Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PKGSC 4010
Popular in packaging machinery
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by snwatts on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PKGSC 4010 at Clemson University taught by Anthony Pometto in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see packaging machinery in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION VOCAB 1 10 Flexible packaging films foils pouches and bags also includes secondary packaging operations using exible materials such as bundling and wrapping a Ex chip bags Semirigid packaging corrugates and paperboard used in cases cartons and trays a Ex toothpaste paperboard secondary package Rigid packaging glass metal some plastic and composite bottles cans and tubes a Ex canned vegetables eye drops glass jar of sauce Islands of automation stations linking of individual packaging machines together to form a packaging line Packaging noun a system to contain and protect a product or quantity of products a includes range of materials and formats bags pouches bottles cartons corrugate cases blisters tubes trays etc Roles of packaging Product protection Identification Marketing selling Warning Branding Communication Instruction Dispensing i Storage Dedicated lines packaging lines that produce only one product and in only one package or in limited package sizes a Few plants have this luxury b Changeover between products and formats are more common Changeover reduces the amount of time available for production line production by 20 to 40 so each unit in the packaging line must be versatile Stock keeping units SKU the individual product in unit of sale to the final customer identified by unique numeric or alphanumeric identification code a Ex 12 ounce can of cola would be one SKU a 12 ounce can of diet cola would be a different SKU Inefficiencies friction between factors pkg design material machinery operations are multiplied across the packaging line a Some industries run on extremely tight margins and even 2 to 3 efficiency loss can represent a significant loss in profits FOP 999699 b Inefficiency that may seem insignificant by itself can have tremendous cumulative effects 11 Primary packaging packaging in direct contact with product a Must be compatible with product 12 Secondary packaging in contact with primary pkg but not directly with product a Materials often put emphasis on good looks bc it is often what consumer sees on shelf b Multiple levels can exist i Cartons pouched may be packed in shelf display tray before being placed in shipping case display tray also secondary pkg 13 Tertiary packaging generally not seen by end user shipping container plastic film wraps a Can have multiple layers i Cartons shrink wrapped then placed on corrugated case b Purpose groups cartons for ease of handling and protection until they are ready to be placed on shelf 14 Shelf stocking display ready products secondary and some tertiary packaging placed on shelves to reduce shelving time a Expensive for typical retail store so to reduce that cost they use display readyquot products b Ex 8 pack of coke shrink wrapped with graphics on shelf 15 Source reduction volume reductions corrugated vs plastic weight reduction plastic vs glass use of recycled materials 16 Packaging verb process of combining products components and materials t form a finished package a Fill b Weigh c Label d Inspect e Close f Seal g Place into cases h Convey 17 Off the shelfquot basic or standard packaging machines a ex labeling equipment coder not likely for other types of machines most have to be customized 18 Machine builder vendor company that is responsible for design fabrication and assembly of packaging machine 19 Original equipment manufacturer OEM suppliers of components and subassemblies motors controls bearings etc to the machine buildervendor 20 Classification criteria of packaging machinery a General machine type and purpose i Major criteria type of machine N ii Machines categorized by function filler capper bundler case erector etc iii Monobloc machines machines that combine multiple functions on a single frame Ex filler and capper in one machine b Level of automation i Fully automatic no operator needed beyond keeping it supplied with bulk materials and product Run at higher speeds ii Semiautomatic routine intervention by operator Ex Placing individual pkg into machine to be filled labeled or closed by machine loading product into pkg that machine has formed iii Manual label dispensers more of packaging aids than machinery c Motion i Continuous machines move package through machine at constant speed without stopping it Usually able to achieve higher throughput speeds Smoother movement 9 gentler handling Drawback tend to be more complex which adds to initial cost and may require higher skill level for operator and maintenance force ii Intermittent move or index the package to a position within the machine where it is stopped for filling capping labeling or some other action Once action is complete pkg indexes out of station to the next process Indexing cyclic or timed interval for the package 0 may be cyclic driven by a cam or a timer to occur at a specific time interval 0 may also be on demand cycling on receipt of manual signal from operator or detection of pkg by sensor d Layout and product ow i Inline inline ow carries pkg through machine in a straight or relatively straight path Intermittent motion ii Rotary machine moves pkg onto rotating turret which carries sit in a circular path as turret rotates pkg is filled capped or some other action Continuous motion Usually operate at higher speeds than inline but are more complex and costly e Package orientation i Vertical cartoner drop product in from top Often preferred when hand loading is required ii Horizontal cartoner insert product horizontally Often makes it more suitable for automated loading iii Products often inserted into carton before carton end is sealed in order to release all air in carton f Speed 9 machine throughput 9 critical parameter i ppm packages per min ii cpm containers per min iii bpm bottles per min iv pph product per hour V fpm feet per min linear speed 21 Cycle speed defined by user a Ex thermoformer for cups will have cycle speed of 50 cycles per min producing 4 pkgs at a time 4 upquot with speed of 200 pkgs per min ppm 9 50 x 4 200 22 Instantaneous speed measured by counting the number of products produced over a few minutes and normalizing to ppm 23 True line speed measured by multiplying instantaneous speed by efficiency over time a Ex designed for 1500 cpm runs at 85 efficiency 9 1500 x 085 1275 cpm 24 Package design driven by market and consumers not machinery 25 Inverse taper package bottle smaller at bottom than at top 26 Packaging machinery not one size fits all needs to be carefully selected to match the operation and package 27 Simple machines a Lever o c b Inclineplane S1mple Machmes c VVedge d39 Puney 39 Q e Wheel and axle Wedge Wheel and Axel Lever Inclined Plane Screw Pulley f Screw 28 Packaging line group of machines that are connected that combine product and packaging inputs perform all necessary functions to properly package a product and prepare it for distribution Line loading Flexible packaging Filling Capping and closing Labehng Coding and inline printing Inspection Cartoning and case packing Conveying buffering and accumulating Packaging machine components and controls r39r39aqqrhrnpoge N 0 KEY POINTS CHAPTER 1 1 Packaging the noun vs packaging the verb Packaging the noun Product inspection 2 Identification Marketing selling Warning Branding Communication Instruction Dispensing Storage And more Packaging the verb Fill Weigh Label Inspect Close Seal Place into cases Convey Packaging machinery industry 55 billion packaging machinery shipments Manufacturers US Germany Italy Iapan US 2009 packaging machinery shipments 40 food 2 1 beverages CHAPTER 2 LINE LOADING VOCAB 1 Reshippers corrugated cases designed to be reused to ship out the finished product Timing screw at loading station used for tall thin or lightweight bottles bc of their tendency to fall over a Operator place container in pocking of moving screw b Screw supports bottle as it moves downstream machine conveyor c Manual operation Automated unloading systems available for trays and single layer shrink wrapped bricks or bags film is removed manually or automatically a Tray placed on infeed conveyor that carries it to unloading station b Tray is automatically opened and containers pushed onto conveyor Dumping case is opened inverted onto conveyor or table and removed vertically leaving containers behind Hinged Lshaped shelf added to unscrambler or conveyor as an aid to manual line loading Containers must be oriented so that when case is opened their bottoms will be up for dumping to work Can use with glass metal plastic or composite containers Can be rougher than other methods which may prevent its use with lightweight or fragile glass containers Simple and high speed Drawbacks i Only works with single layer containers packed bottom up ii Light weight plastic bottles difficult to dump tend to fall over iii Not gentle cant use fragile bottles 5 Uncasing cases are opened aps folded back placed on table or conveyor open side down container gently lifted by belts and discharged 6 Vertical uncaser used when dumping can t be for fragile more expensive bottles lifts containers from case via robot or pickandplace mechanism a b c d e f Grab bottles move up train deposit Open case placed on infeed conveyor and indexed to unloading station Head with grippers is lowered grips each container in layer raises them out of case deposits them onto conveyor for single filling onto packaging line If multiple layers in case uncasing will cycle multiple times reaches deeper until all layers removed Empty case discharged full case is moved to unloading station and repeat Intermittent or continuous 7 Palletizing most efficient means of transporting empty containers a b c d e Can be stacked as high as 8 ft Containers placed on pallet in layer Corrugated or shipboard slips placed on top of each layer to serve as smooth base and keep out contaminants Pallet of containers unitized using banding or stretch shrink wrap Reduces cube and packaging waste associated with containers shipped in cases 8 Depalletizing uncasing pallets in layers g h humans High level allows for several pallets taking it from the top Low level individually placed pallets pallet comes in low pallet rises Robotic Banding stretch or shrink wrap removed Sheet dividing layers is removed Entire layer is moved to conveyor by sliding arm or by pickandplace arm Pallet raised one layer and process is repeated Pallet lowered to oor level when emptied for removal 9 Unscrambler orienter bulk quantities of bottles containers organized into a single line of uniform orientation a Most commonly used on plastic bottles can be used on glass and metal b Supplied in corrugate cases plastic bags or palletsized gaylord containers large heavy duty corrugated palletsized box to totes palletsized bag 10 Bottle orienter move bottles from random to uniform orientation if incorrect orientation it is rejected back into feed system a Two main techniques i Profile sensing differentiates the neck from body ii Mouth sensing identifies open end of bottle and orients based on that b Most orienters work by conversion identify orientation of bottle and convert if necessary to desired orientation c Other work by selection identify orientation if not in desired orientation reject it back into feed system to be passed through again i Inefficient d Two steps i Bottles are metered from a bulk hopper into a preorienter ii Preorienter arranges bottles in same orientation lengthwise 1 Most preorienters centrifugal large bowl with rotating disk at bottom bottles guided by air jets paddlewheels or guides against wall in the groove bottles discharge single file to vertical chute or pair of belts to be carried to orienting device 11 Centrifugal preorienter a Large bowl with rotating disk at bottom b Second disk mounted on top of main disk with specific bottle size shape c Centrifugal force aided by gravity forces bottle into groove guides paddlewheels and or air jets may also be used to get bottles in groove d Bottle discharge in single file and properly aligned e Carried to orienting device 12 Beltstyle orienter multiple sets of belts a First belt captures bottle as it exits preorienter i Orients all bottles lengthwise neck leading or trailing at random b Second belt runs at higher speed to create gaps btwn bottles 9 bottle gripper belts hooks hoops fingers i Neck leading bottle 9 pulled upright by hook so openend is now trailing ii Base leading bottles 9 tripped upright by finger located under bottle c Travels upright on conveyor with support rails 13 Hoop used when neck is smaller than body a If bottle is in correct orientation 9 hoop rides over it with no effect b If not 9 neck enters hoop which pulls bottle upright 14 Vertical chute a Preorient bottles are fed down vertical chute b Bottle is staged in an escapement at bottom of chute c Turret with articulated ngers rotates past the escapement d Pulls the bottle out horizontally e Photoeye con rms the proper orientation i If orientation is incorrect 9 activates mechanism that rotates the ngers ipping the bottle over f After rotation turret discharges bottles to conveyor 15 Profilestyle bottle orienter a Bottles guided into pockets on rotating plates after they have been oriented lengthwise 9 neck leading or trailing b Bottle neck supported in pocket body and by stationary plate below c As bottle passes over opening in stationary plate it falls bottom rst onto takeaway conveyor 16 Centrifugal feeder has no preorienter a Bowl has series of scallops that form pockets perpendicular to aXis of feeder b If they don39t t properly in scallop 9 kicked out back into pile c Bottle is correct orientation fall out of pocket on conveyor in a vertical neck up position d Extremely fast 500600 cpm but are also gentle and able to handle delicate bottles even glass without damage 17 Axial orienter for F type irregular shaped or molded containers a Counterrotating belts attempt to spin the bottles that are not oriented b Guide rail on back prevents neck leading bottles from turning c Open guide rail on front neck trailing bottle to turn 1800 l 8 KEY POINTS CHAPTER 2 1 Five ways rigid containers are supplied to packaging line 0 Oriented in cases 0 Containers supplied to line in corrugated cases all oriented in same positions 0 Containers can be supplied in reshippers corrugates cases designed to be reused to ship out the finished product 0 Or they can be supplied in corrugates cases intended to be discared Shrink wrap 0 Typically shipped in single layer but can be multilayered Trays 0 Used for containers that require special cleaning pharmaceutical vials o 3 sided trays with lid of tray forming fourth side 0 Pallets o Containers are stacked on pallet with corrugated or chipboard slips btwn layers for stability 0 Lightweight containers cans or PET bottles Bulk o Containers supplied in no particular orientation 0 Can be corrugated cases bags or gaylord bins o Containers must be individually oriented to correct position before placing on line 2 Simplest way of line loading Manual Typically 60 cpm loaded directly to line by operator Require space on line for person loading 3 Simplest loading area Table or tray adjacent to conveyor Bottles loaded on table then pushed from table to conveyor Satisfactory if speed is not of concern Best is 9 rotary unscrambler table Turntable rotating at fairly low speed Benefit provides buffer for smooth addition to line ow I Operator can keep adding bottles even if downstream operation pauses and vice versa 4 Dumping vs Uncasing Similarities 1 Bottles arrive in bulk 2 Unboxing and unpalletizing unloaded 3 Want an accumulation of bottle ready to be filled 4 Waste levels are similar whatever can be reused is reused 0 Differences 1 Uncasing bottles are already oriented 2 Uncasing can have cases with multiple layers dumping must be single layer 3 Uncasing uses robotmachine while dumping is manual 4 Dumping has restrictions on type of bottle you can use no fragile bottles 5 Dumping requires step to orient bottles in line that uncasing does not 6 Dumping can be simpler but prone to jamming 5 Orientersunscramblers Methods bottles are presented 1 Pallet 2 Case 3 Gaylord tote 4 Presented as single layer on orienter Bottle capturing method 1 Hook and loop 2 Compressed air 3 Chute 4 Photoeye check 5 Gutter or slot on outside wall of centrifugal orienter 6 Container cleaning Air vs Water Air 0 Container stays dry no drying time 0 Air is ionized 0 Vacuum system captures particles 0 Bottles neck down pass over air jets 0 Does not sanitize o Gripper belts or twister chute and belts or timing screws 0 Intermittent bottles not inverted or continuous bottles inverted 0 Air is abundant and free much cheaper than water 0 Quick o No waste 0 Contaminants in air needs cleaning Waterwater rinsing 0 Can sanitize air cannot 0 Results in waste 0 Treatment of wastewater is 0 Water is limited resource 0 Bigger footprint Water rinsing Water detergent and final drying Line loading Key elements vs issues Key elements 1 Dumping 2 Uncasing 3 Cleaning Loading and orienting equipment Five ways rigid containers are supplied to packaging line 1 Oriented in cases 2 Shrink wrap 3 Trays 4 Pallets 5 Bulk Timing screw at loading station Automated unloading systems Cases are automatically or manually unloaded onto conveyors 0 Manual Dumping 0 Vertical uncaser robotics Single and multilayer cases with slip sheet Depalletizing Uncasing pallets in layers Uncasing in bulk Orienters and unscramblers o Centrifugal preorienters with groove Beltstyle orienter with hook Hoop or hook orienters Vertical chute 9 gravity Centrifugal feeder without preorienters with scallop Photo sensors OOOOO Plastic bottle supplied in bulk o Corrugated cases 0 Plastic bags 0 Gaylord or totes 9 pallet sizes Axial orienter for F type or molded containers with photoeyes 0 Container cleaners o Compressed air 0 Water rinsing 0 Steam 0 Complete washing Methods for inverting container for cleaning 0 Pair of gripper belts 0 Twisted chute and belts 0 Timing screws Rinsing or washing stations 0 Continuous 9 starwheel or turret 9 rotary o Intermittent 9 linear CHAPTER 3 FLEXIBLE PACKAGING VOCAB l Converter manufacturer of the lm material 2 Continuous printing text graphics that is continuously repeated on nished package 3 Eye mark text or graphics that appears in particular location of nished pkg a Photo eye used to con rm precise positioning 4 Fillseal FS premade pouches or bags then ll 5 Formfillseal FFS form pkg then ll then seal a Vertical VFFS b Horizontal HFFS 6 Bagging machine use premade bags supplied in continuous form roll or individually loose in stacks and fed from magazine a Small bags 9 single layer b Larger bags sometimes multi layer 9 multiwalled bags 7 Rollfed baggers generally for small bags hand or automatically loaded a Bag passes thru dancer roll to maintain consistent tension on lm stock and keep wrinkles out b Fan blows air down opening rst bag on roll c For vertically oriented llers funnel is dropped into bag and material dropped into bag i Loose pieces d For horizontal bottom side of bad supported on table shelf for easy loading i One or two pieces e Bucket conveyor infeed i Assortment of products nuts bolts washers kit f Once lled bag is sealed and cut from roll 8 Unwicketed bags grocery store bags bags stacked at converter and top edge or a tab is welded to hold bags in stack a Bag opened by air b Contents added to bag c Bag torn from wicket 9 Wicketed bags side welded bag with 2 holes punched in lip for attachment a Designed for use W automated machinery b Easy to use and efficient 10 Individual bags made of stiffer material paper a Placed loading magazine b Fingers hold edges of bags in place until pulled from magazine c Arm W suction cup grabs bag d Bag sealed by heat sewing or glue depending on material 11 FFS machines packaging machines that form the package fill it with a wet or dry product and seal it closed a Intermittent b Pouch materials i Film ii Treated paper and foil iii Laminates Used for primary container Flat bottom sipper strip or special shapes VFFS or HFFS 3 or 4 sided seal r6999 12 KEY POINTS 1 Bags Heat seal sew and glue seal bags Wicketed and unwicketed Roll or magazine stacked in a feeder Hand filled or automatically filled Fill vertically or horizontally 9909
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