Psych 230 (Developmental Psychology)
Psych 230 (Developmental Psychology) Psych 230
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Frankel on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 230 at Iowa State University taught by Warren Phillips in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Iowa State University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Iifesi development study 0ij systematic ch angers physical mental and behavioral aracterii39stics fmm antideaith we study aspects of 1descriptian h aw people change over 39to to and can intervene because we know what neat to expect 2 explanation factors these we kniaaw what provokes these we can themadd to them parents einstein products to increase cognitive development PeriOds infancy first preschoom to 3 whenever able to walk middle childhood 6 to adolescence to 230 whenever break away from parents early adulthoad 2040 adut thood 40 to 65 late adulthood 65 Phases of life span modern View are innacent we longer we 1600 Faur Assumptions in a life spanquot perspective to develapiment development a life long process at all periods changes take place development viewed in an histaric context 1 narmative age graded pubenm go through growth changes behavioral narmative historygraded in uences that effectsggroups azf 911 invention of the internet 3 Nonnormative infflufences change that to amount of peapla 2a rare disease the know what outcames be there are grthhs and declines 4 development is multiply influenced in a biopsychosocial framework 3 factors interact 1 biological factors our heredity changes our development but cant explain our development along they interact with the other two taller kids will be treated as if they are oldertheir outlook on life is different 2 psychological factors how 3 sociocultural factors how our cultural influences development centenarians life over 100 what is their life like had lower rates of alzheimers cronic disease more likely to die from a short term illness much more socially and sexually active than expected between the people doing well and not doing well BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL the people doing well Biological factors selective survival psychological factors more interested in nutrition coped well with grief more resilient to stress exercised Social factors they worked well into 90s kept full social life The Scientific Method in Development Psych classic study of social learning albert bandura 96 kids ages 3 to 5 divided into four groups each group had 12 boys and 12 girls came from behaviorist but theres a bigger way of learning observing youself group 1 saw an adult male hitting a clown group 2 saw a movie of an adult male hitting clown group 3 saw a cartoon of a woman hitting the clown group 4 saw no film or the adult control group they then went into the toy room to play with the clown aggressive behaviors were counted psychoanalytic theory problem was that it was never scientifically tested behaviorism we can manipulatee and measure its understanding why people do the things they do threes stimulating event that makes child respond in some way Scientific method step 1 Observe step 2 hypothesis specific set of predictions about behavior steip 3 Design study choose design and methods Step 4 collect data analyze data step 5 reject current theory if wrong or keeprefine theory if right Banduras initial observations step1 What is the impact of observing violence on a childs own aggressive behavior step 2 observing violence in others leads to more aggressive behavior in children kids in groups 13 are more likely to show violence than kids in group 4 children are more likely to imitate similar than dissimilar models male female aggression between boysgirls they do what their sex does step 3 used systematic observation method used an experimental design design step 4 kids who saw an agressive model played more aggressive than the kids that saw no aggressive model diddnt matter how they saw the aggression kids ill imitate the behavior they see especially if they identify with the model whether in real life movie or cartoon Step 5 he used his findings to support social learning theory of aggression and Research Methods Systematic Observation Iooked for specific observations whenever subject did something new Exif study is looking to happy people then count every time someone smiles 1 Naturalistic Observations going into natural context Ex study families go into their home strengthes conditions reflect everyday life Limits conditions cant be controlled due to random events 2 Structured Observations observing in a lab setting strengths conditons are same for all participants Limits observations may not be typical of peoples everyday lives Ex Banduras experiment was structured observation Reactivity when people know they are being observed they act differently Self Report Data give people instruments in which every person is asked the same question in the same way Strengths can compare responses easily can easily collect and score data Limits people may not report accurately may sacrifice the depth of information obtained due to not getting detailed and specific infer from about each person Corrrelational Design use if you want to gather info about groups without altering their experiences Exthe amount of time you spent studying and what you got on your exam this design tells you if two things are related to each other and if so to what manner and to what degree we examine this by using correlation coefficient which is a number that ranges between 1 and 1 The size of the number shows the strength of the association 0 is no correlation 1 and 1 has stronger correlation sign means as one variable increases so does the other variable sign means as one variable increases the other decreases major strength of this design you can study just about everything Limit does not mean causation Ex a lot of studying causes good grades you cant say the most logical cause Just because two things correlate doesn39t mean one causes the other third variable level of motivation interest other factors will make students study more study of experiences people already had Experimental Design behaviors to interst are divided into tow types lndependent variable the thing in the study that is manipulated by the experimenter in banduras study gender of the adult whether or not they say aggression the way the kids saw the clown Dependent variable the thing in the study that is expected to be influenced by independent variable changes not a person but a characteristic in banduras study the acts of aggression Experimenter controls one way is random assignment of subjects matching of subjects in banduras study he made sure he had 12 boys and 12 girls in every group Strengths of this study only design that allows us to make guesses about causeeffect Limits of this study results may not generalize to the real world because there are so many controls actually manipulating variables Developmental Design were looking about how a variable changes over time 1 Longitudinal Study same group of participants repeatedly at different ages lets us study both common patterns and individual differences in development Ex there are always a couple people different what causes that You can look at relationship between early and later eventnot causation but prediction Ex doxin tail head doesn39t cause tail Limits there are selective drop outs jaildeath time of measurement effect could events like 911 cause acts of aggression to rise and decline suddenly Nonnormative 2 CrossSectional when we study groups of people of different ages at the same time Ex the study of IO 3 groups of people all different ages over 6 months you do tests to all 3 groups then you look at the significant differences you notice its significantly lower towards the older groups IQ declines as we get older Strengths this study is much faster less money Limits you cant study individual changes you also need to be very careful not to have any cohort effects this study specifically was wrong IQ dropped significantly because of the cohort effectolder people of this study didn39t get the same education as we have now it was proven with a longitudinal study of watching them over a course of 50 years 3 Sequential They combine crosssectional and longitudinal design allows you to make comparisons of both kinds very quickly You are studying two or more cohorts Crosssectional repeatedly over time longitudinal EXStart with 30 year olds wait 10 years 30 year olds are now 40 add in more 30 years olds wait 10 years 40 year olds are now 50 30 year olds are now 50 wait another 10 yearsthis allows us to track over time while still adding in more participants really able to pick out what effect there is more specific disadvantage takes time much more complex yet strongest Issues with the 3 effects Age Effects changes which occur due to age a study may be affected by the age of the person Normative age graded influences biological influences such as puberty or menopause Cohort Effects born in one historical context changes in society that causes a disadvantage If you have multiple cohorts in one study like a 5 year old and 50 year old is because of age or is it because of something that happened time of measurement effect Historical take place at time of data collection Normative history graded influences and then theres non normative life eventslike winning lottery losing parentsomehting that comes out as a shock in life Developmental Theory Theory ideas proposed to explain some phenomena helps organize factsobservations not the truth but a way of thinking about must be internally consistent testable falsifiable if not supported by data could be harmful ex theory of facilitated communication key board for autistic people that human touch allowed people to communicate Four Groups of Theory 1 Psychodynamic Theories talks about human behavior being controlled by our unconscious drive EX frustrated with boss but never said anything to boss then complained about it when on the way home or to famin This is called Displacement complaining to someone who wont get mad at you is a way to get your feelings hear These are discontinuity stage Theories like Freuds theory nature innate drives and nurture early experiences Erik Erikson he was discovered by Freuds daughter he was the most influential neoFreudian he put less emphasis on Freuds sexuaI urges and focused more on rational ego he said development continued through adulthood Eriksons Theory 1 Trustdistrust infants depend on their caregivers or die so trust is formed 2 Autonomy shame and doubt about 2 years old they can walk and talk parents have responsibility to watch over kids child will either leave this stage independent scared to view the world 3 lnitiativeguilt 2 years olds think imaginarily theres a lot of creativity depending on how parent reacts kid makes play food for parents how parent responds is important 4 industry inferiority kids go to school work hard get good grades kids love to play vs kids who cant get themselves organized cant get good grades kids make fun of them Identitin Rate Cnnfuaian adolescence in school we people are like ourselves to who we are 6 Intimacy Isolation young adult relationships careers39Mhich he missed 7 Generativity stagnation middle aged teak back at life either it or life crises best doesn39t have an In tegri ty Despaira age people that had a nice life or people that say wawi had a life 2 Theories theres a response some consequence hearing direction folto39Wing it 39 or gradual growth nature mle 0f envimem 397 bemwo iis m social learning theory bandam Banduras cagnitive learnin meaty gavemlamem because Of interactions between person and their environment person enviomn m environment influences person EX teacher to class teacher sees tired tanking teacher gets anxiem sense that dent attention yObservatinal V9 a c39ti Vi Jr Spendla bunch at time stuck in our heads 1 we have these ideas that do or dam have the quot539 3 quot based on belief wm guide if to do we about consequences how tu am preprozgrammed structures that gradually e vaiIVei to determine haw sees the world Development in nature and a environment Jean iagem cognitive development theory most interested in Problem solving reasoning they I develbped and untamed theary was unique be the d ve Piing active eprOren develOpmem rest 0f Patterns etactian and thaughzt that develop due to interactions of the envirenment 1 Sensorimartor period to 2 yea give a pen their thats their schema they feel the shapes and sizes Pre operational period to imaginary lay h pen not real ahracadabra and pen tum Concrete operational period to 11 new we ees Ioca reasoning daesfn wark to 7year Obey they know about presence and future but thats you went back in time would you be present in the past present and the future they cant think that abstractly 4 Formal operational period 11 through adulthood able to think abstractly he said development stops at adolescence Prenatal Development the period of time when development occurs in uterus before birth 3840 weeks for full term pregnancy begins with conception sperm fertilizes egg within 24 hours zygote madesingle celled organism prenatal development begins once zygote is made prenatal development takes place in 3 trimesters first theres 3 stages 1 germinal stage rapid cell division divide and cluster together 2 weeks long shortest of them all zygote is original single cell 46 chromosomes first 23 pairs called autosomes the other determine sex of baby zygote cell divides and divides and divides each time into 2 identical cells clustered cells form a blastocyte blastocyte travels to uterus and only 50 are successfuly implemented other half goes to mentrual cycle 2 Embryonic stage differentiation takes place the outter cell of the blastocyte separates cells inside it separate making embryo pIacenta filters and screens baby so mom doesn39t think its a bacteria also allows nutrients to filter through to child Ecotoderm outer cells from skin and nervous system Endoderm inner cells for internal body organs Mesoderm middle cells form muscles and bones goundwork is laid for all body structures and organs anything that disrupts the placenta and passes through is a a teratoger teratogers have an impact depending on when during development teratoger passes through also what is the teratogen what the amount of teratogen frequency of teratogen EX pregnant women were given fuIidimineteratogens women would take to stop nausea babies with half arms and legs EX drugs and alcohol FAS fetal alcohol syndrome central nervous system dysfunction motor and cognitive control physical development thin upper lip no dimple on upper lip cheek short nose epicentral folds arent formed correctly cardiovascular problems kids with drug related prenatal exposure have behavioral problems effects the central nervous system EX toxoplasmosis changing cat Iiter fecal matterteratogens big problems 3 The Fetal Stage 9 weeks to birth Growth and finishing stage trimesters begin 1st triemesterends after 12 weeks brain and muscles are connected external genitals formed heartbeat can be heard can kick suck thumb open mouth sucketc 2nd Triemester 13 weeks movements can now be felt by momfluttering at first not until 20 weeks until we can feel big kicks and lots of movement brains nerve cells are developed fetus will hide from Iightlight sensitivity baby cannot yet survive if born due to immature lungs and brain control over breathing 3rd trimestr 25 weeks age of viability baby can survive if born now mainly because of growth and control over lungs brains cerebral cortex enlarges fetus can hear and may even develop a preference for certain sounds a layer of fat is added for heat regulation they gain the most weight 57 pounds Childbirth during the 9th months baby bump moves downbc bones of moms pelvis relax and separate making pelvis larger and baby drops usually head first braxtinhix contractions uncoordinated contractions that dont last long they start the process of opening dialating and thinning walls of cervix childbirth stimulated by oxytocin hormone for some reason after 9 months placenta stops producing Labor happens in 3 stages stage 1 contractionsdialation of cervix want to have walls wide and thing transition cervix is fully dilated 10cm contactions are at their highest stage 2 shorter event 50 min with first baby 20 min with later ones pushing birth of baby stage 3 delivery of the placenta What do new babies look like 20 in length average weight is 75 lbs boys typically larger head is misshapen at first because most bones in the skull aren39t fully grown yet head is very large in comparison to trunk and legs What are the assessment of newborn physical condition APGAl scale gives this test 1 minute after birth and then 5 minutes after birth each letter is a characteristic and is measured 0 1 or 2 infant needs these numbers to add up to 7 or more score of 46 means baby needs some assistance A score elf 3 or less is baby in danger AppearancePulseGrimaceActivityRespiration hormone involved in labor and delivery relapsin hormone widens pelvis contractions oxytocin hormone hormone involved in breast feeding 4 Principles 1cephalocaudal developmentdevelopment from the top down control in muscles of neck and then sit up and then walk motor development and physical development happen top down head is largest at birth then trunk grows 2 Proximal distal grows from the center out both physical and motor EX trunk grows before the arms and legs motor development infants will be able to move torso around before they can pick things up 3 Simplecomplex our first motions are simple and then after practice they get combineded 4 grossdefined start out with big gross movements and then refine them grabbing at first is slapping and then as grow up they will pick up with fingers more delicately first exam week from tuesday exam locations in email soon culture patterns of living beliefs ethinicitycultual heritage race the maximum life expectancy is 122 years within the 20th century life expectancy has increased 30 years the maximum recored human life span has not exceded 122 years since it was recorded on average the human life expectancy is 78 years old vygotsky was concerned with culture and social interaction information processing theoretical approach we have a growing capacity for knowledge that squires us to remember and develop new skills ethological theory bases behavior soley on persons biology feeling in betweenwhen adults dont feel like adults yet ecleticdoesnt stick to one kind of theory organoegenesis organ development during prenatal period Iamazebreathing techniques during birth synaptic pruning unused neural connections are replaced or disappear Neurogenesisthe formation of new neurons hypothalamuseatingsexual behavior part of the brain estradiol hormone involved in development in uterine breast and skeletal development in girls Physical and Motor Development happen in cephalocaudal manner up to down proximodistal in to out simple to complex gross to refined movements 2 most rapid periods of physical growth puberty and infancy growth physical development in infancy Iose 510 of body weight in first monthbc were not getting a steady supply of food anymore burning more calories bc were moving around more then we double our birthweight at 35 months then we triple our birthweight by 12 months our body is 50 longer than at birth by 1 year by 2 years 75 longer and weight has quadrupled Reflexes 2 1survival reflexeye reflex evelopmental reflexrooting reflexrub infants cheek and they start suckingthis reflex doesn39t stay 2Primitive reflex reflexes we want to see by birthapgar test grasping reflexmoro reflexinfant gets scared and throws hands back and then brings them inswimming reflexstepping reflex walking motion SID sudden infant death unclear why infant dies during night due to some kind of suffocation Physical development in early childhood body growth slows down middle trunk begins to thin out and body becomes more proportional bones begin to lengthen and harden joints are not well connectedelbows shoulders very easy to dislocate them kids start to lose baby teeth by age 6 Motor development in early childhood has not slowed down we see large gross motor development and fine motor skills 2 and 3 year olds run jump catch throw pushFMSuse a spoon undress unzippng they can do the undoing like undressing unzipping faster than doing 3 and 4 year olds can climb stairs normally pedal tricycle FMS use scissors draw tadpoles 4 and 5 year olds can walk down stairs with alternating feet gallop FMSuse a fork copy letters and figures 5 and 6 year olds can run skip mature throw and catch ridde bike with training wheels FMSuse a knife with a fork tie shoes draw person copy numbers and words stick figure drawings write name Physical development in school agerrs average 6 year old weighs 45Ibs and 35 feet tall add 23 inches in height and 5 lb in weight each year Iegs grow faster than rest of body bones lengthen and harden muscular strengthens by age 12 have all permanent adult teeth Motor Development in school agers increase in complexity and refinement in all skillsso like balance speed strength reaction time better to start with smaller sports before bigger sports Tball before baseball if start sports like football tennis at young agethen just do typical skills like sportsmanship and the basics Physical development in teenspuberty initiated by complex hormonal changes maturation of sexual organs and body growth initiated by estrogen and testosterone growth starts at 10 and hits its peak at 12 for female boys start growth at age 12 and hit its peak at age 14 at 14 boys surpass girls in terms of strength and height about 10 to 12 inches in height and around 45Ibs for both girls and boys Sexual Maturation in Teens primary sexual characteristicsthe growth and function of reproductive organs girls begin with menstration boys begin with sex maturation secondary sexual characteristics breast development pubic hair facial hair for femalesage 10 for males age 13 Gistanley hall was founder adolescence is a time of storm and stress because of hormones and physical growththats what causes this to be such a stormy experiences he was incorrect and stress or turmoil they39re having is related to social however early maturing girls have more trouble because they get more attention from older guys and get bullied and isolated from other girlsand also late maturing boys have trouble because they39re smaller less competitive they get picked on by other boys Adult Physical Growth in 20s and 30s we are at our physical peak weight gain 40s and 50s because metabolism slows down weight loss and muscle loss by 60s bones also lose tissue bc vertebrae collapse and we shrink osteoporosis loss of minerals leads to further bone fragility Adult Reproductive Development femalesmenopause 50s on malesdecrease in testosterone 50s on Brain Development corpus collosumconnects two hemispheres allows for message to cross hemispheres Lobes of brain frontal consider outcomes planning organizing parietal motor functioning understanding temperature and senses occipital sight temporal language development and comprehension Ages of Brain Growth more primitive brain development happens the first 5 month of prenatal development by birth we have almost all of our neurons at birth brain is 25 weight at age 2 its 75 weight by 16 brain is at adult weight yet new connections continue to be made until we are about 25 years old Achievements Brain growth spurt happens between 3rd trimester2 years old 1 st event proliferation neurons multiply rapidly in prenatal development all before birth about half die before age 3 Neuron Axonlong tail axon endings mylein sheathgrows after nerve cell for insulation allows for charge to travel in an easier way break down of this leads to multiple sclerosis 2nd event Neural Migration and differentiation neurons migrate to specific areas in the brain interconnect and eventually take on the functions of the brain which they are synaptogenesis neurons get larger and heavier their myelin sheaths increase information transfer neurons are dependent on environment experience if they dont get used they die off amygdala sends out adrenaline fight or flight mode saves life some kids have an overactive synaptogenesis if they grew up in aggressive abusive household act disruptive in school teachers yell kids think they39re bad kid and misbehave even more Brain lateralization separation and integration of functions within brain one side controls the other right side of the brain is more creative emotion space left side of the brain is more analytical scientifically processing corpus coIIosum allows connections to go back and forth EX how we produce language right brain and how we understand language left brain begins at birth and completes mostly by age 5
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