Chapter 5 Study Guide.pdf
Chapter 5 Study Guide.pdf PSY 12000 - 042
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brent Hawn on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 12000 - 042 at Purdue University taught by Erin Sparks Ward in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Elementary Psychology in Psychlogy at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
QHAPTER 5 1 What are sense organs and sensory receptor cells lecture Sense Organs Organs that receive stimuli eyes ears nose mouth skin 0 Receptor Cells Specialized cells within the sense organs that send neural impulses to the brain 2 Be able to de ne the terms sensation amp quotperceptionquot lecture amp book Sensation Information coming into your brain Elementary components of an experience a bitter taste patterns of light and dark Perception Processes used to arrive at a meaningful interpretation of sensations 3 How does the Necker cube illustration the distinction between sensation amp perception lecturebook It is exactly the same cube but your brain can give you 2 different interpretations or perceptions 4 What is meant by absolute threshold and difference threshold lecturebook Absolute Threshold The smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected the weakest detectable stimulus Difference Threshold The smallest detectable difference between two stimuli 5 What is Weber s law as applied to the idea of a difference threshold lecturebook The difference threshold between two things depends on the strength of the original stimulus the stronger the original stimulus the bigger the changes must be in order for them to be noticed yet changes in weak stimuli are very noticeable l ex lf holding 100 lbs must add 2 lbs to detect a difference If holding 10 lbs must add 2 ounces to detect difference 6 What is meant by sensory adaptation lecturebook Sensory Adaptation The perceived weakening of a sensation due to prolonged exposure to the stimulus D ex When you jump into cold water at rst you feel freezing but after a few moments the water does not feel as cold sensory receptors are fatigued and do not detect the stimulus as strong as they rst did 7 What is the de nition of light lecturebook Light One form of electromagnetic energy must have light to see 8 What is meant by hue brightness and purity What determines huebrightnesspurity lecturebook Hue The wavelength of light that gives us color physical distance from one energy cycle to the next Brightness Intensity of light l light changes in amplitude determined by amount of light falling on object Purity Complexity of light gives us pure versus paler colors Determine by mix of wavelengths present ln uences saturation or richness of perceived colors 9 Does the human visual spectrum represent a small or large part of the entire electromagnetic spectrum What wavelengths in nanometers make up the human visual spectrum lecturebook Small part of entire electromagnetic spectrum 400700nm 10 Be able to identify where the pupil cornea lens iris retina and fovea are in a diagram of the eye lecturebook Be able to describe what each of these parts of the eye are and what they do Cornea Light rst passes through the protective coating on the surface of the eye Participates in focusing process Pupil Light next travels through the opening of the iris the black part lris The colored part of the eye that regulates the amount of light that enters Lens Light next travels through here the transparent portion of the eye behind the pupil that focuses light into the retina Focusing happens by changing lens shape Retina lmages fall here sensory receptor cells are here Thin layer of tissue covering back of eye 11What is accommodation as it relates to the lens lecturebook Accommodation Muscles contract and lens is thicker and rounder when an object is close 12Be able to describe how receptor cells in the retina then translate the electromagnetic energy of light into the inner language of brain electrochemical impulses Speci cally what is photo pigment and what does it do lecturebook Receptor cells change the light energy into electrochemical impuses cells contain substance called photo pigment which reacts to light and this chemical reaction leads to a neural impulse 13Rods amp cones are two types of receptor cells located in the retina What sort of vision do quotrodsquot provide What about quotconesquot lecturebook Rods receptor cells that are more sensitive to light than cones not much light needed to generate visual signals located outside the center of the retina 120 million cells in each eye Cons receptor cells that code information about ne detail and the early processing of color which need high levels of light to operate located at the center of the retina 6 million cells in each eye 14What is a receptive eld book 0 The receptive eld of an individual sensory neuron is the particular region of the sensory space eg the body surface or the retina in which a stimulus will trigger the ring of that neuron This region can be a hair in the cochlea or a piece of skin retina tongue or other part of an animal39s body 15What is the optic nerve Where is it located in a diagram of an eye Understand why it creates a biological blind spot Do most people experience a hole in their visual eld as a result of this blind spot Whywhy not booklecture Optic Nerve collection of nerve bers that carries visual neural messages to the brain the area where the optic nerve attaches contains no rods or cones and therefore there is a blind spot o If light hits exactly where the optic nerve is then you will experience a big blind spot 0 Most people don t experience blind spots because peoples brains ll in the gap 16What is dark adaptation booklecture Light reacts chemically with photo pigments in receptor cells In bright light photo pigments in the rods and cones have been bleached or broken down by light 17What are feature detectors book 0 Feature Detectors The ability to detect certain types of stimuli like movements shape and angles requires specialized cells in the brain called feature detectors Without these it would be dif cult if not impossible to detect a round object like a baseball hurdling toward you at 90 miles per hour 18What is the trichromatic theory of color vision lecturebook Trichromatic Theory The rst level of color processing 0 There are 3 different types of cones in the eye and that each respond to light in either red blue or green wavelengths therefore all sensations of colors result from stimulating a combination of these three cones 0 When just one receptor type is activated we see one of the primary colors 0 All other colors require the activation of more than one type 19Are the three primary paint colors that you grew up learning in art class different from the three primary light colors that we discussed in the trichromatic theory of color vision What are the primary colors for light vs paint Why does mixing primary paint colors produce a different result than mixing primary light colors lecture Three types we grew up learning Red Blue Yellow 0 Three types of colors in trichromatic theory Blue Green Red 0 When mixing colors you get a black color which the black color produces no light 20How does the trichromatic theory of color vision explain color blindness lecturebook Nature makes a mistake and lls some peoples red cones with green photo pigment or lls green cones with red photo pigment l people can only then essentially have 2 instead of 3 cone receptors so you can no longer discriminate certain colors 21What is opponentprocess theory lecturebook What is meant by an after image 0 A second level of color processing certain colors are specially linked 22What is meant by topdown and bottomup processing booklecture Bottom up processing First visual system analyzes actual sensory message process that starts with actual physical message 39 TOP down processing Second knowledge beliefs and expectations are used to organize and interpret what we see A B C 23Be able to describe amp identify examples of the 5 Gestalt principles of organization booklecture Proximity Things that are close together are grouped together in the mind as if they belong together 0 Closure Incomplete gures tend to be seen as complete because our brain lls missing information Similarity Similar things are seen as being related Continuation Images are seen in ways that produce smooth con nua on Common Fate Objects moving together are grouped together 24What is meant by the gure ground concept booklecture When we see something we separate an image into a gure and a ground Whatever is the center of our attention if the gure and whatever is in the background is the ground 25 Knowidentify examples of the 4 monocular cues of depth perception and know what is meant by a quotmonocular cuequot lecturebook Cues in the environment that suggest depth and can be seen only by the eye 1 The brain knows that distant objects produce smaller images on the retina 2 Linear perspective parallel lines receding far into the distance converge on a point Closer together lines must be farther away 3 Far away objects look blurryslightly blueish 4 Can tell distance based on whether one object casts a shadow on another 26Knowidentify examples of the 2 binocular cues requires both eyes of depth perception and know what is meant by a quotbinocular cuequot lecturebook 1 Convergence both eyes angle inward as an object gets closer to us and converge 2 Retinal disparity because each retina a few inches apart they have slightly different images and this helps with depth perception 27What is meant by perceptual constancy Speci cally knowidentify exams of brightness color size and shape constancy lecturebook We perceive an object s properties as unchanging even though physical message delivered to eyes is changing o Brightness constancy we understand the brightness of an object does not change even when the object is dimly lit 0 Color constancy we understand that colors do not change despite different conditions of light 0 Size Constancy Size does not change 0 Shape Constancy Shape does not change 28Understand how the Ames room Ponzo and MullerLyer optical illusions work Why does the brain see certain objects within these pictures as bigger than others when they really are not lecturebook Ponzo lllusion lllusion uses linear perspective to trick the eye MullerLyer Lines produce retinal images of identical sizes 29Know the de nition of sound and how sound is different from light lecturebook Sound Energy travels in waves the physical message delivered to auditory system mechanical energy 30What shape does sound take Lecturebook Vibrations to generate sound 31What is meant by pitch and what is meant by loudness and what quality of sound determines each of these things lecturebook Frequency determines m how high or low something is 32Pinna tympanic membrane middle ear cochlea basiliar membrane auditory nerve be able identify where they are in the ear and describe what they all do Be able to describe the process of a sound rst entering the ear and producing a neural impulse Understand how the above parts of the ear are involved in this process lecturebook Pinna Helps capture sound ap of tissue you call the ear 0 Ear Drum or Tympanic Membrane Sound funnels down auditory canal which responds to sound by vibrating Middle Ear Vibration pattern of ear is transmitted through here portion between ear drum and cochlea containing three small bones that help intensify vibration pattern Cochlea Vibration pattern makes it to the inside of the inner ear where the sound energy get translated to a neural impulse Basilar Membrane inside cochlea Base for sensory cells of hearing Flexible membrane running through cochlea that through its movement displaces the auditory receptor cells or hair cells lying along it Auditory Nerve Neural impulses generated by the hair cells leave the cochlea along this nerve 33Be able to describe place theory and frequency theory lecturebook Place Theory explains hearing loss in older people We hear a particular pitch because certain hair cells are responding actively place refers to location of activated hair cell on basilar membrane 0 Frequency Theory Pitch is determined by frequency of neural impulse traveling up auditory pathway Brain relies on RATE at which cells re neural impulses not just location of cells that are activated Higher rates ring higher pitch 34Be able to describe and identify examples of the gureground concept as applied to sound and the idea of top down processing as applied to sound lecturebook TopDown Processing Expectations change what you want to perceive If you see the words then that automatically what you re going to predict instead of what was actually really said 35What produces the sensation of touch lecturebook Cells in skin are literally deformed due to pressure which provides neural impulse 36What produces the sensation of temperature lecturebook Cold and warm bers respond to cooling and heating of skin by increasing neural impulses production 37s experienced temperature just dependent on the actual temperature of an object lecturebook No it is not just dependent on actual temperature plunging hand into water bucket 38What is pain de ne Lecturebook Pain Adaptive reaction that body generates in response to a stimulus that is causing tissue damage 39Understand the gate control theory of pain lecturebook Gate Control Theory There are neural gates endorphins that control the transmission of pain impulses The gate can be open or close and critical pain signals can be blocked from reaching higher neural centers when necessary 40What is meant by phantom pain and how is it often treated lecture Phantom Pain Amputees often feel the amputated limb as if it is still there and sometimes feel pain in the missing limb l mirror image therapy is how it is treated 41What is meant by olfaction booklecture Olfaction Smell 42Be able to describe the shy smell studies and what they demonstrate about how smell in uences interpretation of social environments and how our interpretation of social environments in uences what we smell lecture Made the people less cooperative in trustbased economic exchanges Making participants feel suspicious of the experimenter enhanced their ability to correctly label shy smells and heightened detection sensitivity to low concentrations of shy smells 43What are the four basic tastes lecturebook Sweet Bitter Salty Taste called gustation Sour 44What is a super taster and what is thought to make some people supertasters lecture Super Taster Have relatively more taste buds than non tasters
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