Reading notes II
Reading notes II SMPA 1050
Popular in Media in Free Society
Popular in Cinema And Media Studies
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rosa Mas Volpe on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SMPA 1050 at George Washington University taught by Aday, S in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Media in Free Society in Cinema And Media Studies at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
SMPA exam 11 Reading notes Sides and Vavreck 2013 The Gamble Choice and Chance in the 2012 Presidential Election Chapters 58 pp 97242 Mathematically impossible favorite both likely to win bc incumbent and not likely to win bc declined economy but in fact more likely to win high partisanship not many voters up for grabs candidates trying to win the undecided vote jobs as foremost issue economy neither could win both had opposing arguments Obama not fully blamed and Romney not seen as a signi cant diff importance of gaffes candidate s blunders bc 24hr news cycle and opposing side s eagerness to publicize gaffes make it nearly impossible for voters to avoid hearing about them 0 did not move majority of decided voters did not put either at signi cant disadvantage Romney s personal wealth out of touch More ads than the other shift votes in their favor ended up neutralizing each other s efforts Little systematic bias in favor of one party or candidate Conventions spike in coverage for candidate being nominated and coverage tends to re ect positively convention bounce News coverage of both neg after Benghazi attacks 47 vid not gaffe bc meant what he said and captured him unawares which seems to offer more insight into his real opinions than the scripted language and dovetailed with earlier Obama ads about him and topic controversial debate public polls last minute ad push in battleground states did not give signif advantage political and econ fundamentals made more clear to voters gifts to key partisan constituencies Romney s severe conservatism likability and empathy race and religion Obama s formidable campaign ads eld organizations voters adjust their opinions about issues to match those of the candidate they have decided to support for other reasons voters move in the opp direction as the party controlling the white house focus on econ that showed Romney believed the econ favored them when it favored Obama when one side out campaigns the other that the polls may shift in its direction journalists using poli science accuracy evaluate to sep truth and spin 1the candidate whom the fundamentals advantage tends to win 2 only when these things strongly favor one candidate can voters be changed 3 must have a sustained advantageout campaign to have a lasting impact most shortlived Paul Waldman Presidential Politics The Value of a Small Town Bio Los Angeles Times October 16 201 4 candidates from small towns put that at center of biographies speak of values they picked up I m one of you embody the values you like to see in yourself understandhaven t forgotten the reg person small town roots grounded and empathetic even though most live in suburbs not small towns also assumption that upbringing in a small town spec values ArceneauX Kevin Partisan Media are not Destroying the World Americans bought policy positions in line with their partisan identi cation Partisan news sources are not responsible for polarizing the country Ppl choose to watch partisan sources cannot polarize bc cannot reach mult who don t watch the ppl who watch are already possess strong political opinions partisan shows can polarize entertainmentseekers forced to watch the partisan news program than it does among newsseekers who often watch these shows since ppl grav towards likeminded news programming and entertainment seekers tend to tune out news partisan will have min effect Nyhan Ignored Factchecks and the Media s Crisis of Con dence 39 Can the media stop politicians from misleading the public Disregard by the Romney campaign to pushback from journalists Fact checking is effective if it reduces the prevalence of misleading claims vs eliminate deceptions completely Journalists should be more effective remind readers that the claims are false cover a pattern of false claims as an ongoing story 39 Highest duty to truth Nyhan and Sides How Political Science Can Help Journalism and still let journalists be journalists 39 Reporters should have basic understanding of the eld but should not eXpect them to restate conclu on academic research on a daily basis and it is not always clear how the research apply Approach that incorp poli sci while respecting norms of news Political science provides novel perspective that could improve reporting in five respects 0 putting episodic developments in a structural context providing new angles on the news countering spin about the effects of events by elites better describing historical trends and comparisons identifying known unknowns in politics 0000 Brendan Nyhan New Surveys Show The Persistence of Misinformation 39 corrective information frequently fails to reduce beliefs in false or unsupported claims 39 could be rooted in threatening nature of unwelcome facts no denying the resilience of misperceptions against even the strongest and most concrete documentary evidence Gaffes Waldman Paul 2011 How Candidates Gaffes Con rm Reporters Biases Washington Post August 12 2011 39 what makes a incident gaffe major is the interpretation that journalists give i reveals journalistic biases 0 allows reporters to eXplain how what they ve though all along about a candidate is true 0 misstatements that reinforced what many peopleincluding reportersalready thought about the candidate reinforces stereotypes unequal treatment of candidates if branded as dishonest then reporters will pore over statements to find lies and assume it s a deception and not a mistake 39 do not concern policy issues gaffe as revealing inner character Michael Tesler D0 Presidential Gaffes Matter for People Paying Attention 39 Americans often unaware of gamechanging moments that the media deem important obstacles to gaffes inattention gaffereceivers are eXpected to be less persuadable gaffereceivers were no more likely to change their opinions about Obama over the course of the campaign than respondents who did not know about the gaffe o hardly any different in either vote change or Obama approval change btwn those who could and could not identify the gaffe o gaffe do not matter for people paying attention also decay rapidly as diff considerations are made salient by new info Fear And Loathing on the Bus Timothy Crouse Boys on the Bus Chapter 1 pack journalism a group of reporters were assigned to follow a single candidate for weeks months at a time all on same bus plane ate compared notes etc with the same bunch of colleagues 0 all report off same pool of info 0 begin to believe the same rumors subscribe to same theories write same stories 0 denounced editors don t want scoops their interest is to make sure they re getting what everybody else is inhibited by fact editors carefully reading articles campaign journalism is by def pack journalism to follow candidate you must join pack of other reporters even the most independent journalist cannot completely escape the pressures of the pack wire stories are bland dry overly cautious inverse proportion btwn the number of persons a reporter reaches and the amont he can say the larger the audience the more inoffensive and inconclusive the article must be call backs calls from editor asking why a deviation from the AP or UPI and good reason this was dreaded by reports and they the pack followed the wireservice men 0 do not go out of way for fresh insights did not question and left America with no real reporting on the candidate press operation good in uence reporter help create momentum for campaign Hunter S Thompson Fear and Loathing 0n the Campaign Trail 5874 269285 320324 415418 press did not seriously cover unknown black female candidate as challenger to liberal heavies but when the nal vote came in Shirley Chisholm beat McCarthy media candidates star quality understand how to use TV most important sincerity bedrock truths of the campaign never aired on TV fear and loathing for things which aren t true options clearly de ned by publically grilling candidates by eXperts on every issue disillusionment belief that McGovern was best candidate Political Ads Lau RR Sigelman L amp Rovner LB 2007 The Effects of Negative Political Campaigns A Meta Analytic Reassessment Journal of Politics 694 pp 11761209 Research literature does not bear out the idea that negative campaigning is an effective means of winning votes even though it tends to be more memorable and stimulate knowledge about the campaign Not any reliable evidence that negative campaigning depresses voter turnout though it does slightly lower feelings of political ef cacy trust in govt and possibly overall public mood Ted Brader Five Myths About Campaign Ads 5 myths 1 negative ads are more effective than positive ones a no conclusive difference in ability to win votes but do have diff consequences 2 campaign ads are uninformative a name recognition lls gap of policy coverage 3 lessinformed voters are easily swayed by ads a ads arouses strongest reactions in those who know the most about politics 4 a candidate should respond to an attack ad with a counterattack on the same issue a pull candidates off message better to spend time on candidates strength 5 news organizations neutralize misleading ads by factchecking them a no evidence that they reliably undercut misleading claims 0 manipulative tactics ads repeated and many don t readwatch news people remember the claim better than the debunk partisans tend to persist in believing inaccurate information Michael Tesler Testing the Racializing In uence of Romney s Welfare Ad Romney s welfare ad that accused Obama of ending welfare for work requirements association btwn welfare and undeserving AfricanAmericans Racial priming such code words as welfare and innercity esp when combined with racial imagery ex Hardworking whites can make racial attitudes a more central determinant of poli evals Ad did not affect people s overall answers however it did make attitudes toward blacks a stronger predictor of respondents views about the consequences of Romney s policies for the poor middle class and AfricanAmericans 0 Among those who saw the ad racial resentment affected whether people thought Romney will help the poor middle class and AfricanAmericans only primed racial resentment no other attitudes party selfident Ads like this contribute to the growing polarization of public opinion by racial attitudes Paul Farhi Presidential Campaign Ads are Ubiquitous But Do They Work Impact of TV ads has been historically relatively small in swaying large swaths of voters in general election 0 Limited persuasive effects on voters in gen elec and often only 12 percent diff and often less Matters at the margins might help close an election More money spent on TV ads than any other element of pres campaigns Plays bigger role in some races and in primary and local elections when candidates aren t well known and wellfunded can overwhelm poorer rivals Aimed a minority of minority who haven t made up mind sliver of voters in very narrow segment of country Part of communication strategy a piece that is needed for effective campaign October 2128 Local News Race and Coverage of Social Protest Gilliam Franklin and Iyengar Shanto Prime Suspects The In uence of Local Television News on the Viewing Public AJPS July 2000 pp 560573 Local TV news is the public s primary source of public affairs info News stories about crime dominate local news bc they need the demand for action news The prevalence of this type of reporting has led to a crime narrative or script that includes two core elements crime is violent and perpetrators of crime are nonwhite males This script has become an ingrained heuristic for understanding crime and race Gitlin Vivian Exposure to the racial element of the crime script increases support for disciplinary approaches to crime and heightens negative attitudes about AfricanAmericans among white but not black viewers Commercial realities of our time dictate that local news will continue to cultivate misperceptions and prejudice crime attracts viewers Journalists should consider other ways of reporting on crime that includes other factsmore inclusive about suspect besides race more balanced reporting to include more stories not about crime Local news programming racializes political discourse by making policy opinions increasingly intertwined with questions of race made race an even more central component of American life T 1980 The Whole World is Watching Introduction and Chapter 11 120 283292 Media abil to spread newstell stories have produced a new situation for movements seeking to change the order of society Media brings manufactured public world into private space people rely on media for opinions concepts etc o The mass media have become core systems for the distribution of ideology Hard for opposition movement to de ne itself and build infrastructure 0 Need to become newsworthy and to do so much conform to journalistic notions an image is processed and becomes the movement 0 Forced to take the media into account when making decisions about actions leadership etc People have no voice in how the media frames their activity or make of what they say 0 The routines of j ournalism select certain versions of reality over others Liberal media both quietly invoke the need for reform while disparaging movements that radically oppose the system that needs reforming Media frames persistent patterns of cognition by which symbolhandlers routinely organize discourse whether verbal or visual Framing e g civil disturbance vs movements for peace and justice Mass media as a signif force in forming public assumptions attitudes etc national ideology Hegemony the upper level of ideology the whole body of practices expectations that reality for most people in society uniting persuasion from above with consent from below Before messages can have effects on audience they must come from messageproducers Increase a movement s dependency on the mass media narrowness of social base and commitment to specific societywide political goals Destructive consequences of media dependency movement s turn toward revolutionary desire and rhetoric in a nonrevolutionary situation its unacknowledged political uncertainties esp about the legit of own leaders Reformist movements are less vulnerable to structural deformation in the publicity process than are revolutionary ones Weisman NYT Photos Don t Do Justice to Police Presence at Anaheim Protests Photo NYT chose taken at particular angle and at a particular point in time to not show the mass force of the police force during the protest downplay police force Instead of the reality which was major police force in riot gear etc Distort reality and mislead Why did the NYT downplay the police presence Prohibition Self censor Similar to not showing bodiescoffms in war the rest of news organizations fell into formation behind and do the same Aday in pres October 30November 13 MediaWar and Foreign Policy US Media Foreign Policy and War in Oxford Encyclopedia of Political Communication s role of the news media in shaping and reporting on the foreign policy of the United States and how that coverage or lack of it in uences domestic public opinion and policymakers priorities and decisions increased coverage new and social media in shaping foreign affairs international con icts and public opinion the relationship between media exposure and support or nonsupport for military intervention role media play in generating or depressing public support for war public does not know about foreign affairs more dependent on media coverage importance of militarymedia relations in understanding war coverage in shaping framing of the war consistently found that mainstream media tend to reinforce dominant sociocultural norms and values confer status upon that which is covered and thus relegate to nonevents that which is not and make decisions about coverage that are heavily routinized and sourcedriven Five major conclusions about media and foreign affairs are well grounded in past work 0 l the pressstate power dynamic clearly favors political elites especially the President 0 2 coverage of foreign policy outside of war tends to be scarce elitedriven ethnocentric and uncritical o 3 war coverage is all of those things only more so plus casualtyfree and tactically episodically driven rather than focusing on geostrategic or more thematic issues and implications 0 4 media coverage especially in crises can contribute to rallies in public opinion 0 5 these trends have become exacerbated since the early 1980s as news organizations have cut their foreign news budgets and overseas bureaus drastically ve areas of research political communication scholars are still in an embryonic stage 0 role of emotion in processing foreign policy events and media coverage 0 what if any effects exposure to casualty images produces 0 little about the effects and role of new and social media on collective action system support democracy building and message reception 0 foreign policy not involving wars or crises 0 how the transition to online news both for new and traditional media organizations in uences the mediastatepublic dynamic Baum Sex Lies and War American Political Science Review pp 91109 due to selective political coverage by entertainmentoriented soft news media many otherwise politically inattentive individuals are exposed to information about high pro le political issues foreign policy crises as an incidental byproduct of seeking entertainment relationship btwn individual media consumption and attentiveness to foreign policy crises issues info about foreign crises presented in a soft news context has attracted the attention of the politically uninvolved American effect reduced disparity in attentiveness to select highprofile political issues across diff segments of the public soft news convey substantive info proliferation of soft news may have implications on politics 0 mainly bc foreign crises drama Tom A Sharke Aday S 2005 The real war will never get on television An analysis of casualty soft news programs have covered every major US foreign military crisis since 1990 soft news media selfconsciously frame issues in highly accessible terms emphasizing dramatic and sensational humaninterest stories entertainment seeking audience public opinion can in uence foreign policy attention to politics through mass media voting increased soft news consumption reduced support for overseas commitment and increase to View issues presented as most urgent problems democratized foreign policy 0 now must account for framing in soft news not just trad news sources also allow them to communicate with other proportions that usually stay out gt broader support coalitions O o more participation in political process quality of the info narrow lens of the entertainmentoriented soft news media Peter Why Fewer Ground Reports Are Emerging from Syria journalists fear kidnap o econ ruin desperate for cash and jihadist groups proliferated willing to pay no safe houses in Syria nature of kidnappings more serioustime longer impossibledif cult for journalists to deliver on the ground reporting on one of the most brutal wars y War Censorship and the First Amendment pp 2024 military replaced outright control of war reporting with news management techniques govt control date back to Rev war 0 civil war WWIII Vietnam NYT Co vs US 1St amendment values overrode national security arguments New model at end of 20th cent combined precensorship preventing reports from reaching the eld with other news management techniques that allowed the govt to control content and spin 0 Televised brie ngs gt circumnavigated the presspresent their version of events directly to the people Govt still use some of its techniques to in uence military coverage Precensorship is another form of prior restraint colonies reemergence Perception that loss of Vietnam was caused by negative news coverage low moral support Pentagon newsmanagement model 0 Limited battle ground access Sanitizing visual images of war Concealing information that would embarrass the US govt Misleading the news media about military mistakes Misleading the news media about military successes 0 Using pentagon brie ng to undermine the role of the press Pre censorships as endangerment to democracy 0 1St amendment 0 Press should make the ultimate choice not govt of cals OOOO imagery in American television coverage of the Iraq war In Phil Seib Ed Media and Con ict in the 21 Century 141156 United Kingdom Palgrave 39 Changes in photo important tech advances allowed reporters to get close to ghting and show the gory reality change in military policy gt embedding increased battle eld access Persian Gulf War covered in a sanitized fashion pentagon press censorshiprestrict access 0 Saturated by info from the pentagon brie ngs Parroted the white housepentagon Privilege of elite opinions overwhelms the potential of new tech 0 Imagery made war look like video game 0 National endeavor an American trad necc win at all costs 0 Near total lack of causality visuals Re ect et Sentiment hesitant to show causalities Would not air challenging stories and images as long as war remained short and relatively free of US causalities o In other countries it showed the gory results smart bombs American coverage re ected biases of its culture and of cial POV Iraq war censorship not as severe o certain images your can t air on TV often edited out don t allow human suffering bc American public is revolted by it and don t want to make public uncomf unpatriotic embedding access to front lines correspondents based in Baghdad where much of the civilian causalities were in icted advances in tech show viewers what they saw live Iraq did not have the same excuses as Gulf Findings Networks still presented largely bloodless view of Iraq when causalities shown they were likely to be civilians dead seen at a distance cof n did not lead to more realistic portrait of war no diff for embedded journalists 0 despite looser restrictions and embedding there was no difference from 12 yrs earlier 0 de ning images from Persian Gulf and Iraq war the smart bombing and artillery ring the dominant image of war actually become more distanced in Iraq as reporters got closer to the front 0 dehumanizes the enemy and citizenry helps perpetrate consent for war and any policies an admin might try and link to and risks numbing the moral revolution that leads societies to see war as a last resort 0 American s edit down esp anything to do with US service personnel shielding from knowledge that they themselves have experienced o Might loose audience might damage public support for war 0000 0 Max Fisher How Should the Media Cover Africa 39 Covering the continent s handful of problems vs its larger success story Kristof columnist overemphasize Africa s problems reinforcing Western stereotypes and pro les white dogooders white savior industrial complex he writes about his activism and that of others Still has increased Western awareness 39 West covering Africa in the old way central tenet Africans are suffering and privileges Westerners should help vs also presenting economic growth democratization peace 0 Stereotypestropes that dehumanize Africans 0 Coverage is broken and failing humanitarian merit of covering con ict against the journalistic responsibility as someone who is broadly associated with his Africa coverage to accurately portray the continent and its people A Discussion of Groseclose s Left Turn How Liberal Media Bias Distorts The American Mind Analysisrefuting of Groseclose s theories about media bias According to Groseclose in left turn if there was no media bias then the avg american would lean to the right but because there is media bias the half lean to the left and half lean to the right Media bias de ned by groseclose Groseclose accusing mainstream media of liberal bias when it claims neutrality Groseclose looks at media from a non quantitative sense in which media distorts audience opinion but that is more subjective and is not as concrete as data by numbers Only media is bias according to Groseclose Groseclose narrows bias only to the media and does not include other outside environmental factors 0 many institutions affect political attitudes Media bias is a part of the political process stepping away from Groseclose views 0 News favors the underdog quote that newspapers should comfort the af icted and af ict the comforted o policy and politics multidimensional and more complicated then just choosing on side Counterfactorials 0 de ne relating to or expressing what has not happened or is not the case Groseclose looks at counterfactual using convex combination model for avg opinions based on media but does not check media effects When reading Groseclose must consider wehter his hypothetical questions of a world without media bias can be a reality Niven Bias in the Media Uses a fair baseline to analyze partisan bias in media by comparing the press coverage of clinton and Bush Finds that there is no meaningful media bias however he does nd that the media covers bad news much more than good General public believes the media is bias because of third person effect Third person effect Media coverage is seen as having little in uence over one s self but great in uence over the public Is there media bias 0 liberal bias theory Statistically a 1996 poll shows that 2x as many journalist support the democratic party but history of reporting shows that a journalist political belief show have little connection to their reporting because they want to remain credible Conservative bias theory some scholars say there is conservative bis for example reagan had more front page headlines in the 1980s than his opponent No bias theory believe partisan bias not consistent factor on news coverage once again because reports want to preserve their credibility Evidence of negativity Negative stories are the most prevalent in the news 0 More negative coverage about Clinton and bush than positive Reporters are more negative for two reasons 1 negative coverage wont upset the general public which is already distrustful of politics 2 No watchdog for negative bias while there is of watchdogs fro partisan bias Fair base line for coverage to access partisan media bias 0 compare coverage on cases of comparable performance to access media bias gt ie compare coverage on unemployment in clinton and bush administrations coverage of issues leads to association with politician more coverage of an issue gt perceived more important more coverage of an issue gt more the president is blamed or glori ed Comparison of employment bias shows that there is little difference between the bush and clinton administration Niven shows that real bias in media is negative bias D Alessio and Allen Media Bias in Presidential elections Metaanalysis Metaanalysis of 58 studies of presidential elections starting from 1948 Natural bias 0 US media naturally bias to pro capitalism but that is not questioned bc majority of Americans are pro capitalist liberal bias is most questioned by the number reports tend to be more liberal then the avg american Conservative bias in the realm of a business media editors are liberals but they are controlled by business minded publishers who are conservative thus claiming that the news has a conservative viewpoint bias stems from natural bias to be aware of bias and attempt to avoid it is unnatural Types of Media bias 0 Gate keeping bias journalist gate keep aka elect speci c stories that they want to present to the world by nature more liberal minded people will present liberal stories in an objective way Based on metaanaylsis of presidential campaign there is vernally no gate keeping bias 0 Coverage bias quantitative amount of coverage of each side on certain issues Based on metaanaylsis of presidential campaigns coverage of candidates was on the whole homogenous Statement bias aka structual bias members of the media interj ect their own opinion into the coverage of an issue Based on metaanaylsis of presidential campaign newsmagazines were more pro Republican and tv more prodemocratic Lynch Freelon Adav 2014 B1025 and Bullets III Syria s Socially Mediated Civil War Analysis of the unprecedented use of social media on Syria points to important ndings on the role of new media in con ict zones In particular social media create a dangerous illusion of unmediated information ows Key curation hubs within networks may now play a gatekeeping role as powerful as that of television producers and newspaper editors The implications for policymakers driven by responsibility to protect concerns are serious The pattern in social media toward clustering into insular likeminded communities is unmistakable and has profound implications We need a more sophisticated understanding of structural bias in social media and the dif cult challenges in activist curation It is not enough to develop methods for authenticating particular videos or vetting speci c claims Better ways of connecting online trends to realworld developments are critical Research focused on individual transformation regime policies group dynamics collective action and external attention will likely be more productive than broader questions about citizen journalism or the Internet s effects on political con ict The study of mainstream media s use of social media content should be extended to include television and the distinct demands for broadcast footage The rapid growth in Arabic social media use poses serious problems for any research that draws only on Englishlanguage sources We need far better tools for sentiment analysis to speak with con dence about the real political meaning of identi ed clusters and trends Findings also need to begin to link descriptive analytics in causal ways to behavior atti tudes or political outcomes These ndings need to be placed within the political process and their speci c effects measured on a variety of potential outcomes The appropriate response to these challenges is not to abandon social media evidence were that even possible but rather to develop systematic procedures to guard against predictable fallacies Shirklev 2013 The Political Power of Social Media Technologg the Public Sphere and Political Change Social media has power support public protest and civil war revolutions US should maintain Internet freedom as a goal not as a tool for policy Internet changed Revolutions gt Transport info let people know about corruption 0 Ex impeachment trial of Philippine President Joseph Estrada trial was going to be appealed but mass text caused a huge protest against Estrada so it continued and he was found guilty Social media becoming a tool for politics Perils of internet freedom 0 freedom to info access make public media and converse with other overestimates power of computer but underestimates more local tools like cellphones dangerous in authoritarian countries that promote censorship environmental view of internet contrast to instrumental positive social change occurs after development in public sphere Opposed to other way around in instrumental view Theater of collapse 0 Fall of Communism in Easter Europe example early 1989 revolutions despite US attempt to sneak capitalist information behind the iron curtain communism did not fall until the economics of communism forced to fall communication tools did over come communism but was helpful when communist power was weak 0 2 steps process of 1 opinions transmitted in media and 2echoed by friends 0 Political change can only occur with a strong public sphere The conservative dilemma Dictators dilemma Phrase coined by media theorist Briggs increased shared awareness via the internet exposes dictatorships and monopolies Response to conservative dilemma Censorship and Propaganda Conservative dilemma exist bc political and apolitical speech are not mutually exclusive 0 Cute cat theory of digital activism Tools speci cally designed for people who differ in political opinion is easy for the state to shut down whereas tools that are more broad are much harder to censor without risking politicizing the larger group of otherwise apolitical people Based on this theory it is better to invest in general media rather than political media Social media skepticism two critiques by social media in politics 1Tools are ineffective slacktivism theory by Malcom Gladwell that casual participants seek social change through low cost activities such as joining Facebook groups that are nice sentiment but short on any useful action 2 produce as much harm as they do good strengthens and weekend authoritarian regimes ex Chinese gvmt controls political threats from social media Looking at the long run 0 not focus on anticensorship but rather increase public speech and assembly 0 switch from instrumental view to environmental view Fisher 2012 False Photo from a real Massacre Photo of massacre claiming to be on the arab spring but actually take in 2003 in Iraq after a massacre by Sudam Hussain social media creates citizen journalist social media can spread false propaganda for political cause Diamondm Liberation Technology March 2003 China police arrested and sent Sun to detention center when he didn39t have a living permit and id Sun died after 3 days subjected to brutal beating beaten to death provoked national debate about the Custody and Repatriation measures that allowed police to detain rural migrants for lacking living permit online petition gt June 2003 government announced 800 CampR detention centers would close turning point bc public opinion led to communist chinese state to change national regulation local of cials jailed editors defendrights weiquan movement after editors were relased lost their job CCP remains rmly in control Chinese state developed unparalleled system of digital censorship authoritarian states have lter and control over the internet democrats and autocrats now compete to master these technologies Liberation technology is any form of information and communication technology ICT that can expand political social and economic freedom the new ICTs are twoway and even multiway forms of communication ex Twitter allow users to send and read messages instantly reach out to many people can empower those who wish to become political and chanelelge authoritarian rule printing press in the 15th century enabled revolutions and rise of modern democracy but also prompted censorship then telegraph half a century ago news traveled fast caused bloodiest century in human history ICT powerful instruments for transparency and accountability documenting and deterring abuses of human rights and democratic procedures can liberate people from poverty and ill health provides ef cient and powerful tools for transparency and monitoring not all civil and good so they block some websites etc but to help countries like China rich liberal democracies need support development of cheap and safe dissemination ban export of advanced ltering technologies to repressive gov lower cost of satelliteusage rates liberal democracies should stand up for human rights of bloggers activist and journalists Mobile Text messaging helped to mobilize and coordinate the massive public protests Philippine assembled protest through being digitally mobilized Africa use cellphones inform citizens about issues Kenyan adapted crisismapping software gt people can submit crisis info through text The ON Omidyar Network supports national partners in Nigeria Ghana and Kenya that are us ing information technology to improve governance and free expression Malaysia lack freedom of press One of the most successful instances of the latter type is Malaysiakini an online newspaper that has become Malaysia s principal alternative source of news and commentary regime dominates print and broadcast media gt can shape what malaysians see and read Steven Gan and Premesh Chandran launched Malaysiakini overall pretty good China China s Great Firewall of Internet filter ing and control prevents the rise of an independent public sphere online very good at censoringmonitoring internet and mobile phones cut off anything that might challenge CCP google withdrew from china no fb youtube blogspot etc many internet police student spies when google withdrew twittersphere lit up China s blogo sphere is a much more freewheeling space than the mainstream media charter 08 a call for nineteen reforms to achieve liberties democracy and the rule of law 0 not only activists and journalists but also normal people start signing it too 0 but of course shut down
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