Study guide 1
Study guide 1 PUH 220
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Popular in Environmental Science
This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Isis Dana Kanakri on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PUH 220 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by Dale Dickinson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see Environmental Science in Environmental Science at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Lecture 1 What are the 4 main tissue types Purpose To protectcover from exterior environment Types a Ciliated columnar epithelium cilia b Columnar epithelium simple or pseudostratified c Cuboidal epithelium simple or stratified d Squamous epithelium simple or stratified EB 01f Epithelium 1 gv 2a quot quotquotalrquot 7 Cliffs 5mm Eulbg39d 3quot Simple columnar ll JLja ual l Stratified squamous Blraltifiied Euholidail Pseudostrali ed EDILI m atr Purpose connects the various organs of the body Purpose Coordinates contraction and relaxation of organs Types a Skeletal b Cardiac Heart c Smooth Compare and Contrast Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Striated Striated Nonstriated Elongated cells Branched cells Multinucleated cells 13 central nuclei Single central nucleus Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary Purpose receives and transmits nerve pulses What are the 11 major organ systems in the human General function a Protects against environmental hazards b Helps regulate body temperature c Provides sensory information Example organ skin hair nails General function a Provides support and protection to organs b Stores calcium and other minerals c Forms blood cells Example organ bones cartilage ligaments General function a Provides movement b Provides protection and support for other tissues c Generate heat that maintains body temperature Example organ skeletal muscles and associated tendons General function a Directs immediate responses to stimuli b Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems c Provides and interpret sensory information about external conditions Example organ brain spinal cord sense organs General function a Directs longterm changes in the activities of other organ systems b Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body c Controls many structural and functional changes during development Example organ pituitary thyroid and adrenal glands General function a Distribute blood cells water and dissolved materials including nutrients waste products oxygen and carbon dioxide b Distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature Example organ heart blood vessels General function a Defends against infection and disease b Returns tissue uids to the bloodstream Example organ lymph nodes tonsils General function a Provides oxygen to bloodstream b Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream c Produces sounds for communication Example organ trachea bronchi lungs General function a Processes and digests food b Absorbs and conserves water c Absorbs nutrients d Stores energy reserves Example organ stomach small intestine large intestine General function a Excretes wastes products from the blood b Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine c Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination d Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH Example organ kidneys urinary bladder General function a Produces male sex cells sperm suspending uids and hormones b Sexual intercourse Example organ testes scrotum General function a Produces female sex cells oocytes and hormones b Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery c Provides milk to nourish newborn infant d Sexual intercourse Example organ ovaries vagina Lecture 2 The basic function of each organelle in the Eukoryatic cell plants animals fungus protos Found Within the nucleus Produces ribosomal RNA Where ribosomes are assembled Includes the genetic material of the cell DNA to determine What cell it Will be Nuclear pores help materials move in and out To build proteins Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells have different proteins A membranebound container Small or big it s like a vacuole A folded membrane that is continuous with the nucleus Ribosomes around it that s why it s called rough ER The factory inside of the cell Where we make proteins it makes the membranes that will be in the cell After the proteins are packed in a little vesicle it is transported to the golgi body They modify proteins like put carbohydrates on it size them up then send them on their way it is like a UPS it s a shipping system after modification it comes in as a transport vesicle and leaves as a transport vesicle and goes where it needs to go within the cell The structure inside the cell it gives the cell its physical structure Kind of like a bridge supporting bridge thin wires Inside the cell we have the big things microtubules provides compressional support and thin things microfilaments provides tensional support What is it missing Ribosomes They produce lipids cholesterol and things like that in the cell It breaks down toxins like alcohol important for detox When you drink the smooth ER builds up inside your cells it what ushes it down Where energy is generated in the form of ATP Folded membrane inside a membrane looks a lot like a bacteria They became parts of the cell produce atp for that cell and get somewhere to live We find this in PLANT CELLS really small in animal cells It stores water turgor pressure keeps it properly in ated Used for exocytosis vacuole released to exterior and endocytosis matter going in and forming a vacuole Dissolved material uid but contains solutes inside it Concentration gradient is Within the cell It has digestive enzymes inside it We can put a vesicle beside the lysosome and the digestive enzymes Will break it down Contained in membrane When lysosome pops it causes Apoptosis because the lysosome pops and the digestive enzymes spread and kill dissolve the cell Part of the centrosome Position is important Within the cell Depending on Where the centriole is decides Where the nucleus is going to be and Where the other parts of the cell are going to be As the cell divides When it migrates to either side it s going to initiate the formation of the spindle and the spindle is going to be attached to the chromosomes and going pull it to each others sides Lecture 3 What are the 6 ways in which cells can respond to environmental stress 1 increase in organtissue size through increase in size of cells 2 increase in organtissue size through increase in number of cells 3 absence of an organ or loss of precursor cells through failure of cell production 4 decrease in cell production 5 smaller organtissue through decrease in mass of preexisting cells MOSt common C USCSZ a Disuse b Poor nutrition c Lack of oxygen etc replacement of one tissue by another tissue Several forms a Squamous metaplasia b Cartilaginous metaplasia c Myeloid metaplasia etc What are the 3 causes of injurystress describe each one 1 complete lack of oxygen or decreased oxygen Anoxia or Hypoxia When hypoxic cell injury occurs the mitochondria fails to produce ATP affecting the other organelle s functions as well as causing damage to the membrane The cell membrane gets damaged irreversibly and dies superoxide and hydroxyl radicals Free radicals are formed through our environmental hazards reacting with the population and damaging their DNA Mechanisms to detoxify free radicals a Enzymatic Glutathione Stransferase b Nonenzymatic vitamin A C E 3 Chemical cell injury Carbon tetrachloride and liver damage Necrosis vs Apoptosis Necrosis Apoptosis Gross irreversible cell injury Physiologic programmed cell removal Passive form of cell death Active form of cell death Does not require genes protein synthesis Requires genes proteins energy Marked in ammatory reaction No in ammatory reaction Lecture 4 Describe the traditional nature vs nurture perspectives on genebyenvironment interactions 1 In the traditional versus debate means that our physical and behavioral characteristics are believed to come from our environment Similar concepts being tabula rasa a posteriori behaviorism 2 In the traditional versus debate means that our physical and behavioral characteristics are passed down through our genes Similar concepts being innate a priori heredity Why is nature via nurture a more accurate perspective Sometimes the answer can be both Saying nature or nurture is a logical fallacy Moreover saying nature versus nurture would be wrong because that would mean they are two distinct categories but as Sir Francis Galton said Nature is all that a man brings with himself into the world nurture is every in uence without that affects him after his birth It should be nature via nurture Describe the geneenvironment interaction and how this complicates analyses Brie y describe the Eugenics movement and what it was aimed to do The was aimed to practice the improvement of hereditary qualities of a race or breed through human controlmating They wanted to produce more superior offspring by analyzing the DNA between people with good genes and mating them so that the population could be as perfect as possible This suggests nature is king and nurture is unimportant Explain the phenomenon of epigenetics and how it relates to inheritance Experiments have shown that the experiences of the parent can lead to that aren t encoded in DNA but can be passed down to children affecting the future generations health and behaviors this is Epigenetic inheritance suggests that a person s experiences could lead to directed molecular changes on top of his or her genes in very specific places Molecular changes can be passed on Epigenome can be passed down to the offspring and helps control how genes are switched on and off can be expressed or silent gene show or not show it depends Genome DNA sequence The complete set of genes or genetic material present in a cell or organism Changes to the can result in changes to the structure of chromatin and changes to the function of the What is controversial about epigenetics How does this violate Mendelian genetics Epigenetic signals from the environment can be passed on from one generation to the next Epigenetic inheritance is an extra layer suggesting that someone s experiences av affect how his or her children and grandchildren use their genes This clashes with everything that s been understood about inheritance since Darwin and Mendel Gregor Mendel was a modest priest and gardener who discovered the laws of inheritance However it was challenged by exceptions which are epigenetic effects Scientists believe that the RNA plays a role in epigenetic inheritance In conclusion Mendelian was not entirely wrong but he is not perfectly right Scientists believe there is a present probably minor difference in addition to the Mendelian genetics It may be small but it s present and if they find it they might finally be able to understand the full process of how inheritance works What public health issues need to be considered in discussing epigenetics Epigenetics Genome DNA sequence Expression Physiology Disease Ex Pregnant woman smoking Somatic induction What is the public health triad and how can it be used to improve public health Environme Age Hos A communicable disease is an illness due to a specific infectious biological agent or its toxic products capable of being directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man from animal to man from animal to animal or from the environment through air water food etc to man So knowing about our triad helps determine all the factors to what possibly caused a disease so public health scientists can prevent or cure it Terms 1 temperature humidity crowding pollution radiation water milk food Contribution to disease your environment causes 7080 diseases 2 age sex race genetic profile preVious diseases religion occupation Contribution to disease Genetic and nongenetic factors of an individual plays a large role in susceptibility vulnerability and coping capacity 3 Biologic bacteria Virus chemical poison alcohol physical trauma fire nutritional lack excess Contribution to disease The agent is usually the vector of the disease It can be external then absorbed dose disease through a mosquito since most diseases are zoonotic It also contributes greatly to the biological reactions of our body Since everybody has uniqueness the response of an agent exposure will differ greatly But generally it is usually the agent in the environment that causes many diseases Lecture 5 What is genetic counselling and what factors must be considered in doing genetic counselling Genetic Counseling is the process of helping people understand and adapt to the medical psychological and familial implications of genetic contributions to disease Factors that must be considered in doing genetic counselling a Chance of disease occurrencereoccurrence b Education about inheritance testing management prevention resources and research c Informed choices and adaptation to the risk or condition Prenatal vs Newborn screening Prenatal screening Newborn screening Testing offer during pregnancy to detect Testing offered just after birth to identify changes in fetus genes or chromosomes genetic disorders that can be treated early before birth Can lessen a couple s uncertainty or help Millions of babies are tested for genetic make pregnancy decisions disorders each year in US especially in their early years to help prevention of it worsening or to attempt a cure What are the some public health roles of genetic counseling Educating healthcare professionals 84 Educating community members 62 Research 53 Grant writing 5 3 Grant administration 38 Developing genetics public policy 34 State genetics needs assessments 31 Newborn screening 19 WNQP PP P Lecture 6 Cancer cells 4 characteristics 1 allows cells to change quickly Once a cell doesn t start in somatic cells has differentiated it cannot go back to the surface The ones that are below surface causes cancer 2 invasion doesn t have to happen for it to be cancer 3 growth at another place 4 invade grow local metastasize patient Goes to the liver then can spread everywhere Brie y discuss the 3 major groups of carcinogen inducers 1 vinyl chloride industrial chemical 2 viruses and bacterium 3 radiation UV rays energy disruptions Oncogene vs tumor suppressor gene 1 Gene that regulates growth rate 2 rapid replication with no way to look at every replicated strand of DNA the more time you have to make replication the better the replication will be 4 steps of cancer development exposure to carcinogen single cell growth benign to malignant microscopic to micro mNr t Advantages and disadvantages of the 3 main cancer treatments 1 y it hasn t spread surgery is to cut the mass without killing the patient 2 injection of tumor toxic drug finds metastasis don t have to see them to treat them 3 needs target Works well with a few cells Lecture 7 What were J enner s main contribution to vaccination theory Jenner inoculated Phipps in botharms producing a fever and some discomfort but no severe illness Challenged the boy twice with Variolus material live small pox and the boy did not get sick Hoorah Jenner successfully tested this on 23 others J enner s maior contributions are 1 proved by subsequent challenges that the inoculated persons were immune to smallpox 2 demonstrated that the protective cowpox pus could be effectively inoculated from person to person not just directly from cattle Passive neutral vs active arti cial immune acquisition Passive Active individual acquires immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by immune individual or animal administration of antigens so patient actively mounts a protective immune response Pathogenic Vaccination is a method of giving antigen to induce of stimulate the immune response through active immunization a vaccine is antigenic or immunogenic but is not pathogenic What are the 6 types of vaccines How do they differ vaccine from 1 Live vaccines 2 Attenuated live vaccines 3 Inactivated killed vaccines 4 Toxoids 5 Polysaccharide and polypeptide cellular fraction vaccines 6 Surface antigen recombinant vaccines Ll Attenuated Inactivated Toxoids Polvsaccharid Surface vaccines live vaccines killed m antigen vaccines 2 polypeptide recombinant cellular 2 vaccines fraction vaccines live virulent organisms are chemically they are it is prepared vaccines pathogenic killed or or thermally prepared from by cloning a are made organisms are inactivated by modified extracted hybridoma s from live treated to heat or toxins cellular Ag gene infectious become chemicals but rendering fractions 6 g in yeast cells agents attenuated and remain them meningococca Where it is Without avirulent but antigenic they antigenic l vaccine from expressed any antigenic are usually safe but not the amendmen but less pathogenic polysaccharid t effective than e antigen of live the cell wall attenuated the vaccines pneumococcal the polysaccharid e contained in the capsule of the organism and hepatitis B polypeptide vaccine the only should not be the only useful for their efficacy the live administered absolute some and safety hybridoma s vaccine is to persons contraindicatio bacterial appear to be antigenic Variola With n to their diseases high protein is small pox suppressed administration stimulate produced vaccine immune is a severe antibody and then used made of response due local or general mediated for vaccine live to reaction immunity preparations vaccinia 0 Leukemia to a previous require their efficacy cowpox and lymphoma dose multiple and safety virus not 0 With doses also appear to variola corticosteroids because be high virus anti they possess Which is metabolic feW not agents or antigenic pathogenic radiation determinant but 0 pregnancy s antigenic in general giving toxoids are cross highly immunity efficacious for variola and safe immunizing agents What is vaccination coverage Herd effect is the percent of at risk or susceptible individuals or population Who have been fully immunized against particular diseases by vaccines or toxoids is to be significantly effective in prevention of disease on mass or community level at least a satisfactory proportion 75 or more of the at risk population must be immunized What are some demonstrated public health safety concerns with vaccines Common problems associated with immunization Mild toxicity most common Risk of anaphylactic shock Residual Virulence from attenuated Viruses Allegations that certain vaccines cause autism diabetes and asthma Not substantiated U PP Ni Vaccine manufacture 1 Massproduce many vaccines by growing microbes in culture vessels 2 Riruses are cultured inside chicken eggs 3 Individuals with egg allergies must avoid some vaccines What is the basis for the public health interest in HPV 1 HPV infection is directly associated with a higher risk of cervical cancer and is required in the development of nearly all types of cervical cancer 2 globally cervical cancer affects half a million women and kills a quarter million women each year 3 over 85 of cervical cancer cases and deaths occur in developing countries 4 Virtually all cases are linked to persistent infection with human papillomavirus HPV The disproportionate burden of cervical cancer is a highest in countries where effective screening diagnosis and treatment is limited or absent in several Western countries where screening programs that have been linked to effective treatment have long been established cervical cancer rates have decreased by as much as 65 b costeffective screening that can detect cervical cancer and precancerous cervical lesions is available for limited resource settings cerVical cancer is detected through the Pap smear HPV and cervical cancer Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women worldwide it is usually HPV in the beginning stages which 50 of men and women will become infected with during childhood What are Gardasil and Ceravix What do they do How do they differ a quadravalent vaccine that protects against types 6 11 16 and 18 which cause 70 of cervical cancers and 90 of genital warts combined a divalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 Which cause 70 of cervical cancers Brie y describe how Rh incompatibility develops How is it treated 1 The development of specific antibodies as a result of antigenic stimulation using material derived from the red blood cells of another individual of the same species 2 The development of antibodies against antigens from the same species such as antiRh antibodies in an Rhnegative person Passive immunization Lecture 8 What are the purposes for the in ammatory response In ammatory response a protective response of connective tissue to injury Purpose 1 Limit extent amp severity of injury 2 Deal With offending agent 3 Initiate repair What are the general characteristics of the in ammatory response It starts With activation of endothelial cells and White blood cells 1 Changes in vessels 2 Cellular events 3 Chemical mediators Acute vs Chronic in ammation 1 a is the immediate response to injury b neutrophils are the main cell type 2 a is mediated by mononuclear cells macrophages lymphocytes Cellular vs Vascular responses 1 first line of defense against foreign invaders acute in ammation predominant cell type in normal circulation 2 Endothelial cells act as gatekeepers Lecture 9 What is the basis for the public health interest in HPV 1 Key driver of change in public health 2 Enormous impact because a no biological control mechanism b enormous cost 0 many are vulnerable Know the biological basis of HIVAIDS and how these are not the same thing HPV causes change in cervical cells over time from normal cell to precancer cells to cancer cells And AIDS is a disease in which there is a severe loss of the body39s cellular immunity greatly lowering the resistance to infection and malignancy Which means they are different but connected Being infected with HPV can lead to AIDS What are current treatments for AIDS How effective are they How do they work HAART Antiretroviral Offering multiple drugs at once Public health interventions in HIV Routine HIV testing acute infection case finding partner tracing and notification antiretroviral t reatment of all infected individuals universal implementation of prevention of mothertochild tr ansmission programs treatment of other STIs that exacerbate the spread of HIV broad availabili ty of male circumcision services that decrease the risk of transmission needle exchange programs condom availability educational programs and other efforts
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