5. Test theory by generating a new hypothesis. Don't forget about the age old question of How economics help in daily life?
∙ What is the difference between a population and a sample? Why is random sampling important?
A population is a large group of interest, while a sample is a small group that represents the whole (population). Random sampling is important to insure that every subject has an equal likelihood of being represented and to lessen the effect of bias. Don't forget about the age old question of what is hyperglycemia?
∙ What is descriptive research, and what are its strengths and weaknesses?
Descriptive research describes characteristics of a certain group. It offers insight into relationships but cannot determine causality.
∙ What is correlational research, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? Be sure that you know how to interpret a correlation coefficient.
Correlation research examines two sets of variables to determine whether they are associated. Again, it offers insight into relationships but cannot determine causality.
∙ What is experimental research, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? Experimental research produces a change in one variable to observe the effects of that changes on other variables. They offer the only way to determine cause and effect relationships. However, to be valid, they require random assignment and other careful controls. We also discuss several other topics like
what is Constitutional Law?
o What is the difference between an independent variable (IV) and a dependent variable (DV)? What is a confound?
o IV is manipulated while the DV is measured. Confounding variables cause the outcome to differ but is not an IV.
o What is random assignment, and why is it important to an experiment?
o Random assignment reduces bias and makes the experiment more valid. ∙ Explain what it means to say that research is reliable, valid, and bias-free.
1. Reliability: Consistency, same results when repeated 2. Valid: Internal- Confidence that the IV manipulated caused group difference in DV External-Extent to which a study’s findings can be generalized to situations outside lab 3. Bias-free: the experiment has a placebo, control, and may be double-blind design.
∙ What does it mean to say that two groups in an experiment were “significantly different” from one another?
Meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypothesis.
∙ What are informed consent, debriefing, and institutional review boards (IRBs)? Why are they important?
Informed consent is a document signed by participants affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve. Debriefing is the interview after that ensures participant has no negative reactions and understands why the study was conducted. IRBs make sure that the experimenters follow the laws and that the experiments are ethical.
Chapter 3: Biological Bases of Behavior
∙ What is a neuron? Describe the structures that make up a neuron, and what each structure does.
Neurons are nerve cells, the basic elements of the nervous system. Dendrites are a cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons. The axon carries messages destined for other neurons. Terminal buttons are small bulges at the end of axons that send messages to other neurons. The myelin sheath is a protective coating of fat and protein that wraps around the axon.
∙ Describe the process of neural firing. Be sure to include the following terms: all-or none law, excitatory messages, inhibitory messages, threshold, action potential, neurotransmitter.
Like a gun, neurons either fire (transmit an electrical impulse along the axon) or don’t fire. There is no in between, that is why it is called the all or none law. An excitatory message that makes it more likely that a receiving neuron will fire and an action potential will travel down its axon. An inhibitory message prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire. The action potential is an electric nerve impulse that travels through a neuron’s axon when a “trigger” changing the neuron’s charge from negative to positive sets it off. Neurotransmitter carry messages across the synapse to the dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiver neuron. The threshold is reached if there are enough excitatory signals for the neuron to fire.
∙ What is a neurotransmitter? Describe the basic functions of acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. What are agonists and antagonists?
A neurotransmitter is a chemical that sends signals from one neuron to another over synapse through an electrochemical process.
Acetylcholine: muscle movement & cognitive functioning
Dopamine: movement control, pleasure & reward, attention
Norepinephrine: controls alertness & arousal “fight or flight”
Serotonin: Sleeping, eating, mood, pain, depression
Agonists: Excite or promote neurotransmission, they mimic structure of neurotransmitters (morphine & endorphins)
Antagonists: Inhibit or block neurotransmissions, similar enough to occupy receptor but not enough to activate (curare) or may prevent release of neurotransmitter (botox)
∙ Describe the following neuroimaging techniques: EEG, CT scan, PET scan, MRI, fMRI. Be sure that you can identify whether each images the structure or function of the brain.
EEG: Recording of electrical activity (brainwaves) that sweeps across brain’s surface *measures function
(+) Tracks activity in response to a stimulus, high temporal resolution, not invasive (-) Electrodes on scalp do not demonstrate precise location of activity (low spatial resolution)
CT: Creates 3D image of brain structure using x-rays, used to examine brain injuries, tumors, strokes
(+): Allows direct view of level of interest, high contrast spatial resolution (-): High levels of radiation
PET: Uses radioactive glucose to track energy consumption in the brain, neurons use more glucose when active so glucose is delivered to most active areas *brain function (+): Shows where brain functions(-): Radiation, low temporal resolution, expensive
MRI: Uses magnets to take sharp pictures of *structure
fMRI: Detects amount of blood flow throughout the brain * function
(+): High spatial resolution, noninvasive, no radiation, quick
∙ Describe the basic functions of the following brain structures: medulla, pons, reticular formation, thalamus, cerebellum, amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus, corpus callosum, frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe.
“Older brain” region, comprised of brainstem and cerebellum
Life sustaining, mostly bodily processes
Heartbeat, breathing, swallowing
Sleep, coordinating motor movements
Regulates alertness fight or flight response
“Little brain” extending from rear of brainstem which coordinates physical movement, posture, balance, timing
Integrates sensory info to fine tune movement
Bridge between hindbrain & forebrain
Brains sensory switchboard (except for smell)
Receives signals from senses, relays them to the appropriate brain structures
Responsible for emotion, motivation, memory- “emotional brain” (fighting, fleeing, feeding, sex, etc.)
Emotion, anger & fear: rhesus monkey experiment
Regulates body, maintains homeostasis “pleasure center”
Stores new info in memory *doesn’t contain memories
Hippocampus: HM: anterograde amnesia, retrograde amnesia
HM had epilepsy, removed hippocampi surgically after the surgery he was unable to form new memories
(anterograde amnesia) *memory consolidation, procedural memories (how to do things)
-His short term memory was intact but he was unable to commit info to long term memory as opposed to the inability to retrieve old memories (retrograde amnesia)
Convoluted outer surface of the brain, most higher level mental processes 2 parts: Cerebral Hemispheres & Corpus Callosum (connects left and right Hemispheres)
The split brain: with independent hemispheric functions
Directly behind forehead, uniquely human-planning, personality, language
Top of cortex, sense of touch, integrates sensory info
Under temples in front of ears, hearing,
Back of brain, vision, separate areas for shape, color, motion
Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception
∙ What is the difference between sensation and perception?
Sensation is the activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy. Perception is the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain.
∙ What is the difference between bottom-up processing and top-down processing?
Bottom up processing is initiated by stimulus input begins with senses and works up to perception
Top down processing is guided by knowledge, expectations, or beliefs. It works from perceptions to senses.
∙ Define the following terms that apply to all senses: absolute threshold, just noticeable difference, subliminal sensation, priming, sensory adaptation, transduction.
Smallest amount of a sensory stimulus needed to notice that the stimulus is there
Just noticeable difference
Amount of change in a stimulus to notice that a change has occurred
Sensory signal that is not registered by our conscious awareness
Subliminal messages work in a certain way
Tendency for recently used words/ideas to come to mind easily, influences the interpretation of new information
Decreased sensitivity due to constant
Why don’t things disappear when we stare at them?
-Slight ocular (eye) movements
Transforming sensory input into neural impulses
∙ How do the amplitude and wavelength of light waves influence what we see?
Vision depends on sensitivity to light, electromagnetics waves in the visible part of the spectrum that are either reflected off objects or produced by an energy source. Larger amplitude has a brighter color. A shorter wave is seen as blue while a longer wave is seen as red.
∙ Describe the function of the following structures of the eye: cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina, rods and cones.
Transparent covering to protect eye
Small opening that allows light in
Colored muscle adjusts size of pupil
Bends light to focus image on back of eye
Inner back wall of eye
color, detailed vision
black & white, dim light
∙ Describe the trichromatic theory of color vision. Describe the opponent-process theory of color vision.
The trichromatic theory of color vision says that there are 3 kinds of cones in the retina, each of which responds primarily to a specific range of wavelengths. The opponent process theory of color vision says that receptor cells for color are linked in pairs working in opposition to each other.
∙ What is perceptual constancy, and why is it important?
Perceptual constancy is our understanding that physical objects are unvarying and consistent even though sensory input about them may vary. It allows us to view objects as having an unchanging size, shape, color, and brightness, even if the image on our retina changes.
∙ What are schemas, and how do they influence perception?
Schemas are organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new info is interpreted stored and recalled. Because we use schemas to organize information our memories often consist of a reconstruction of previous experience.
∙ Describe the role of attention in perceptual processing. What is change blindness, and how does it demonstrate the limits of perception? What is the Stroop task, and how does it demonstrate the limits of perception?
Attention is the gateway to awareness. It is focusing on particular info and allowing it to be processed more fully. Sensation leads to attention, which leads to perception. Change blindness is the failure to detect large changes in a visual scene, or in other words a lack of attention. The Stroop task is where you have to name the color of the ink used for words that spell different colors. This demonstrates a limit of perception because we cannot simply turn off our bottom-up processing in service of our top-down attention.
∙ What are synesthesia and ideasthesia? Why do they happen?
Stimulation of one sense leads to automatic experiences in a second sense
-Not just cross-metaphors (loud shirt or bitter wind) -Up to 1 in 23 people (but maybe everyone?)
-not considered an illness or affliction
-60+ forms/ combinations
Some common types of:
Grapheme-color synesthesia, letters and or numbers associated with specific colors (A and red, S yellow) Music-color, tones/songs with specific colors Lexical-gustatory, certain words/sounds associated with specific tastes, rare
Activation of a concept leads to perception-like experience Numbers – forms, numbers days of week, month of year occupy certain positions in space relative to the person
Ordinal-linguistic personification, sequences (numbers, days, months) associated with personality traits
Bouba & Kiki connections between visual and auditory
Runs strongly in families
-Due to reduced pruning of neural connection in childhood/adolescence