Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide BMS 251-20
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Claire Neville on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 251-20 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Tara Alger in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
EXAM 2 Study Guide (Ch. 22-24) Chapter 22 Immune System 22.1 Overview of Diseases- Caused by Infectious Agents 1. What are the similarities and differences between the five classes of infectious agents? 2. What is a prion? What disease do thy cause? 22.2 Overview of the Immune System 3. What are the types of leukocytes of the immune system and their locations? 4. What are Cytokines and how are they similar to hormones? 5. What are the similarities and differences of innate and adaptive immunity? 22.3 Innate Immunity 6. Describe the physical, chemical, and biological barriers to entry of harmful agents into the body. 7. What are the cells that functions in innate immunity? 8. What is the general function of interferons? 9. What is the complement system and how is it activated? 10. What are the four parts that complement participates in innate immunity? 11. What is inflammation and what are the steps involved (formation of exudate and removing harmful substances)? 12. What are the benefits to inflammation? 13. What are the cardinal signs of inflammation and why each sign occurs? 14. What is a fever and how does it occur? 15. What are the benefits and risks of having a fever? 22.4 Adaptive Immunity 16. What are the features of antigens, and what is meant by antigenic determinant? 17. What is immunogenicity, and list attributes that affect it? 18. How does haptens stimulate immune responses? 19. What receptors or both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes? 20. What is antigen presentation? 21. What antigen-presenting cells, and the cells that serves this function? 22. What is the process of formation of MHC class I molecules in nucleated cells and MHC class II molecules in professional antigen-presentation cells? 23. What are the three significant events that occur in the lifetime of a lymphocyte? 22.5 Formation and Selection of Lymphocytes 24. How do T-Lymphocytes mature? 25. What are the similarities and differences of positive and negative selection of T-lymphocytes? 26. What are the additional changes to T-lymphocytes after selection? 22.6 Activation and Clonal Selection of Lymphocytes 27. How do both T-lymphocytes and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes are activated? 28. What is the role played by IL-2 in both activations? 29. What are the similarities in the activation of B-lymphocytes with that of T- lymphocytes? 30. What are the lymphocytes recirculation and explain the general function? 22.7 Effector Response at Infection Site 31. What is the effector response of helper T-lymphocytes? 32. How does an unhealthy cell get destroyed by a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte? 33. Why the processes of T-lymphocytes are collectively called the cell-mediated branch of adaptive immunity? 34. What is the function of plasma cells in the effector response of B- lymphocytes? 35. What is antibody titer? 22.8 Immunoglobulins 36. What are the general structure of an immunoglobulin molecules, including its two functional regions? 37. What are the functions of the antigen-binding site and Fc region of antibodies, and briefly describe how each occurs? 38. What are the structures, locations, and specific function of the five classes of immunoglobulins? 22.9 Immunologic Memory and Immunity 39. What immunologic memory and explain how it occurs? 40. What are the differences between the primary response and the secondary response to antigen exposure? 41. What is active immunity and passive immunity? 42. How does both active and passive immunity can be acquired naturally and artificially? Chapter 23 Respiratory System 23.1 Introduction to the Respiratory System 1. What are the functions of the respiratory system? 2. What is the difference between the structural organization and the functional organization of the respiratory system? 3. What is the structure of the mucosa that lines the respiratory tract and the structural changes observed along its length? 4. What is the function of mucus produced by the mucosa? 23.2 Upper Respiratory Tract 5. What is the structure and function of the nose? 6. What is the general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity? 7. What is the structure and the function of the four paired paranasal sinuses? 8. What are the similarities the three regions of the pharynx and describe their associated structures? 23.3 Lower Respiratory Tract 9. What are the general functions and structure of the larynx? 10. How does the larynx functions in the sound production? 11. What is the structure of the trachea? 12. What is the structure and function of the tracheal cartilages? 13. What is the structural subdivisions of the bronchial trees? 14. What is the processes of bronchodilation and bronchoconstriction? 15. What is the structure and function of the components of the respiratory zone? 16. What are the three types of cells found in alveoli, and describe the function of each? 17. What is the structure of the respiratory membrane? 23.4 Lungs 18. What is the location and general structure of the lungs? 19. What are the similarities and differences between each lung (left and right)? 20. What are the two types of blood circulation through the lungs? 21. What is the innervation of the lung structures by the autonomic nervous system? 22. What is the pleural membranes and pleural cavity? 23. What is the function of serous fluid in the pleural cavity? 24. What is the anatomic properties that keep lungs inflated? 23.5 Respiration: Pulmonary Ventilation 25. What is the summary of the process of pulmonary ventilation? 26. How are the pressure gradients are established and result in pulmonary ventilation? 27. What is the relationship between pressure and volume as described by Boyle’s Law? 28. What is the differences between the quiet and forced breathing? 29. What is the anatomic structures involved in regulating breathing? 30. What is the physiologic events associated with controlling quiet breathing? 31. What is the different reflexes that alter breathing rate and depth? 32. What is the difference between the nervous system control of the structures of the respiratory system and nervous system control of structures involved in breathing? 33. What is airflow? 34. How is pressure gradients and resistance determine airflow? 35. What is the difference between pulmonary ventilation and alveolar ventilation, and discuss the significance of each? 36. What is the relationship between the anatomic dead space and physiologic dead space? 23.6 Respiration: Alveolar and Systemic Gas Exchange 37. What is the partial pressure and the movement of gases relative to a partial pressure gradient? 38. What is the partial pressure that are relevant to gas exchange? 39. What are the laws that govern gas solubility? 40. What is the alveolar gas exchange and the partial pressure gradients responsible? 41. What are the two anatomic features of the respiratory membrane that contribute to efficient alveolar gas exchange? 42. What is ventilation-perfusion coupling and how it maximizes alveolar gas change? 43. What is the partial pressure gradients between the systemic cells and the blood circulation? 44. What are the difference between alveolar and systemic gas exchange? 23.7 Respiration: Gas Transport 45. Why is hemoglobin essential to oxygen transport? 46. What are the three ways carbon dioxide is transported in the blood? 47. How is the conversion of CO t2 and from HCO wit3in erythrocytes? 48. What are the three substances carried by hemoglobin? 49. What is the significance of the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve for both alveolar and systemic gas exchange? 23.8 Breathing Rate and Hemostasis 50. How is hyperventilation and hypoventilation influence the chemical components of blood? 51. How is breathing rate and depth affect venous return of blood and lymph? Chapter 24 Urinary System 24.1 Introduction of the Urinary System 1. What is the structures that compose the urinary system, and provide a description of the general function of each? 2. What are the functions of the kidneys? 24.2 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney 3. What is the location of the kidneys in the body? 4. What are the four tissue layers that surround and support the kidneys? 5. What are the two distinct regions of the kidney and the components of each? 6. What is the relationship between minor calyces and renal pelvis? 24.3 Functional Anatomy of the Kidney 7. What is a renal corpuscle and its components? 8. What is the location and structure for the three components of a renal tubule? 9. What the two types of nephrons and the functional differences between them? 10. What is the relationship between collecting tubules and collecting ducts? 11. What are the two types of specialized epithelial cells found within distal convoluted tubules and collecting tubules and ducts? 12. What is the location and structure of the juxtaglomerular apparatus? 13. What are the two actions of granular cells? 14. What is the function of cells of the macula densa? 24.4 Blood Flow and Filtered Fluid Flow 15. What are the arteries that supply the kidney, in sequence from largest to smallest? 16. What are the two capillary beds through which blood must pass in the kidney 17. What are the veins through blood which blood leaves the kidney, in sequence from smallest and largest? 18. What is the difference between filtrate, tubular fluid and urine? 19. What is the fluid from its formation at the renal corpuscle until it exits the body through the urethra? 24.5 Production of Filtrate Within the Renal Corpuscle 20. What are the similarities and differences between the renal processes of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion? 21. What are the three layers that make up the glomerular filtration membrane? 22. What are examples of substances that are freely filtered that are not filtered and that are filtered in a limited way? 23. What are the phagocytic functions of mesangial cells? 24. What is the glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HP )gand explain why it is higher then the pressure in other capillaries? 25. What are the two pressure that oppose HP ? g 26. How do you calculate the net filtration pressure? 27. What is glomerular filtration rate and the factors that influence it? 28. What is meant by intrinsic and extrinsic controls and give examples of each? 29. What are the myogenic response and the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism, which are involved in renal autoregulation? 30. What are the effects of sympathetic division stimulation on the glomerular filtration rate? 31. What are the effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on the glomerular filtration rate? 24.6 Reabsorption and Secretion in Tubules and Collecting Ducts 32. What are the five characteristics and conditions that affect tubular reabsorption and secretion? 33. What is the transport maximum of a substance? 34. What is meant by renal threshold? 35. What is the reabsorption of nutrients such as glucose? 36. What is the process by which protein is transported out of the filtrate and into the blood? 37. What are the substances for which reabsorption is regulated? 38. How does the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate occurs? 39. How does the reabsorption of water and compare how it is regulated by the actions of aldosterone and antidiuretic hormones? 40. How pH is regulated in the collecting tubules? 41. What are the three nitrogenous waste products, and describe the fate of each? 42. What are examples of other materials eliminated by kidneys? 24.8 Urine Characteristics, Transport, Storage, and Elimination 43. What is the composition of urine and its characteristics? 44. What is meant by specific gravity? 45. What is the structure and function of the ureters? 46. What is the structure of the urinary bladder? 47. What are the characteristics of the female male urethra? 48. What is micturition? 49. What is the storage reflex and the micturition reflex? 50. What is the conscious control over micturition?
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