Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ZOO370
Popular in Cell Biology
Popular in Science
verified elite notetaker
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by kylie1993 on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ZOO370 at North Dakota State University taught by Dr. Lisa Montplaisir in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology in Science at North Dakota State University.
Reviews for Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/24/15
200 370 Cell Biology Notes Tuesday August 25 2015 Study of the anatomy and physiology of cellsstructures in the body 0 What is A tool in which people ask questions and seek answers to questions 1 Answer some medical questions and observations can provide evidence 2 Provide support for theories 3 Disprove answers to potential questions 0 What can science not do 1 Prove anything 2 Create something from nothing 0 Makes a claim uses evidence and data to support the claim then provides support through previous studies to build connections o In a research article where do you find arguments about their studies Arguments in a research article can be found in the discussion sections Thursday August 27 2015 0 Scientists represent ideas through models How might these models be represented Graphs Diagrams Maps annotated pictures 0 What are the advantages of the model 1 Shows functions 2 Shows structure relationshipssequencing 3 Shows behaviors o What do models do 1 Simplify information 2 Organize information 3 Visualize relationships 0 How do you describe a model 1 Structures components 2 Behaviors sequence of transition states 3 Functions precondition to post condition Carbon based carbohydrates proteins lipids nucleic acids ex baby formula Most efficient energy source in body Remember Energy is not created it is only transferred and changes forms it flows through systems Human body is about 62 water 15 fat 17 protein 33 nitrogen Where does this all come from Other living organisms food sources maternal time frame from mother Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration happens in the same cells Plant Cell Mitochondria Cell Wall Cell Plasma Membrane Chloroplast Al bound membranes mean concentration gradients are there If not all oxygen is given off or used mitochondria and other cells use it The Chloroplast stores energy as starchesglucose Tuesday September 1 2015 o What are some things that make cells important 1 Function 2 Surface Area Structural mechanisms to increase absorption ability capacity for reactions and interactions to happen 3 Volume finite size cells can get to needs to have strengthflexibility as becomes too large it becomes too fragile 4 Ability to cross membranesboundaries active transport passive transport etc Bacteria Populations reproduce very quickly matter of minutes through binary fission type of mitosis meaning tey replicated and split result9ing in two new cells Lymph nodes are structurally meant to help destroy bacteriumrelative in size to them 0 What can we determine about function mobility or interactions by looking at this visual representation looking at a cell membrane with polar heads and non polar tails nside and the outside of the cell react with water saturated every bond is attached to a hydrogen unsaturated some hydrogens do not bonddouble bonds Van Der Waals Forces generic term for weak interaction for molecules being held together EX Gecko increases surface areadefying gravity climbing surfaces The foot pads interact with particles and extendunroll and rolling back up This uses adhesive properties with chemicals 0 What does valence refer to Outer shell electrons that bond with elements Atoms and cells have nucleicarbon oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen different forms of the same element polarity changes and bonds can be changed location of bonds influences where things are at These structural differences cause the paired molecules to possess vastly different biological functions You can tell that there are polarity differences in the channels can tell that may need to be receptors that are gated so that only some types of molecules are allowed to pass through Sugars attached to proteins that signal certain moleculeselements These can be cellularly organismal or individually unique BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT MACROMOLECU LES 1 Proteins monomeramino acids 2 Nucleic Acids monomernucleotides ATCGU 3 Polysaccharides monomermonosaccharides FGURE 217 IN BOOK Breakdown happens in monomers H39 390 Make 3 water molecules through bonds Between each amino acid boxes there was a hydrogen and an oxygen bonded to a hydrogen These formed water hydroxyl groups and hydrogen bonds between the amino acids One end will have a hydrogen on one end and one end will have a hydroxyl group no matter how many boxes are there It starts folding and order of amino acids determines the precise process structure of the foldingtwisting What these boxes are bonded to determines the foldingtwisting shape Hydroxy Side C Amino Acid Side Determines the foldingtwistingstructura shape of the helix Proteins cannot all be renatured or denatured Straight hairno disulfide bonds in hair Curly hairmany disulfide bonds that can be straightened Yet water breaks remakes these bonds even after heat is applied to break them Thursday September 32015 Rough Endoplasmic RibosomeS Reticulum DNAampRNA bases NucleusDNA bases translation Glycerol Lipids transcription Mitochondria CytosolCytoplasm RibosomesRNA Start in DNA move to ribosomes or near ribosomes and cytosol These translate RNA Located in the nucleus ATCGDNA and mitochondria ATGCURNA RNA in presence of ribosomes DNA in presence of nucleus and mitochondria Glycerol found within membranes of the cell wall They are located where tails and heads connectbond One hemoglobin binds to CO it cannot come unbound When heme is damaged it is gotten rid of in the wastes of the body if there is only a small amount of CO poisoning o How is a 4 subunit hemoglobin molecule functionally important FIGURE 34 IN BOOK OZ OZ vi O O Functioning Red Blood cell will no longer have a functioning nucleus because of the CO and will become a dead tool Once damaged it becomes targeteddestroyed by the body Several cells held together by proteins A hair strand is a helix of keratin which makes for strong structures horns vs antlers Tuesday September 8 2015 Draw two amino acids sidebvside rgroup l Carboxyl Group I H Amine Group v quot 3921 M n DNA AAIWIAAM 11 a v U 3 ii r The amine end joins to the carboxyl group to make dehydration reaction What structural form is DNA in the nucleus Chromatidschromosome Structural DNARNA differences Uracil is in RNA RNA is single stranded while DNA is double stranded Steps for DNA to become RNA 1 Denaturationbreak hydrogen bonds with a proteinenzyme helicase 2 enzyme involved in copyingcomplimentary to one strand DNA double helix 9RNA single strand A T C G G C FORMS COMPLIMENT U A G C C G Amino acids are then put into the chain from RNA AUGCUACUCMETLEULEU How big is each genetic word 3 letters long How is there redundancy in the dictionary How do the changes in spelling of the world impact the action of the process Can get same product from different wordscodons Each different letter changes the type of molecule amino acid The first and second ones are the most important and the third is the least important There are 2 start codons 3 stop codons and 64 words in the dictionary FIGURE 316 Telomerase enzyme that aids in making telomeres at ends of chromosomes they shorten as we grow older start to shorten to coding sequences Figure 312 Similarities in single stranded molecules Move from sugar to phosphate sugar to phosphate The nucleotide nitrogen base attaches to the sugar with phosphodiester bonds between Importance of how specific nucleotides bind together the way they do Nature allows complete uniformity of nucleotides Guanine2 ring structure that bonds with adenine1 ring structure Directionality matters and creates uniformity 5 end 3 end 5 end 5 end If they are the same direction they do not make the correct shape Nucleotides in the middle are hydrogen bonded together FIGURE 319 Each glucose is a high energy storage molecule When linked together they form starches E potatoes and corn Carbohydrates are easier to break down faster Animals store glucose molecules in the form of glycogen muscle cells liver cells and quick for energy use Starches are produced in photosynthesis and at night move to regions in a plant that can be stored can form structures cell walls etc Ruminants each cow stomach produces different enzymes to digest celluloseglucose plant molecules FIGURE 327 Common types of fats If you don t take in fats the body will automatically make them Visceral fats protect around organs and minimize friction FIGURE 330HormonesSteroids are types of fats Thursday September 102015 Peptide chainsbonds are formed Dehydration reaction and Translation NOTE New amino acids are always added to the carboxyl side CTerminus end Yet the order that they are added in depends on the DNA Collagen long stringy fibrous found in skin and surrounding muscles 0 If you change the structure then you are changing it s function Sickle Cell Anemia Example Changing a single amino acid changes entire structure of tertiary structure this makes them want to come together and makes them crystallized and long more likely to clump together We don t want them long and stringy we want them round and pliable M mar 39039s 9 Cell Things leave between cells or diffusing across the cells cells easily get caught between these capillary beds How does an amino acid change A mutation at some point Central Dogma DNAinfo storage gt mRNA info carrier gt proteins active cell machinery Transcription Translation DNA ATGCGTTTTACAGATCCATCA Transcription to MRNA always Uracil instead of Thymine UACGCAAAAUGUCUAGGUAGU Translation to protein code for with 3 letter codons TYRALALYSCYSLEUGLYSER PRACTICE IN REVERSE ASNLYSPROTHRLEUTYRMET Translation to mRNA AAuAAgCCgACcCUgUAuAUG Transcription to DNA TTA l39l39CGGCTG GGACATATAC Many factors impact permeability 1 Number of double bonds between the carbons in the phospholipids hydrophobic base 2 length of tail 3 number of cholesterol molecules in the membrane 4 temperature ProteinsWhat are they Multiple polypeptide chainsamino acids in a unique shapeunique sequence doing a unique function How are they involved in reactions Nothing happens without proteins Enzyme catalyzingenzyme speeds up reaction and lowers activation energy The presence shortens transition state nothing used from enzyme provides a space in which reactions happen September 15 2015 2 Enzymes there are unique features for each enzyme that responds to different ratestemperaturesPH levels Can have such different PH levels in different organisms look at stomach PH levels places that are warmermore active have different enzymes than say small intestine lower PH colder 1m lbl p tenantads LAG3 r AugeJ age 11 quotandquoter J hcfoc af flu Site 5 Mrkrvk cm norm Mama What types of communication may have to happen in cells positive and negative feedback Cells communicating Within Itself 1 Central dogmacell talking to itself and translatingtranscribing into protein 2 Organelle packagingin golgi apparatus 3 Cell respirationphotosynthesisgt produces glucose 4 Endoexocytosis Within a distant cell 1 Needs reaction mechanismreceptorchannelrecognition componentconcentration gradient Within a neighboring cell 1 Has to have bilayer on product and be able to pass through cell membranes 2 Golgi packages and sends out of cell to enter another 3 Sodiumpotassium channel Thursday September 172015 FIGURE 71A and 71B don t need transport proteins through some cells attached to eachother plasmodesmata They are joined together so that information and things move freely Cells and cellular components are able to accumulate a variety of substances in concentrations that are very different from those of surroundings How are three protein channels similar or different Different amino acid sequences and different recognition sites on each of these I VV I Uniport one direction Symport coupled Antiport moving opposite Directions 02 C02 C02H20gtH HC03 02 cl cl C02 C02H20gtH HC03 Cell embrane to regulate a gradient tells us that regulate concentration gradient concentrations are different Can tell there is a reversible reaction of some type here Passive transportno protein visible no ATP shown no information here to tell us this Where would find high concentration of C02 and high 02 inside Capillary beds then opposite environment suit In the body tissues they are already loaded with 02 in the cell It will leave the body tissues to red blood cells and move to lungs n metabolic tissues in body avioli region of lungs the C02 on inside and 02 on outside 02 is low where there has been active cells In the antiport not changing chemical gradient but changes concentration gradient so that 02 and C02 can come into the cell Can add activatorsinhibitors to make sent in more C02 and 02 cue that regulation site could be gated because there are charges on the transport Glucose Transporter 2K 3NA Hypertonic if water is leavingsolute concentration outside is higher than the solute concentration inside of a cell
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'