Study guide Unit 1
Study guide Unit 1 COMD 330
Popular in Neuroscience of Comm. & Assoc. Behaviors
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMD 330 at Northern Illinois University taught by Jamie Mayer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Neuroscience of Comm. & Assoc. Behaviors in Nursing and Health Sciences at Northern Illinois University.
Reviews for Study guide Unit 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/24/15
IntroOverview 1 Name and brie y describe the two main divisions of the nervous system Central Nervous System CNS Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System PNS Cranial Nerves Spinal Nerves 2 What do these directional terms mean Fill in the following chart Below midbrain Above midbrain Rostral Superior Anterior Caudal Inferior Posterior Ventral Anterior Inferior Dorsal Posterior Superior Organization of the Nervous System I 1 Explain general differences in processing between the left and right hemispheres Right Hemisphere focuses on details Left Hemisphere focuses on the big picture 2 Contrast afferent vs efferent signaling a Afferent arriving sensory pathways leading toward the CNS these paths tell us what the body is doing sensing and feeling b Efferent eXiting motor pathways leading away from the CNS eX To move muscles 3 Differentiate gray vs white matter Gray Matter collection of cell bodies in the CNS White Matter axonal bundles in the CNS pathways 4 Name the 4 lobes of the cerebral corteX and label on a two dimensional diagram of the brain Frontal Lobe Parietal lobe Parietal Lobe Fronal lobe Occipital Lobe 39 7 Dceipitl lobe Temporal Lobe 39 Temporal lobe Middle frontal gyrus Inferior frontal sulcus 5 Find the following landmarks on a two dimensional diagram of the brain Where applicable state their significancefunction e g pre central gyrus motor strip 8 Superior frontal sulcus ltgtlt2lteeeeeepeaewrr39emeeeo Superior middle inferior frontal gyri Superior middle inferior temporal gyri SylVian fissure lateral sulcus Central sulcus marks the boundary between the frontal and parietal lobes Pre central gyrus motor strip primary motor corteX Post central gyrus sensory strip somatosensory info I touch pain pressure Supramarginal gyrus helps write Angular gyrus helps reading function Heschl s gyrus helps you hear Broca s area language corteX Wernicke s area how you understand what you hear Calcarine fissure occipital lobe medial View Vision Frontal pole pole means a limit of the brain Occipital pole Temporal pole Cerebellum sensation balance posture stability coordination Thalamus all sensory info goes through except smell Midbrain Pons bridge to the higher midbrain amp posterior cerebellum Medulla Basal ganglia motor loop cognitive limbic oculomotor loops Sagittal interhemispheric fissure central longitudinal fissure brain from top Corpus callosum association fibers that send info across brain Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus helps you behave like an adult Arcuate Fasciculus interconnects major language area Wernicke s amp Broca s V w Orlbital frontal gyri A ff quot Temporal pole Superior Precentral Precentral C Gyms rectus Fr0ntal pole frontal sulcus gyrus Olfactory sulcus 7 5 p gyms Central sulcus i 391 quot Olfactory bulb and tract Postcentral gyrus Anterior perforated substance Postcentral sulcus basal forebrain Superior parietal lobule Inferior frontal gyrus gag I Collateral rhinal sulcus D h 1 Pars Opercularis rlntraparietal sulcuS Uncug a1 I315 Pars triangmaris I Inferior parietal lobule Pars orbllahs S upramarginal gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus 39 Mamm lary bodies Frontal p016 V AHgUI aI gyms Inferior tern oral rus Orbital gyri a 39 r ah Occipital gyri P 3y M1dlbra1n Sylvian fissure 39 i Inferlor temporal sulcus A 4 nterior Temporal pole N Occ1p1talpOle Fusrform R h L f 39 39 39 t 39ttg 1 39 i tii et Superior temporal gyrus Preoccrpital notch OCC1P1 0 empora gym g r superlor temporal SUICHS Pens Cere bemlm Interhemispheric Occipital pole PDSterlor Middle temporal gyrus Medulla r r sagittal fissure Middle temporal sulcus 1 d Superior maozsmauemssocaea Inc lnferior temporal gyrus Slpma COF39 Anterior Posterior Inferior 2002 Smauer Associates MC 6 Define topographical organization homunculus reticular formation B Cingulate gyrus Cingulate sulcus Superior frontal gyrus Corpus callosurn L Body Splenium 39 Genu Rostrum Paraterminal gyrus Lamina terminalis Diencephalon Thalamus Flypothalamus Optic nerve and chiasrn Midbrain 75 39 quotw Pons Medulla Spinal cord D lnterhemispberic sagittal fissure Anterior Superior frontal gyrus Left Right Superior frontal sulcus Posterior Middle frontal gyrus Precentral sulcus Precentral gyrus Central sulcus Postcentral gyrns Postcentral snlcus Superior parietal lobule Inferior parietal lobule lntraparietal sulcus Central sulcus Septum Occipital pole pellucidnm Paracentral lobule Cingulate sulcus marginal branch 2 Fornix Precuneus parietal lobe Topographical organization the ordering of elements within the brain Homunculus pre post central gyrus representation of the body in the sensorimotor corteX Reticular Formation a diffuse network of nerve pathways in the brainstem connecting the spinal cord cerebrum cerebellum and mediating the overall level of consciousness Cuneus occipital lobe Parietoeoccipital sulcns Pineal body Isthmus Calcarine fissure Lingula occipital lobe Cerebellum Superior Anterior Posterior Inferior 2002 Sinauar Associates Inc 7 Define association areas and differentiate between unimodal polymodal heteromodal supramodal Unimodal motor and sensory lmotor speech association area premotor area supplementary motor area amp entensions of each primary sensory reception area elaborate info need to send info to Wernicke s from Heschl s to understand Polymodal process 2 or more sensory modalities match present past info Gnosis knowing Heteromodal highest level of processing Supramodal prefrontal executive function Perisylvian around Sylvain fissure or lateral sulcus limbic 8 Horizontal organization What are the 6 cerebral layers In which layers are sensory motor and association neurons located Why are the layers of different thicknesses in different areas of corteX I Dendrites of neurons from deeper layers association II Neurons that project to other areas of corteX association III Neurons that project to other areas of corteX association IV Receives input from thalamus sensory V Projects to brain stem SC basal ganglia motor VI Projects to thalamus and to other areas of corteX association Layer 4 is sensory layer 5 is motor and all the rest are association Layers thicknesses determine the main function of a particular area of corteX 9 Differentiate allocorteX from neocorteX AllocorteX three layers primitive structure and function NeocorteX siX layers true corteX 2002 Summer Associates Inc 10 What are the 3 longitudinal divisions of the brainstem Label these on a cross section of the brainstem Tectum roof site of superior and inferior colliculi audio amp visual info Tegmentum covering main bulk of brainstem nuclei and reticular formation Basis front large collections of fibers making up white matter pathways Organization of the Nervous System II 1 Name the 5 regions of the spinal cord Cervical 8 nerves 7 vertebrae Thoracic 12 nerves Lumbar 5 nerves Sacral 5 nerves Coccygeal l nerve 4 vertebrae 2 Define cauda equina nerve root dermatome Cauda Equina the bundle of nerve roots from the lumbar and sacral levels that branch off the bottom of the spinal cord like a horse s tail Nerve Root axons of motor and sensory neurons which are combined into spinal nerves in PNS Dermatome the area of skin innervated by a single nerve root 3 Label the anterior and posterior horns on a two dimensional diagram and state the primary function of each B Anterior Ventral horn motor Intermediate zone Dorsal posterior horn Posterior Dorsal horn sensory Ventr f l Dorsal h column Central canal Ventral median fissure 4 Where are cell bodies for sensory spinal neurons located Where are cell bodies for motor spinal neurons located Sensory spinal neurons dorsal root ganglia outside of the actual spinal cord Motor spinal neurons spinal cord and brainstem for cranial nerves 5 Re exes a Definition Subconscious automatic stimulus response mechanisms b Four basic elements Patellar tendon re ex simple stretch re ex Grasp re ex Comeal re ex Plantar re ex C Example Plantar re ex when you touch the bottom of your foot and your toes are supposed to curl Grasp re ex when babies hold on to your finger Corneal re ex touching the cornea with a wisp of cotton and automatically closing eye Patellar tendon re ex kicking leg out after your knee is hit d What does it mean if a re ex is absent The re ex is too small damage in re ex arc e What does it mean if a re ex is hyperactive The re ex is too big damage in the brain 6 Namea the primary function and b the two major divisions of the ANSAutonomic Nervous System Primary function Innervation of involuntary structures Major Divisions Enteric nervous system GI Sympathetic fight or ight helps you freak out Parasympathetic calming 7 List and label the three meningeal layers Pia mater Arachnoid mater spider like Arachnoid Mater Dura Mater tough 8 The dura mater protrudes into the cranial vault to form the Dura Mater d Mirnva 9 L a quotv I z nf x AA A quotA a X i 4 2 A A 3 i 4 i f A kr Pia Mater a Falx Cerebri sagittal between the cerebral hemispheres b Tentorium Cerebelli between the cerebrum and cerebellum 9 Fill in this table Space real or potential Upper boundary Lower boundary Epidural real only in SC Skull 0r verterbrae Dum mater Subdural potential Dural mater Arachnoid mater Subarachnoid real Arachnoid mater Pia mater 10 Name the 4 ventricles in the brain 2 are paired Two lateral ventricles Third ventricle Fourth ventricle ll Define CSF circle of Willis CSF Cerebrospinal Fluid circles around the brain through the ventricle and through the subarachnoid space Circle of Willis collateral blood ow where all the arteries are connected at the base of the brain 12 Fill in this diagram of the two main arterial routes to the brain Anterior Circulation F Aorta H Posterior Circulation Common Carotid Subclavian arteries Vertebral arteries Internal Carotid Basal artery level of pons ACA Have left and right PCA left and right MCA have left and right 14 the cerebral artery supplying the following areas 8 m ngop leg area of the motor strip ACA Frontal pole ACA Broca s area MCA superior Wernicke s area MCA inferior Motor strip except leg area MCA superior Sensory strip MCA borderline Primary visual corteX and occipital pole PCA 15 Describe the following principles of the nervous system ie what do they mean 8 Contralateral motor control Major voluntary motor pathways cross at the level of the lower brainstem the cerebral hemisphere on one side of the body controls movements on the other side of the body Bilateral speech motor control midline muscles of the body tend to be represented bilaterally smooth symmetrical movement for muscles used in speaking Unilateral language mechanisms left hemisphere comes to dominate language speech and analytic processing right hemisphere develops emotions musical skills and paralinguistic functions Frontal vs posterior corteX ie posterior to the central sulcus general differences in function Frontal lobe control integration and regulations of emotional cognitive and motor behaviors Posterior cortex control integration and regulation of sensory behavior Specific cortical deficits are associated with specific behavioral syndromes we know certain parts of corteX do certain things Neuronal Function 1 Define Astrocytes Microglia Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells Ependymal cells Astrocytes adhere to capillaries and send nutrients to the neurons blood brain barrier Microglia Phagocytes clean up CNS debris Oligodendrocytes myelin for CNS neurons Schwann cells myelin for PNS neurons Ependymal cells line ventricles and central canal SC 2 Label on a 2 D diagram and brie y describe the function of the following a Soma contains the nucleus of the cell Dendrite tree like branching structure that receive chemical messages from other neurons Axon tube that conducts the message Axon hillock part of axon comes right off of soma the non myelinated part Telodendria branching structure at the end of the axon that spread towards other neurons Myelin insulates the axon Nodes of Ranvier junctures in the myelin Terminal bouton contains packets or vesicles of neurotransmitter Synapse the juncture between neurons the space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another is the synaptic cleft j Neurotransmitter the chemical messenger between neurons Dendrite he 1 1 V39gqormpapsr Alan hillucl Fla Alan Hade uI FIEII39IHIE39I MgeIin Elieatl Teludendria End buutnn 3 Define the following action potential ion voltage gated channel ligand gated channel saltatory conduction Action potential electrical spike or change in charge ultimate goal is for the synapse to release a neurotransmitter when neuron is at rest ICF is negative with respect to ECF and AP is a brief reversal of this Ion a charged particles dissolved in water in the ECF and ICF Voltage gated channel opens when ICF the charge inside in positive Ligand gated channel opens when ligand NT binds to it opens because of voltage gated Salutatory conduction action potentials are propagated down the length of the axon by jumping from one node of Raniver to the next 4 At rest what is the relationship between ICF and ECF ICF is negative at rest relative to ECF why sodium wants to get into cell 5 How is this relationship maintained Selectively permeable membrane because of the two channels and sodium potassium pumps that makes sure sodium cannot get into the ion and potassium can 6 Differentiate between C d Depolarization rising phase inside wall becomes more like the outside of the cell less negativity Repolarization falling phase redoing and heading back to negative where it is different from the outside Hyperpolarization undershoot cells drop to negative Resting potential at rest there are relatively more sodium ions outside the neurons and more potassium ions inside the neuron 7 What does it mean to say that the AP is transmitted from one neuron to the next by conversion to chemical energy at synapses needs The goal of the action potential is to release the neurotransmitter and they do this at the synapse The neurotransmitter is the chemical energy and the electric impulse it due to the charges and the 4 phases of polarization
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'