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Bio 365 quiz 1

by: Kelly Frankel

Bio 365 quiz 1 Biol. 365

Kelly Frankel
GPA 3.6
Vertebrate Biology
Rhea Waldman

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Hey there! This covers a bit of the material you will most likely see on quiz one! enjoy!
Vertebrate Biology
Rhea Waldman
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Frankel on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biol. 365 at Iowa State University taught by Rhea Waldman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Vertebrate Biology in Biology at Iowa State University.


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Date Created: 09/24/15
Blo notes 82615 systematics study of the different kinds of organisms taxononomynaming bionmial nomenclature Iinnaeus gave every species a 2 part name Homo sapiens 1 st word genus 2nd word species 8 taxonomic ranks Domain Kingdom Class Order Family Genus Species characteristics of species they have similar traits they can reproduce with each other Biological species concept 2 other species concepts Before Darwin animals withwithout blood species considered eternal they never go extinctfalse Species are immutable never changefalse natural selection this thinking lead to Iinnaean hierarchy Radical changes in thinking in 19th century found out species are not eternal immutable variations occurred Darwin told everyone he gave evidence showing evolution Evolution of natural selection 1 need a lot of individuals not all will survive so need a lot 2 need variations whitedark in summerwinter 3 traits need to be heritable to pass on characteristics 4 traits need to help them survive best traits be passed on ALSOevqution is a causeeffect phenomenon never random MUTATIONS can be randomSELECTION is not Evolutionary classificationn use history of evolution to classify Postdarwinian classificaiton Homology structures similar bc share same ancestry trait humerus bone in animals and humans Analogous structures Similar but not shared ancestry trait bat wings and insect wings not the same origin Taxonomic groups monophyletic groups Paraphyletic group contains recent ancestor but not all decedent members reptiles but dont show birds polyphyletic groups does not contain ancestor of the group Speiciation caused by geographic barriers and cause new species AIIopatric speciation different kinds isolated in own area vicariant speciatiion environmental stresses separate and change 2 species river separating forest 2 new species formed Founder effect animal community on an island and then 2 animals wander off and live somewhere else new place has small size of traits so all offspring look the same when come back together again dont recognize each other as same species nothing happens Sympatric speciation speciatiatino occurs without geographical isolation and new species form ecological segregation species live in same area but have different niches genetic sympatric speciation dont only have normal set of chromosomes but have an extra set of chromosomes most of the offspring diesif lives new species that new species can only reproduce with some other one that has the same number of chromosomesrare Bergmanns rule larger animals in colder climes the larger you are the less heat lost Allens rule Glogers rule endotherms are different colors depending on where you live light or dark colors lighter feathers in birds when living closer to uv rays Amphibians means 2 lives because thy go through metamorphasistriggered by thyroid Terrestrial aquatic or both some are pedamorphasiskeep larval characteristic into adulthood exgills Iegless andor gilled larval stage smooth permeable skin for gas exchange bad because they can easily pick up toxins have eggs without shells some look green due to the unicellular algae good for oxygen exchange and because of that eggs are more likely to survive and grow faster than other kinds of eggs Iarval stages always end up in water oviparous with external fertilization eggs hatched after they are birthed why did the tetrapods move to land hypothesis 1 predation hypothesis too many fish and predators in water hypothesis 2 food hypothesis plants began to grow and more food was on land than in water hypothesis 3 competitive avoidance hypothesis more animals were able to find their own niches on land movement during devonian age of the amphibians ecological conditions during this time shallow seas animals had to adapt from wet to dry we see a land sea contact happened in tropical areas so temperature control wasn39t too much of a problem problems from moving to land gra vityin need of stronger skeleton Iocomotion propulsion must change need more use of limbs breathing need more concentrated oxygen gills dont work right in air feeding in need of jaws teeth tongue instead of suction feeding reproduciton eggs desiccate quickly outer covering desiccation pumping blood gravity constraints sensory systems the Iungfish kinda had lung features and limbs for climbing on to land Good Start Transitional fish osteolepiformessimilar to Iungfish but had more features for land cylindricl bodied large heads shallow water predators double breathers external nares internal nares that allowed them to have gills and start breathing through nose had well ossified skeleton locomotion fins and fin support had pectoral girdle and love like fins supported by fins at their base Stem tetrapods 1 Acanthostega more aquatic than terrestrial ceratobrachials internal gills vertebre fish with no interlocking connections polydactyly 2 ichthyostega first good fossil of land vertebrates vertebrae fishlike with no interlocking connections pectoral and pelvic girdles wer strong polydactyly 7 whatcheeria found in iowa Temnospondyls more aquatic lifestyle flat immobile skull hands reduced to 4 fingers crocodilelooking animals but they39re not reptiles fossils show metamorphosis likely gave rise to the modern amphibians Tiktaalikmissing link between fish and tetrapods bony scales tail gills arches shortened skull modified ear mobile neck cartilage is lighter aII embyros start as cartilage and then go through mineralizationossificationbone depends on mineralization how hard cartilage actually gets cant really grow cartilage back Axial skeleton first protection then agility xray reconstruction of moving morphology allow us to reconstruct bone layer in 30 Axial Skeleton brain vertebral column vertebras Fish have a lot of little bones Amphibians vertebraes start to interlock prevents twisting and bending head is able to turn now Reptiles skull with few bones holes for muscle attachment for jaw Anapsid or 2 holes diapsid some bones fuse from having 2 holes to having onetheyre stiII diapsid because they came from diapsid skuII vertebral column have larger spines going up and down better muscle attachment Birds light weight haIIow bones adaptations for flight heavier Iegs Iighter bones diapsids with fused 2 bones into one they can move upper jaw as well as lower jaw vertebral column fusion of bones for further strength synsacrum Pygostyle have fewest bones of39a vertebrates but biggest have one temporal meaning behind eyes verjteibrial con trol over mavemeznt vertebrate to Iaydown an side skeleton Fiish girdles poorly developed 4tetrapads pelvic cannectsi to ventebraf 1 pectoraf


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