Study Guide/ Notes I
Study Guide/ Notes I SMPA 1050
Popular in Media in Free Society
Popular in Cinema And Media Studies
This 55 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rosa Mas Volpe on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SMPA 1050 at George Washington University taught by Aday, S in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Media in Free Society in Cinema And Media Studies at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Media in Free society Aug 28th 2014 Liberal bias Poll gt More coverage on the Dem Convention vs Rep convention in NBCABC NBC Liberal Bias 40 Claims journalism failed bc it violated its principle role to be objective Why do people think their is liberal bias People think most journalist are liberal Dem convention more noteworthy 28 Not new but sell more papers Claims it is more interesting soap opera Not sure 32 2000 Election Democrats more interesting Clinton Scandal Gore had been married to the same women Tipper Gore for a long time Big contrast Republicans Bush is interesting because he is new Values election gt Family marriage Hard to cover Conventions because there is no actual news Networks have a choice cover less or ll it with Fake news Clinton gives Great big red meat speech Gore Makes out with his wife to demonstrate how he love his wife Has nothing to do with if the fact that politician can do a good job But News coverage focused on Mellow drama Journalistic normative function Based on the notion that journalism conveys what is most important Provide information to help you vote Press s role Provide a bridge between people and Politics Coverage of Conventions did not fill that function Question wording Polls often taken when someone is distracted wording is biased implies their is an imbalance Poll courtesy of Fox News Does that change the way you think about the question YES biased question All news channels have a biased Partisan Biased Pro one party Allegations of biased are often assumed wo info Media in Free society Same New different views Pew 2004 survey 29 of Dem see news as pro GOP 36 of liberal Dem 42 of GOPers see news as prodem 47 of conservative GOPers Hostel Media Affect The more you care about something the more likely you are to see the press as biased against your side All prone to this check it at the door Helps understand how people seek out news Bias by Goldberg CBS insider talks about bias in the news Bias is why come Naturally Most people come from the left so their own personal views color the news they cover deadline pressure no time for refection gt more likely to what comes naturally from personal world view WhyWhere does this matter Liberal often associated with secularity Rise of the religious media coverage was late to the party Missed a major story important to Politics He Said She said Journalism Journalistic Objectivity Detachment Im going to quote someone from one side and other with out commenting on it o If a politician say 22 is 5 wouldn39t you want the journalist to correct Best way to deal with it is Candidate X says Y but its not true Whys does he said she said journalism eXist To protect journalist from being biased How do we as audiences understand these biases audience sees biased in themselves when they associate with certain partys look for biased in association with partys What you see in the news and whats not covered Public has a right to be informed What is the best way to inform the public Is their a way to be objective Media in Free society Journalism History and Norms 0 Their will always be tension in journalism that it coneys a certain responsibility to inform the public 0 1st amendment implies its the new s job to inform citizens 0 But thats not always what audiences wants 0 Deep Role and responsibility vs Comersionalism 0 Big news this weekend Hacker scandal revealing celebrity nudes 0 data security issue with iCloud 0 security issues what else can be compromised 0 issues about privacy and seXism 0 Story proves soft news is BIG 1 Rise of Celebrity news 0 Rise of celebrity journalism and celebrity journalism 0 Celbritif1cation of news increased in late 20th century 2 Substitution of talk for news 0 24 hr news channels gt Have to Fill 24hrs of news 0 How fill news economically Cheapest way is to TALK 0 incentive for talk and banter 0 But is that news gt Cheap 0 debate can be informational but also boring 0 inherent value on entertainment 0 yelling at each other is more interesting than educational debate 3 News is treated as entertainment and Vise versa 0 Rise in soft news after big companies buy out news 0 EX gt Disney buys ABC 0 Why 0 When networks cover entertainment more incentive to buy 0 Fundamental Reason for objectivity Crediblity 0 he said she said makes a journalist more credible How is we get this way Outline 0 Party Press Era Sponsered by parties and politicians 0 political parties use newspapers to attack other and preach to the choir 0 ie republicans watch fox 0 lots of slander scandles Audience Economic and political Elites Defmitian of news Top down Politicans to people Mercantile 0 Party subsidies Media in Free society 0 Role of reporters Stenographs 0 Analogy to lawyers Idea was to present the best facts 0 Top down model of news 0 Politicians gt Press gt Public 0 Media system re ects the political system 0 dominated by rich white males 0 Penny Press Era 1830s 0 Sought large circulation 0 Newspaper cost a penny gt cheaper more people can buy it 0 Advertising model 0 independent news model 0 Need advertising to help support them economically bc news cost in cheap 0 Cut down on subsidies 0 Role of reporters politically independent 0 independent media 0 not controlled by political parties 0 Preach independence in large city 0 Gives credibility 0 Not partisan 0 increases potential audience 0 commercial motive to being independent gt more people more 0 Side effect gt Objectivity 0 Audience Masses 0 Definition of News bottom up People to politicians 0 News over editorials 0 real crime reporting 0 broad appeal in urban setting 0 Crime Easy to be objective 0 Social life 0 in 183 Os industrialization urbanization and Andrew Jackson 0 Jackson gt Expanded suffrage 0 Didn39t have to be property 0 beginning of long road to universal suffrage 0 Facts 0 Muckrakring Era late 19th century 0 Extension of penny press 0 start of investigative journalism 0 Rise of Newsmagazines 0 not bound by city 0 magazines allow longer stories and more photos 0 Focus on people against politicians Media in Free society Jacob Riis Photographer that showed people in NY in tenement houses 0 Expose Monopolies 0 Fully Bottom up Public gt Press gt Politicans 0 Rise of mainstream Bias Press that ttys to appeal to big audience produce news with universal appeal Demographic bias 0 Where we see bias is as much what we dont see than what we do 0 nding bias in what is not covered Appeal to common denominator in audience Financial value in appealing to masses Value that is inherit in a media model Media Literacy 0 Know how to read media understand where bias comes from 0 EX if i want to know what happens in africa im not going to turn to a american media 9414 How the Press Works Gans Journalism is a search for ef ciency Need to gure out the most ef cient way to cover the news Three scares resources Staff size of staff dictates how many stories you can cover newspapers generally have more info because they have more staff more decision making on what they can cover Airtime print space news hole very limited need to prioritize the news commercial time is important because of revenue newspapers have limited space to print bc commercials pictures etc dealing with small Network news hole short stories gt less info gt less learning limits understanding of what news is You give us 22 minutes we ll give you the world generally learn more from print then broadcast bc bigger news hole Small news hole gt Forces journalist to be subjective about some news being more important than other news Media in Free society Production time Can t take forever to write a story because of deadlines advantage as a reporters bc visuals not as important Broadcast journalism more limiting gt Need visuals more time it takes to produce a storythe less time that story is written and the less time other stories are covered 0 News norms and Routines 39 Norms Repetitive practices gtThe way news is de ne and written Con ict interesting 39 by same principle consensus is not interesting Two sidedness He said she said 39 being objective 39 both sides are equally valued 39 value that says a two sides to every story implication that their are only 2 sides 0 Ex iraq war gt for or against the president 0 but a lot of alt perspectives international perspectives protesters Novelty 39 original 39 news is not when a dog bites a man news is when a man bites a dog Timeliness dif cult for things to stay on news agenda issue attention cycle 39 Current What happened recently 0 Ex syria was really Big not covered as much any more but things are still happening News focuses more on individuals explains why political news is so bad politics is about systems Not people But individuals are more interesting then structural news 39 Green lantern theory 0 too much focus on the presidents power 0 When their is a lot of power in congress and other elements etc 0 ignores relaity because of over emphasis in the individual More of an American Phenomenon gt indivualistic culture Routines The way news is gathered 0 Beat system 39 Cover the same thing everyday White house crime etc Bigger the staff more beats Advantages Media in Free society 0 Can depend on lling that news hole you have news about that story everyday Reporters develop an expertise about that subject and relationships with the important gures in that story 0 closer to sources Disadvantages 0 Become to close with sources gt hard to be critical of sours if necessary 0 creates dependency to sources 0 cuts news hole for everything else 39 newshole is lopsided that more coverage of beats but not things outside of beats 0 critical to know what to determine is a beat 0 General assignment Reporters Cover all the other stuff Fill in the gaps of what doesn39t fall in the beat system 39 advantage 0 allows you to ll in gaps 0 no dependency to sources 0 gain some autonomy disadvantage 0 no expertise 0 generally cover social news 0 News and routine enforces objectivity Gans Enduring intrinsic Values News is reformist Ethnocentrism focuses on USA and our role in the world inherient assumption that what the US does is good 0 Altruistic Democracy Work hard for service Doing it for the people pay raise seen as bad 0 Responsible Capitalism Big companies can be good 0 Small town pastoralism notion that tradition in small towns is good plays a lot in politics 39 white values Real america 39 enduring bias that small town is real america 0 individualism prize what certain people do 0 Moderatism inherit bias as moderates as being better 0 Social 39 order needs to be maintained 0 National leadership Media in Free society Presidental views etc Values of american culture gt Values 91114 Mainstream journalism is very source driven Not what happened but what someone says what happens rely on sources journalist are jusdged in the newsroom by how much they cover overly reliant on sources disincentive to writing negativly about sources positve 39 Medium between politicians and the people Negative 39 EX news reporter in a two paper town in Madison WI 39 News reporter writes a story negative about the mayor mayor is mad and only talks to other newspapaer journalist and sources have a symbiotic relationship they need each other 39 go back to one other but it makes it harder for a temporary 39 Give and take gt try to make a puff piece to help maor rep Bias based on source driven material 39 of cial sources priviledged over non of cal 39 news is of cally and source driven coupled with knowledge of skepticism but their job is to report what sources say 39 sources have access to news agenda less likley to be critical of sources EX Amerian coverage of if we tortured 0 We did but the administration aka President Obama said we didnt 0 How was that quote written He said rather then he lied major of cal source if j oumalist call itourture they are directly contradict the US Dif culty with challenging an of cal source esp the President 39 Don t ven use the word torture bc it a controversial partisan phrase 39 Proves how source driven news is affecteddictated by sources 39 2 keys to story selection that apply to sources Availabilty and suitablity Journalist determin suitablity Sources determine availability 0 6 determinants of source suitablitity 39 Past Siutablity 0 John McCain important gure who is very quotable 0 he is available Productivity 0 Quotes info Media in Free society 39 reliablity 0 calls back gets to stuidio 39 Trustworthiness credibilty of news reporter 0 EX2Ray Rice video ray rice beat his wife n suspended for 2 games while others get 6 for drugs etc video comes from inside elevator shows what happened already knew it happened seeing it gt indefmate suspension believed the video was sent to n of ce but claim they didnt journalist on the line basing story on an unnamed source He said she said AP has huge problem if their source is wrong 39 Watergate Washington post most important source was an anonimus source aka Deep throat only paper that carried the stroy Why is it only that the post has it word of the source agiasnt the white house HAS TO HAVE A TRUST WORTHY SOURCE deep throat was marc phelp head of FBI personally driven to give info without name need to make sure it is credable can be tainted by personal feeings Authoritativness 0 Big names bigger story Articulateness 0 how well does this source explain things 0 more authorative the source the less it matters ex eisenhower and bush 0 consice and powerful 4 determiants of availablity Incentives 0 does the source have an incentive to be available 0 EX Marc phelps was mad at white house wanted to eXpsose them and protect the FBI he had personal and proffesional incentives 39 Power 0 I call to meet chuck todd gt dont get through 0 President call meet chuck todd gt he s there in two seconds Ability to suppy suitable info 0 how someone not as powerful becomes more important 0 whoever has the information Media in Free society 0 Ex lead up to Iraq war 39 story in the post about claims in white house 39 barried on pg 18 that cast doubts about on claims 39 ends up being untrue 39 power often over info Geographic and cocial proximity Geo 39 washington and NY easier to get info closer to source Beurau Philly inquirer has a news room in other counties 0 Social mainstream journalist and sources have a shared culture Sources and journalist speak the same launguage 0 easy to understand eachother understand cultural references mainstream joumalsit understand sources and report them as said 39 news reports on foreiegn poliy explains why its not covered very well Who are joumaslit how does that explain the way news looks the way it does 0 compared to 10 yrs ago 39 joumalsit now are a little older 0 countinues to increase 0 Bc baby boom gen is working its way through newsrooms 0 medium age in 2002 gt 4 now gt 47 0 far less liley to be younger then 24 than in other institutions 0 critique out of touch with young people more littly to be women 0 33 gt 37 0 women have represented 13 of newsrooms since 1980s 0 But more women are graduating from US journalism schools Why de niate wage gap in news rooms 39 women make 7 7 cents on the male dollar in joumalsim 39 05 percent about same 10 men make signi calntly more 39 wage gap is a deducement to be in newsrooms Minority journalist increase 0 1972 82 very little minory reporters 0 1992 raises more likley to be college grads societal norms now 39 More secular 0 44 list ad other as secular 0 but journalist may be more likely to be honest with their answer more likely to call themselves independent Media in Free society 0 Political affiliation of joumalsit 2013 0 28 D 0 7 R 0 50 I some explanation gt in ux of women and minorites 0 independents 39 lots of em extreamly rare someone is actually an undecided voter 39 but why do more identify as independent 0 critique of mainstream jouranalism as having a liberal bias 0 increasing poloarization partisan critique of media 0 journalism responding by rejecting partisianship The Buisness of the Press 9 16 14 1980s gtTV is told it has to be more pro table 0 Time of news drops by 5 min of news 39 10 mins commercial 39 80 sec on teases decline in newshole 0 Rise of Soft News Become softer more focused on Entertainment More feature stories 0 More health news wakey intresting news Gossip royal family ect 39 Decline of news about the rest of the world 0 Downie and Kaiser two problems 39 Chains 0 chain ownership changed how news in understood and its priorites 0 In early 1980s 80 of papers owned by chain ownership 0 Editors spend more on business then on news 0 Study in AMerican Journalism review found that editors spend 30 of time on matters not related to news esp business 0 Editors become Corporate VP identity no longer with Newspaer but with the corp 39 external with newspaper 39 editors dont come from that paper 0 no more working their way up with in news paper 0 success is defined by 0 fmacial rewards are much greater which also changes dynamic Creats an incentive of editors to produce a newspaper to be very Profitable 11 Media in Free society 0 More money for News Less people to pay 39 Cut staff 39 cut best people becasue they are paid the most 39 Paradox get ride of best work becasue they are the most money 0 EX Wahsington Post BIG cuts becasue of a buy out 0 gve 2 years of salary for someone to leave 0 reduce high salary staff 0 degrade staff and quality of reporters 0 Make paper look more appealing 39 more appealing to the buyer make the product softer take the news out of the news 0 Advertisers 39 storys about advertisers 39 subtle attempts to increase spending Business Consultants 0 Expain how to make a more pro table product 0 but news is diffrent from toothpaste 0 Totally diffrent product 0 Graphic 39 Newspapers used to be pretty ugly 39 Add Color photgraphs 39 USA today 0 bigger mast head 0 more graphics 0 short news teases 0 Big picture 0 three stories 0 And Color 0 Story did not jump stayed on a single page Very short 0 Circulation of million and Is very Profitable 39 Other paper follow suit but It didnt work 0 Why 0 national vs local diffent audience usa today is a national paper 0 Audience people in hotel room 0 business people 0 want something easy to read in the morning before work 0 found an untapped market but not traslatable to local news But somethings were transpotable 0 color 12 Media in Free society shorter stories 0 Declines in News Audience 39 Network News Golden age 1950s 91814 13 great coverage of overseas news dcline in 197 Os after watergate TV vs paper Print people amt likley to be broadcast people and vise versa Fundamental Falacey 39 Assuming that the decline in audience was something the news was doing wrong 39 In early 7 Os after watergate huge rise of investatgive reporting 0 very expensive and take a very long tme to report 0 but sometime stories that dont produce results think people are leaving bc they dont want negative realites Make news softer more like tv 39 But tv people wont become paper people CABLE increases options not just 12 channels anymore 39 not everyone likes news 39 and even people who do like other things too Changes in Work force Blue collar labor force gt white collar decline of 2 paper towns 0 rise of white collar 0 smaller market for afternoon paper becasue most people go to work in the morning Rise of 2 parents woking 39 elimates market for afternoon papers because their working Tv response Softer news Effect on overseas coverage 39 Very expensive 39 less reporter 0 more like a ga reporter then a Beat reporter 39 EX three reporter out of 5 in london 0 umm theres alot more of Europe Newspapers eXplanitions for decine in world news 39 Deny Blame Views 0 rather watch a story about puppies then aids in africa 39 Post cold war era domestic politics matter more 0 but that argument went out the window after 911 Media in Free society Social Control in the Newsroom 0 Learn how to be journalist on the job by having stories edited promoted denied ect No diversity of ownership no diversity of news and ideas Corporate buy out of new 0 Entertianment owns news 0 News wants to give people broccoli and entertainment wants to give people cotton candy 0 more soft news to promote business 0 IE Disney owns ABC Counter argument 0 1st amnendemt can not prevent the press to publish something 39 but that relates to PRINT broadcast can be regulate in a way that is diffrent with print 39 starts with radio 0 operates on a limited spectrum Only so may spots for radios to exsist 39 How do you allocate those frequencies who gets to decide 14 The vat 0 People want to hear about seX and violene Policy makes lots of Pressure appropriate for children more high brow but working class want shows too 0 Goes back to diversity of ideas issue 0 Federal Communication act of 1984 Establised the FCC Creates a system of gvmt regualion of media 0 bc of a limited spectrum people have to apply for a liscene can apply for a liscence but has to be renewed after 7 years 39 if people reject what you broadcast they can revoke liscence 39 vauge and goves people lots of wiggle room Promotes idea of censorship cant say 7 dirty words 39 but cable not a part of this seperate from network Public intrest problem what people want vs what they can show solution gt create news signiture elements in 5 Os and 60s devoted the money and time commited to public service News begins as a way to appease the FCC FCC almost always never revokes a liscence on the side of the media sometimes gives a ne Equal time rule Always a step 10 years behind culture Media in Free society 0 howard stern Makes 39 But pushes boundries of FCC of good taste big market for stem 39 2004 Super bowl 0 nipplegate 0 youtube was founded because of thie founder of so frustrated to nd the video of j anet jackson and created youtube 0 FCC more sensitive to seX than violence Didn t mind that the lyrics allude to date rape but that their was a wardrobe malfunction 39 FCC regulation for children 0 children programs have to air 3 hrs of edu tv a day 0 industry tries to get out of it 0 PBS finds missing market nick disney etc 0 1980s Reagan VERY pro deregulation YAY Reagan deregulated boradcast industry 39 changes market of owning media 39 but news is now bought by corp 39 thus the dramatic changes in news 0 Change of News Median Large digital news were creating jobs more online 39 encounter of news is diffrent 0 share news post of fb emial news etc 39 but local news change 0 used be trusted and make revenue 0 no longer a local news more news from across the country 0 more soft health news 39 but if most of the news is online you have to be an active consumer to find it 0 Cognitive misers 39 dont try to look for news intellectually lazy 923 14 Hollywood and News 39 Hollywood is protected by the 1st amendment Early days of hollywood 0 No censurship 0 movies extremly popular in 20s 0 movie refelected cultural mood SeX violance crime 15 Media in Free society gangster era 0 1930 changes 16 move made to censor hollywood hollywood reaction Self censor Sets up a haze code 0 Developed a code run by Haze and enforcing prosecution agianst vices in hollywood 0 Production code no longer allows viloance seX etc 0 Symbolic gesture Haze sent a message to serve in the public intrest aka keep the gvmt off their back 0 19301934 Haze office replaced by Joseph Brein Much more conservative Strictly enforces censorship code and last until 1968 Hollywood Monolpoly Hollywoods the entire process of movie distribution 0 Vertical intergration 0 Force studios to show B and C movies so they can show A movies WWII War movies 0 Movies Very popular 0 saw cartoons serial news real and then movie Hollywood Got around the code 0 Hitchcok Cant kiss more then 3 secs soo he has a serious for 3 sec kisses for 2 minutes Post War Europe 0 Rise of lm schools 0 esp in Italy in France 0 Neo realism in Italy and the Frech new wave 0 New approch in protraying realism Lots of seX discussing real life in post war europe 1948 US v Paramount Challangeing Monoploy 0 Paramount loses 0 Supreme court outlaw vertical integration 39 Actors and directors are liberateed not tied to contracts 39 distributors can be independet Rise of art house 39 opens market for international film hollywood has no control American Audiences can see IT all 1950s 0 International films By bye censorship but Hollywood keeps self censorship Media in Free society 0 Usually industry adapts to audience but hollywood does the opp bc of fear of gvmt intrusion 1960s 0 Hollywood making movies out of touch with young audience 0 Roger Coreman Takes advantage of US paramount 39 Churs out low budget movies about monsters vamps drugs violance amp sex Icredibly important bc 0 he gures out he can bad movies very cheap bc kids will watch them 0 Trains the next generation in ux of college students bc of baby boom In LA Coreman takes advantage of lm schools gives kids their big break and helps them learn movies with low budget 0 More antiheros 39 changes the narrative into somehting more intresting and challanging 0 1967 Bonnie and Clyde True story of ganstas Thematically gt Bisexuality hints impedence and graphic violance etc Big change Quintessntial anti heros 0 IE FRANK UNDERWOOD Marker for the golden age of Hollywood 1967 to late 1970s 0 director runs the show 0 rise of grest directors and writesd 0 end of traditional studio system Easy Rider 0 intro of popular music 0 intro of drug culture in hollywood 0 Darker narrative 0 Made a Shit ton of money Problem 0 Movies become self indulgent A little to dark too long Exorcist 0 Traditional Horror movie 0 Extrmely violent 0 Freaked people out 0 Lines around the black 0 Changes the game 39 Jaws 0 1st summer blockbuster 0 makes the doe Starwars Media in Free society 0 Next evolution 0 Another summer blockbuster but it introduced the concept of merchandising for movies R2d2 lunchbox chic magnet 0 note watch American graff1ti 0 Changes the game 0 1980s Bland big budget movies 0 1990s 39 Evolution 39 Pulp Fiction Begining of independent lm 39 new revenue stream 0 Hollywood movies re ect how we view America 39 1959 try to save world from communism The Magni cent seven Late 1960s 0 The Wild punch PArable for vietnam Bectdel Rule 0 Test for women to talk for three min about something other then men 0 More then 12 movies pass the test bc people dont want see that 0 Hollywood is Bull shit Research Methods 0 Exam next Thursday 39 Leture and readings 0 Esp more scholorly papers MCQs 39 How do we study media and media effects 39 How do I know What people Are thinking 0 Three majors reasearch design approaches used in study of media and Media Effect 39 Conent analysis 39 Survey Reseach 0 When do we use it 39 Snap shot of peoples opinions of a recent issue Politics social issue What do people think Advantages 0 Use phone or intemet and get a lot of responses 0 intrested in internal and external valididtity Generalizable 39 External validity 18 19 Media in Free society assuming we have properly sampled and can mke claims about populationmust be about of population intrested sampling sample representative of populated intrested can an accurate represtative what is going to happen low margin of error 3 4 percent sample is only good if truely represntative of intrested population Disadvantages 0 Cannot make strong causal claims 39 Sam Few things have a single cause evidence about relationships tends to be correlational not about causal relationships pling Sampling vs Census US census very important bc it shows the about of rep in congress No margin of error in census Representative Must be random sample in order tobe able to make calaim about the population internal validity no margin of error GENERALIZABILTY external validity Can you generalize the data to apply to a larger group of people Sample size size doesn t matter as long as it is representative Margin of error shows con dence Any given poll can be incorrect The more polls you look at the more con dent you can be in the result avg of polls weeds out outliers 0 Florida and Ohio Battle grounds poll washington post Telephone poll Many polls only use land lines but a lot of young people dont have land lines if a poll is in the eld for too long Problematic gt too much happend game can change 0 Type of Surevey Phone mail online inperson interview diffrence between people who anser servey and people who dont EX Exit polls on election day ask who voted for and demographics Found that Republicans are less likly to participate in eXit polls then democrats which leads to LOTs of miscommunication Systematic bias concern with response rates comapre demographics with people who responded and available voters Online Lots Of people little amout percent response 20 Media in Free society 39 In person focus of person but sex race an sometime in uence decision and little amount of people Open ended or close ended 39 Open ended What should we do about ISIS Richer data Close ended Do you support the preidents plan Quiker and easier uniformity but not as precise Question wording effects Seemingly minor variation in wording can matter 39 Claims diffrent then said Question order effects Contest for qestion can in uence response Non attitudes memory Ask public things they dont really know about 39 but people express opinions about things they know nothing about Issues with social desirablity and survey setting in ueneing your response 39 socially correct response Ex people exaggerate their attendence at church 0 Content Analysis 39 Read content that answers questions 39 analyzes text images recordings 39 Issues 0 what can you analyze census or sample 0 Sample must be representative only sample nyt cant make a statement about other newspapers 0 quantitiative or qualitivative 39 qualatative is ofen richer look at hand full of samples in depth disadvantage not emperically based not an experiment can be a correlation not a causation 39 Code book 0 defines operation of analysis 0 What you are looking for 0 Put a l for violence but what is violence You have to de ne it 0 Intercoder reliablity If only one person codes it is unrelable 0 Experiments 39 Attempt to really know what effect something has on people Better change of looking at casuality Internal Valif1dy and External Validity Media in Free society 39 Advantages of Experiment 0 causal inference becasue of random assignment and control over administration of independet variable They have internal validity Ex Iraq story on news and its effects w picture and wo picture 0 Controlled everything except picture 0 Diffrence The Picture Causlaity Issues 0 Random Assignment 39 No bias accurate represntation no partisanship 39 Afterwards analysis the dempogrpahics of each group to make sure randomization worked 0 Classic Experiment Design 39 Random gt Control and experiment 93 0 14 Systematic Bias question of media effects Does it matter Does it have an import implications that go beyond philisophy Early 1900s Assumption that mass media was very powerful 21 Media has Hyperdemic needle effects 39 unable to resist audience is passive and suseptible Gneral snobbishness of elites 39 Elitest view that at masses were not educated Rascit tinge to reactions to immigration 39 Lead by rise of moden Advertising industry 0 Propoganda effots of WWI seen as necessary for the war 0 Predicated on notion that public was weak and that mass media is very powerful 193 Os Radio production if HG Well s War of the worlds 39 People listened to the radio show and thought it was real news not just a novel reading People Freak the freak out 39 Proves that people would believe almost anything they hear anything in the media 39 People are weak in the face of media In uence of Nazi propoganda 39 Germany was the most educated culture in society at the time 0 Arts and Cultured society People saw that as a socity as sdvanced as the Germans can be persuaded into Nazi propoganda 39 reconfirming that MEDIA IS POWERFUL Common theme Media power is framed in the negative 39 But cant it do good things 0 Like health communication techniques 0 safesex immunizations clean water ect Media in Free society 39 But it was veiwed as very elitest and negative 0 3rd person effect Media in uence the public but not you 0 1940s scholors at Columbia study how info spreads face to face interviews Sponsered by Revlon Ask how they learn about fashion trends used open ended questions discover that alot of people talk about media but talk about it in a positive light Conclusion 0 2 step ow model of Media in uence Contrary to hyperdermic modle 0 Media messages filtered through interpersonal interactions 39 Exposed to Media gt Filter media through interpersonal coversations with Opinion leader gt Form Personal views 0 Opinion leder 39 Serves the fucntion as the expert in a social network Doesnt mean they are an expert but they are the closest 39 Probably bc you go to school in Dc you are an opinion leader about politics 39 not just talking to you but rather interviewing you 0 More likely to have views in favor of opinion leader rather than direct media 0 Limited effects modle 39 Status Conferal 0 Media has status 0 things not in the news dont have status and am t discussed 0 Socialization Effect Media reaffirms cultural values 0 Study nf thet we need to understand the context of media and audience power 39 Audience tends to be more powerful when they are more active 0 Active Audience Cognitivly active Involved with what is being discussed 39 most Amerians aren t very active when it comes to Foreign affairs 0 Thus a condition for medai in uence 39 When you have kids your more active when about edu news 0 Cognitive misers 39 People dont like to put in alot of cognitive effort 0 Argued for limit effects 39 Context 39 1960s Agenda setting 0 Media dont tell us what to think but media tells what to think about 0 Agenda setting Study 22 Media in Free society 39 Compare media agenda and public agenda 39 Things popualr in media are popular in public 39 Corrolelation is not causation 39 Potential Explinations 0 Media is a commercial enterprise Press has an understanding of the publics priorites 39 Beat system is responsive to a mass audience 0 Politicians Elites 39 Politicians are supposed to tell us whats important 0 Events Culture 39 Late 90s Clinton White house tried to take terrorism more seriously not too much response administration knew more about al quida then people 911 happened 0 Number 1 concern 39 So agian Correlation is not Causation 39 Why is agenda setting important 0 Imprortant if causal rates are effected by media to public 0 Coverage vs reality 39 less crime but still lots of crime coverage in news theirfore public still thinks there are still problems 39 Public responds to coverage not reality becasue thats what they know 39 Politicans to win votes by saying we need to be harder on crime when infact we dont Theirfore alot of resources to crime when they dont need it Media Priming 0 Similar to agenda setting 0 Issue covered the most is the issue that at public is most likly to use in making political judgements Bush was very popular in 1990s after wining 1st gulf war but lost popularity bc of econ 0 Is the econ stupid 39 econ wasnt a problems improving but on mico level 0 Media covered Econ negativly alot 39 Thus people thought about econ negativly 0 Bush wanted to focus on Foreign policy 0 People who were more keen on econ didnt vote for bush 0 Operate on principle Accesibilty Heuristic 39 Shortcut 0 Stuff most accesible in our brain 0 Recency and frequency is used to make judments Party Identification 23 Media in Free society 0 prejudgements 0 Avoid cognitve work Oct2 14 Framing in news and framing of facts 39 Media Framing 0 Window Frame What you see and dont see 0 Contet De nition 39 Selection 0 Cant really t all the news thats t to print 0 Why do we cover somethings and not others 0 Are there patterns 0 Why do certain canadiates get covered and other don t 39 Salience importance 0 How to orginize the information 0 Inverted pyramid style journalism 39 most important info is in the 1st paragraph and the rest goes down in importance 0 News norms in uence con ict seX ect signals to audience what is important and what isn t 0 Media Framing effects 39 So what Why does this matter 39 New about X framed by Y what diffrence does it make 39 How is news about politicical frames and what effects does it have 0 2 Politicical Frames Strategy Horse race 0 Campaign coverage 0 Focuing on wining losing tactics and polls 39 Issue substance 0 What a canadite will do 39 Measure causality through experimentation 0 Test effects of news coverage strategy vs Issue 0 More strategy readers tend to be more cynical less political knowledge and political efficacy 0 Media is not the casue it activates latent attitudes 0 Ex US learn two views of politics Grown up learning the how Amerian politics and democracy is awesome But late night tv news radio ect are very cynical agianst politics 39 Competative shema 0 Media ativates cynical schema 0 Avaliablty heuristic 39 But is study applicable to the real world 0 deliver packs of news articals around the world to replicate new process 0 each pack has three stories 24 Media in Free society 0 solve external validity problem 0 read stories for a week and see a political debate and answer questions 0 Back to content 39 Episodic and thematic Framing Episodic 0 Decribe event 0 particalularly about crime 0 More stories tend to be framed episodically 0 effects 39 attributions of responsiblity 39 Leads to indivual attributions of responsibility Solutions Indiviual based solutions more punative 0 more likely to favor military solutions Thematic 0 Why it happnes trends 0 effects 39 Societal level attributions of responsiblity Solution propose solutions that are more society based 39 Visual Framing 0 More Battle over death picture Belif that causality images are unpatriotic depress public moral 39 Experiment 0 Effects mitigated by politics 0 Support war 39 See action pic and have pride 39 see Causealty pic and viewed it as a noble sacri ce 0 Did not support war 39 Saw action and were disgusted and angy Saw Causalty Still angry 0 People filter through th eprismim of their prior belifs 0 Know Frames frequecncy and Effects Midterm Review MCQ 33 questions not divided equally by topic No curve responsible for all material 0 know general topics 0 Whats important and what it means A Few ABC or both AB or AC nothing pure defmitional 25 Media in Free society Dont need to know Ganes But what ganes said and its importance Know importance of penny press 0 Democrat market society explanation DemExpansion of suferrage Markey TransIndustrial Rec Society Urbabization wave 0 helps understand media as a re ection of culture as it reinforces culture 0 Know trends of Pew study 0 Know the demographic trends of newsrooms 0 up to research methods and media effects 10814 SMPA paper 39 Due Dec 4 investigate claims of bias 0 take a hypothesis and investegate Structure 0 intro claim investigating 0 body anaylisis of research 0 ultimate summerizes research 0 Conclusion Summerizes everything answers SO what question Find 5 scholoraly sources If you use a journal that is not on the email list Email prof 0 IT WILL BE PART OF YOUR GRADE Books 0 university press Safe 39 Be aware of Hostile Media effect Office hours and writing tutor Possible topics 0 gender bias 0 body bias News and Politics Al Gore vs Bush 2000 0 Media race to see who can call big news first 0 But run with info prematurley problem if anounomous and multiple vs single sources 39 if anonomous you need to confirmation from other sources 0 ClintonLewinsky case 39 under oath testimony Ask directly if he had gt Hilary I did not have sexul intercorse with that women 26 27 Lies lst weeks lots of news were reporting stories trying to be 1st but alot turned out to be not properly sourced or true Dallas morning news 0 Tip about Blue dress 0 Monica kept blue dress with DNA evidence from the president 0 Turns out to be true but took months for it to be proven 0 Problem w morning news was that they had one source Water gate 0 Washington post only one with big news 0 Makes them look bad if sources not named Whats the value in beeing 1st to call election 0 bottom line is money more viewers more 0 back res when you get something wrong 39 esp for elections its something you dont need to get wrong 0 As soon as one network calls it then all the others call it Why its networks think its important 0 A have to be 1st 0 B have to be Right 0 C Let people know we were 1st 0 D PEople have to remeber bext election 0 E They have to care Anchor tenior 0 People identify with anchors 0 AKA me and Matt Lauer but it doesnt really matter 0 people are going to watch what they normally watch 0 but in reality most people ip channels What happened in the 2000 election 0 Computer and data error 39 someone accidentlity deleted a counties data 0 Projection based on eXit polls 39 ask people who they voted for after they voted Only valid at the end of the day data at 3 in the afternoon totally different than at 9 at night 39 Republicas less likley to particiapate in eXit poll 0 Palm beach county 39 Relaiably democratic part of FL 2 spoiler canidated 0 Ralph nader and pat bucanin pat bucanin known for anti semetic comments Media in Free society Media in Free society Large elderly community Butter y ballod People Accidenlty voted for Buchanin when they wanted to vote for Gore Confusing ballod In exit pole they said they voted for gore but actually voted for Buchanin Recount 101414 Gore was aking for a partcial recount bc he argued those were the places with problems Reps argued it was convineiant bc those counties were dem Turns out Gore won popularity but bush won the counties gore was thinking he would win FL is weird bc it has diffrent time zones CNN 1st called FL for gore 10 mins before closed of state 39 Concerned that networks calling things early effected outcome of elections 39 1980 exmple Reagan v Carter 0 networks call election before west coast 0 by calling for reagan networks artif1cally depressed the Dem votes in west coast 39 Claims that networks calling it early effected other time zone of FL Ethicaly question Is it right to call state early 39 When Obama won every network called it at 11 39 not during gore v Bush election Empirical question Does it matter 39 does it cahnge votes 39 Depressing turn out is a problem Voting predisposition chronic voter vs Non voters 39 people who vote are going to vote understanding why people behave the way they do politcally 39 Why role should the media play in the Strategy framed stories Elections not competitive 0 Less coverage and more strategist Effects of strategist 0 increase cynicism 0 low political self efficacy think our voice doesn t matter 0 Less knowledge learn less bc their is less info in them 28 29 Media in Free society Key elements of strategy framed stories 0 poll stories 0 fauX news created by the news organization 0 nothing has really happened 0 most questions are horse race questions Who are you voting far 0 Media orgs are often sponsor of polls 39 they put a lot of in polls so they are going to showcase it How it drives media 0 CNN commisions a poll 0 three stories to explain poll why candidate X is down what they are doing right and wrong etc 0 Fills a news hole Debates 0 Most informative moments in campaign 0 substantive questioning 0 learn a lot about give and take Coverage of debates 0 Rarely substantive 0 war and sport analogy more strategic 0 Treat debates as a theater critique 0 about Game changer narrative 39 want drama Is it all about predisposition partisanship 0 Media doesn39t have super powerful effects 0 Generally reenforces prior values 0 mediates media intake from personal values 0 Media can matter in certain circumstacnceChange or create opinions 39 don t know much about Ways political coverage matters in Primary season 0 Most important in primary season 0 When you don t know a lot about the candidates running 0 New info 0 Winnowing media decides who they think are legitimate candidates and cover those candidate over 0 based on fundraising 39 get name recognition 39 based on poll position 39 Circular benefits handful of party insiders Media in Free society 39 intemet fundraising 0 1st used by McCain 0 But revolutionized by Howard Dean Gov of VT in 2004 Seen as liberal uses intemet to generate grassroots intrest At partisan event in 2003 Dean gives a speech attacking other candidates Comes from the democratic wing of democratic party goes viral Captures small donations journalist pay no attention Have to release fundraising funds Dean is wayyy higher than other candidate Front runner for a few months 0 Primary media coverage THEME NEGATIVE BIAS 4 Roles 1 Ban wagon Candidate 0 New and fresh have momentum 0 1st Enthusiastic and positive 0 Look new shinning object we can talk about 2 Front runner 0 Face increase scrutiny and see how they weather why wait till front runner 0 don t cover everyone the same 0 Scrutiny neg coverage 0 press coverage Critical and negative 3 Losing ground candidate 0 Where up in polls but are now going down 0 neg coverage 4 Likely Loser 0 takes the form of neg coverage 0 sometimes get positive coverage before they burn out 0 When does media matter lease 39 General Election only two candidates People only know who they are voting for 39 LOTS of info cant take it all 39 Patterns of coverage 0 Pack Journalism implies that Journalist cover things the same way Highly replayed to credibility Protects individuals in the pact 30 Media in Free society not letting you risk saying something that makes it look like you have chosen sides Timothy Crous 0 Reporter of Rolling stone in 197 Os 0 leaders of new journalism 0 more participant oriented and opinionated 0 Reason for pack journalism 39 not wanting to deviate from what everyone else is doing Hunter Thomas 0 HT keen observer of american politics 0 fair and loathing of the campaign trail Very opinionated and bias but honest Teddy White 0 Making of the President books 0 1960 election 0 covered campaign with intensions of writing a book 0 Wrote a book about election w details and insider talk 0 popularizes strategy tactics Popular 0 People told cover the election like teddy white would 0 Created modern form of Strategic journalism 10 1 5 14 39 GoreBush Debate 0 Gore rep is lier and annoying myth he invented the intemet 39 Thought his big advantage with national experience 39 played it up in the area of Foreign policy because he thought he had more experience 39 Gore campaign was convinced they won the debate and left the spin room to prep for the next debate 39 Aristocrat Not a guy you want to have a beer with because he Bush rep is dumb 39 Asked about foreign policy so when asked about something you don t want to talk about you transition to talk to something you do 39 Bush Campaign thought they can pound the argument that Gore was a liar 39 Bush became known The guy you want to have a beer with everyday Joe 0 SNL expand on character traits stereotypes 39 always a negative stereotype Don t play the type because the the media will hit you hard with it 39 Gore Aristocrat Not a guy you want to have a beer with because he doesn39t drink beer 39 Bush became known The guy you want to have a beer with everyday Joe Gaffes misspoken slip up s 31 Media in Free society 39 Seen as a game changer but it rarely changes anything 0 because it turn out most people don t pay much attention to politics 0 the people who know about it are partisan and already know about the gaffe 0 so the gaffe doesn39t effect them Power of Political Ads 0 Advocacy Ads 39 positive why you should vote for me 0 generally uffy Joe is a family man 39 but do they actually hep us make decisions about politicians 39 Generally have the least amount of information Attack Ads Generally more info 39 big argument about why someone is bad Are the attacks on eck or nahh Too over the top boomerang effect 0 when attack is over the top it turns on then Valid criticism 0 tell you why you should vote for them and not the other 0 thats kind of the point of Contrast Ads Lil bit of both Best kind of Ads Most information Argument for and against perfect argument Most effective at generating support and lack of support for others is the ad fair and is it accurate 39 latent assumption that advocacy ads are good and attack are bad when in terms of info is not the case 39 Media coverage of advertising 32 strategic and horserace driven 39 How the ads become news 0 1 Enthymeme 39 say one thing and imply a connection EX Johnson Daisy Commercial 1964 Election 0 Ad claims implicitly that if you elect Goldwater their will be nuclear war 0 Doesn39t mention Goldwater by name but implies he will get us all killed Goldwater was very conservative Cold war Warrior 39 his stereotype was that he was a bit of a nut when it came in Russians and nucs Ad only ran once in Washington and NY Where opinion leaders are 39 runs once because it is such an awful thing to say Run a really over the top and it will get a lot of press but it will eXpose Goldwater Media in Free society 0 all the implied arguments and complaints from the ads where discussed 0 When you know that your trying to be persuaded your less persuaded Seems more legitimate and credible when you have the media say what you want to say rather then you say it yourself Bland name 0 Sponsored by Liberties for democracy rather then Republicans 0 No source cues 0 EX McCain 2000 Primary attack ad compared bush to clinton 39 Push poll 0 fake poll pushs people to say what they want 0 Would you be more likely vote for McCain if you knew that he had an adopted daughter from a prostitute in Vietnam not true 0 SC push poll that McCain 0 Bush s ad twist the truth like Clinton 39 Bush campaign outraged you called us the C word lols 39 that line was in the news every night that week Boomerang effect 0 McCain literally says the attack 0 people think he is mean and blame the messenger 0 EX Willie Horton 1988 Attack ad From political action committee not campaign 39 Support for Bush Senior Hard on crime 39 Weekend Prison Passes Dukakis on Crime 0 Revolving door ad similar to willie hortan ad but doesn39t say any name s 39 bush campaign ad 39 implicit ad melt down 0 can t remember the source 0 more effective because you don t know who is persuading you 0 Media covered controversy rather than ads Political Ads 102 1 39 Advocacy 0 Least informative people learn the least from them 0 increase candidate vote share marginally 39 Attack 0 Not all bad though some unfair more info people learn from them 39 Contrast 0 best in theory 0 argument for oneself and against the opponent most info 33 Media in Free society 0 increase candidate share and overall turn out How media covers ads 0 Ad bites clips of ads in stories 0 Ad stories about ads usually strategy 39 not usually accurate of ads claim 0 Newsads candidates uses news clips in ads esp easy when news is mimicking ads themselves of campaign imagery eX bush and ags 88 0 Media accountability for political campaign affiliates are supposed to allow ads with false claims to air but they usually do ad watches stories that assess the claims for ads Danger 0 if done improperly shown full screen people don t remember what ad says about the ad they only know what the ad Fair and accurate 0 VERY CLEAR 0 make things as arti cial as possible 39 1 small tilted TV 2 Stop ad 39 3 Write in big read letters False or True 4 Explain with Data Covering Misinformation 0 if an ad has a false claim 39 it is unlikely the media will call them on it info is likely to stick in our memory as true 39 the more we care about something the more likely we are to believe that information 0 hostile media affects 0 SO how to do you cover misinform 39 Needs to be prominent 39 correction needs to be with het claim 39 needs to be done every time the claim is made 0 When do ads work 34 Turn out 0 Do ads get more people to vote 0 do negative ads decrease voting turn out belief in the 80s 0 vote share 39 did you get more votes than the other guy bc of the ads you ran 0 Meta analysis on neg ads Found that attack ads dont have a big effect on turn out 35 Media in Free society 39 more memorable and tend to stimulate knowledge on the campaign negative info is more likely to stick out in out minds When does advertising work 1More 0 Evidence shows it helps campaign when One candidate vastly outspends the other 0 Esp for a short period of time 39 EX Florida Primary 39 Romney out spends Gingrich 39 He was behind before before ads and was up after 39 But they are very short lived last about a week 39 matter late in an election GW bush vastly outspent Gore late in the game in battle grounds 39 made a small but lasting affect 39 2 When ideas are crystalized 0 usually in primary Racial Appeals Appeals to whites to racial resentment sadly very common Are they effective 39 1964 was the last time a dem president won the majority of the white vote EX Jesse Helms hands ads 39 On eve of election runs an ad 39 not subtle against racial quota law when to over the top they can have a rebound effect 39 in order for it to be effective it has to activate latent racial hostility in white voters 39 now most white people know they aren t supposed to be racist only works if it is subtle enough that it doesn39t cue them as being racist 39 used to be that Harold Ford Call me Ad 39 attack ad Romney ad 39 activates racial resentment 39 but did it work 0 NO because a lot of what people think about ads is coded in partisanship Who does the ad actually affect Uneducated white noooope Educated whites know whats going on understand the subtle media literacy Ad effect take aways Campaign ads matter 39 more when the candidates are unfamiliar 0 EX Late in primary id doesn39t matter Media in Free society 39 more when a candidate outspends the opp the other 39 Volume 0 Matter but not for long 39 Negative ads 1023 14 Crime Race and News 36 0 CRIME Local News 39 When it bleeds it leads 0 Local broadcast pattern Esp Local broadcast news 0 sends a signal to viewers about what is important 0 Violent crime coverage represented in local broadcast news 39 People put a lot of trust in local broadcast news 0 decline in trust in institutions 39 esp media Except Local news 0 BIG ratings people identify with a certain anchor or news station 39 Issues with covering so much crime 0 Doesn39t cover a lot issues and politics 39 Has the scariest recourses 39 Doesn t cover politics 39 even when they do its done in a cursory way that allows candidate to speak to community 0 Crime rates do not match coverage rates 39 if crime rates go down you would think coverage rates go down but they don t 39 Crime seen as much more important than it actually is Importance is not proportionally coverage 39 dedicate and time to something not as important Why crime 0 Universally popular 39 it is important but not to the proportion it is covered 0 visual element 0 doesn39t represent crime More likely to see violent crime than not news isn t likely to pick up on a trend on non violent crime sending a message that an area is more violent than it actually is Cultivation effect 0 Local news coverage of crime cultivates a fear of crime 39 Agenda Setting 0 Broadcast news agenda Crime dominates broadcast local news 37 Media in Free society 0 if crime rates go down we 39 Fire stories very popular make good images on TV 0 Episodic coverage of f1re what happened 0 not thematic coverage about policy 39 Local vat barely covered 0 Not covered very well 0 boring and not good visuals 0 which local gvmt are you covering 39 audience is from a broad area in the region 39 hard to narrow down which local gvmt is most important 39 NYC area north NJ and Westchester NY print can get around this problem with zoning 39 Broadcast news More Episodic 0 effects of episodic framing 39 More likely to think of crime as an individual problem 39 support individual punitive solution more cops more punishment Thematic see crime as more society 39 support solutions that are similar societal bases 0 Econ opp education etc 39 Race and Crime Disproportionate coverage 39 stories on the local news are more likely to have pics of blacks disproportionally portrays violent perpetrators as black African Americans more likely to be portrayed in crime 0 discussion paints disorder as indicative and problematic with in African American community than whites EX Ferguson Protest v Pumpkinfest in Media 0 Ferguson Thugs animals destroying community 0 Pumpkinfestrowdy mischief booze filled revelers 39 Coverage treated these as similar as social disorder as if these two communities are similar 0 Ferguson Long historical problem 0 Pumpkinfest Just about beer f1stful 0 Not equal in terms of importance Mixed race experiment 39 stories about crime 0 WO photo 39 asked white people who didn39t see a picture what race was the purl 70 guess black 0 bias of what we known in Reality of media Media in Free society African American asked the same questions and did not have a racist response about themselves 0 White perp photo 0 Black perp photo 39 white reader more likely to support punitive response to crime Abductions stories 0 More likely to go national if its a middle class white girl 39 Support the death penalty 0 More whites have more support of the death penalty 39 jury selections 0 Most blacks are not likely to be on capital juries 0 people who don t support the death penalty cant be on a capital jury 0 Public opinion gt News gt Events gtculture gt Public opinion 39 Cycle 39 Not just media in uence Flux of society and media 39 its what comes naturally people arent asking how can we over represent black males in Crime but it happens 0 Powerful Media Effect 39 Activating latent preexisting beliefs 1028 How Media covers Social movements Social mvmt is a way to persuade people for change AntiGlobalization movements 0 1Gathering of WTO 1999 Seattle Protest 39 protested for econ equality localnationalintemational coverage 0 Fit to a T what G said how mainstream press covers social movements 0 made protesters look radical ignorant and violent 0 media made it look protesters instigated violence when it was actually the police were responsible People Unite video 0 Response to Media coverage Gitlen s argument 0 interaction of media and people changes the trajectory of the mvmt itself 0 SDS Students for Democracy early 60s 39 began as group of college students interested in reform agenda 39 inspired by civil rights mvmt 39 Wide agenda Release a manifest on Michigan 38 Media in Free society Relays grievance it has with US politics and Econ 39 Not Communist reject radical adopt reform Build chapters in other colleges 39 collect dues increase membership increase power Advantage control message 0 drive give a reside talk and form a chapter 0 no mediation through the press Disadvantage dif cult to grow a movement Need Mass media coverage 39 Not just college students need to change the status quo and all of America 39 Try to reach a bigger audience 39 Tell reporters to cover them but they rant new 39 Become news by staging a protest Protest Chain themselves outside of Chase bank 39 get coverage but not positive 39 coverage from GA Makes mvmt look violent Framed to look live Vandals in media Framing detracts for Argument Mainstream media framing radicalizes mvmts by 0 l ignoring them 0 2 Covering them and making them look like radicals 1965 Washington March 39 SDS had grown but Vietnam becomes big and other issues are going on 39 try to regain coverage and sponsor a march on Washington Press coverage further marginalizes group 0 1Rede nes group as only antiwar organization Positive outcome 0 More chapters but are built by people attracted to antiwar message 39 Negative 0 SDS leaders no longer have control out of touch with chapters 0 no longer control de nition of organization 0 2 Made them look more radical 39 focused on outliers people who look wacky rather then composed people 39 focused on violence not on ideas Violence is exaggerated 0 EX Tea party mvmt Media in Free society 0 Claim everyone brings guns to town hall but its really just a few wackos trying to show off that they have the right 0 the 2nd amendment 0 Media covers the tea party until they nd something novel and newsworthy 0 Media function Making the group look radical and marginalize them from society 39 NYT photo from march 0 Shows he said she said objectivity Disadvantage for social mvmt 0 Doesn39t actually show the story 0 advocates for counter protesters but they aren t true representation 0 photo inaccurate objectivity changes coverage that hurts protesters Any violence is put on protesters 0 Coverage privileges quotes of police officers natural institutionalofficial bias s to 39 Creates a frame privileging police rather than protesters 39 rooted in norms and routines of media Outliers wackos small become celebrities 0 Become the norm 0 Ex Black hood anarchist in Seattle 1960s 39 small percentage but dominated mainstream media coverage Symbolized the protest 0 but the anarchist have nothing to do with our movement 0 Treated a atypical of the movement 0 Media Skepticism of mvmts Trivialize people and goals 39 question what do these kids really know about global trade 0 reports talk about it as if they know when they are just GA reportes 39 But college is actually when you know shit 0 Only thing you do is date drink and study 0 You know a lot in college 0 More educated then 50 GA reporter Frame they dont know what they are talking about 0 Frame What are protesting people all protesting something different 39 PeopleProtesters come together to fight one cause gives them strength Media They are all protesting something different don t know 39 Pattern Frame weakness 0 Movements depend of Social Media 1Narrowness of Social base 0 hard to generate networking 2 Commitment to specific goal 0 Destructive media coverage 40 Media in Free society If mvmt becomes more radical then media coverage becomes more destructive 39 If leadership is unclear it feeds a media narrative that the mvmt is organization 39 Gitlan shows that Media lters movement goals and further marginalizes it 0 Successful mvmt Tea party 0 Objectively got marginalized coverage 0 People dressed in tri comer hat get a 0 Worked in a party system 0 Achieved success to elect people who agreed with them and get rid of people who dont 0 Play with in the system 39 Hard to do if your argument is that the system is corrupt 0 Not successful 39 Occupy Equated Obama with Romney 0 Muddles case 0 dont engage in polical process because it is corrupts 39 Gay rights Mvmt 0 Covered very late 1980s and 1990s 0 NYT used to not be able to use the word gay 39 gay community not covered 0 Gays and Lesbians put into crime frame 0 AIDs changes media coverage 39 People start very visibly dying Some people are journalist 39 Editor of NYT very sick from Aids 0 Puts a picture on his desk of his partner 0 personal interaction changes culture and media coverage 39 New publisher Policy change 0 Make it very clear that Gays are covered Revolutionized the Movement 39 Summery of Gitllin ANews coverage 39 speci cally news framing shaped the org development and de nition of Students for Democracy Society 0 B Result 39 ProLots of coverage helps spread message 39 Con No control over org de nition 39 Ways the press marginalizes social mvmts Gitlin about several and points out that they are related to social norms and routines They include 0 norms of objectivity 0 Triviliazing skepticism 41 Media in Free society 0 Routine Official sources only trustworthy ones 0 divide movement into legitimate main acts and illegitimate side shows 0 Celebritif1caltion 0 Radicalize 39 Factors that make mvmts dependent on Media according to Gitlin Narrowness of social base 0 Commitment to speci c goals 39 Factors make destructive are mvmts 0 Move toward radicalismrev rhetoric 0 political uncertainties esp about own leadership 11312 War in the News Under lrying question Should the press cover war as it is Historical coverage of war 0 Recorded after the fact 0 before photography painting mythologies war 39 way a society presents war 0 Photography 39 1st war to be photographed crimean war 39 Civil war 0 Transition period of war photography 0 Famous war photographer Mathew Grady sends photographers to send photos of Antidem artist not journalist don t take photos casualties more exposures move bodies to make an image don t capture moment Gallery for war photos and death photos very popular 0 Photographs not tech advanced cant tack mvmt photos and take long time to set up most early war photos of corpse about to be buried Pardox of news photographers in war Civil war was the last war that accurately covered war realities 39 paradox because it wasn t news WWI 0 After a big immigration wave 0 Strong immigrant journalist press 0 US government worried about immigrant press esp Journalism Lots of propoganda 42 censor immigrant press 5 min men give a 5 min speech before movies about patriotism Media in Free society 0 Post censorship 39 journalist on front lines but censored after 39 WWII 0 Office of war and information 39 post censorship model overt ban of dead Americans 39 operational security 0 Can report info that will give info that can help enemy inadvertent operational security problem 0 military censors to protect Americans 0 Concern that journalist spy giving away info EX Geraldo Rivera 39 Fox news reporter that gave away info in Iraq war 39 Military censors have good intensions but change copy because it makes soldiers look bad and might jeopardize moral 0 Stages of thought of Combat 1 its not going to happen to me 2 It can happen to me so I ll be more careful than everyone else 39 3 It will happen to me so I gotta get out of here 39 No tours of Duty 0 go until dead wounded or crazy 39 No understanding PTSD 39 No understanding of what soldiers are going through Combo of OWI censorship and natural inclination as journalist to be part of Patriotic front 0 HowPeople saw WWI 39 Set the stage for how the American image of war and how Elites talk about war 39 WWII language changes war attitudes ie appeasement Hitler Chamberlain 0 Way we learned about WWII shaped the entire view on future wars Censorship made soldiers seem universally heroic 0 Captain America 39 Never read stories about fear or reality 39 skewed image of the war 39 Disconnect between reality and reporting 0 Studies show that after 255 days you will lose your mind Why we have tours of duty now 39 In WWII 500000 discharged for psych reasons 0 US had to finance war 39 Clint Eastwood movies ag of our fathers 39 US needed to keep moral up 0 go to work 0 buy war bonds Media in Free society 39 Realize why they don t want images of dead American bc worried it will lower morale for the war 0 1943 Life runs a photo of dead Marines on South Paci c in Life 2 page spread 0 1943 Same time News reels with Marines at Tarawa shows combat up close 0 Some of most graphic reporting of war time in mainstream media Decision to allow images 0 Thought it would stimulate morale 0 just a little bit of non censorship and then return to press management 0 No accurate info on its effects Korean War 0 Press starts out pro patriotism and war but after a year it dwindles 0 1st year no censorship policy 39 cover war very honestly 39 gvmt step behind in covering press 0 vat censorship returns 0 post censorship model 39 Vietnam 0 Press against war and very critical 0 Show casualties and very bloody 0 Conventional belief 39 media in Vietnam destroyed public support for war and destroyed political leadership bc no public support 0 Coincides with Rise of TV more info Living room war bc it 0 Censorship very loose 39 Why 39 Assumption that seeing American casuals will change support for the war Notion since Vietnam that US press is likely to be antiwar 0 Generally False 0 My lai massacre Mass killing of civilians in south Vietnam by US soliders Nov 11th 39 Vietnam 0 Walter Cronkite Trusted Anchor in America nicknames uncle Walter Tells America that the war is not winnable 0 If Cronkite loses faith in war American loses faith in the war 39 Previews Peace with hone 0 Lyndon Johnson knows he lost the election Nixon win 1968 election Press role in Vietnam 44 45 Media in Free society casualty coverage negative press In American historical press coverage of war begins as a non adversarial perspective Core argument of US government 0 the side of angels was never fundamentally questioned 39 pattern seen in early coverage of war Way we tell story of war is embedded in culture US government in Vietnam war was consciously lying to American people 39 thought eventually we would policy in saying something that wasn39t true change in coverage 39 not to the extent of mythology of negative press coverage More skeptical press 5 o clock follies 0 tone of reporters 39 occurs after tet offensive Vietcong took heavy casualties 0 nothing tactical accomplished US never lost major battle but lost the war 0 eye opener for people and congress Tet exposes the lie 39 Cronkite starts a domino effect after yet 39 Re exive rightness of US reporters was not to question the US administration 0 Tet offensive changes reporters outlook Framing In Gans 0 Vietnam was framed by american policy elites in a cold war frame 39 Battle against communist 39 Vietnam was seen in cold war frame 0 Possible alternative frame 39 Civil war frame 39 North v South leads to little US involvement Vietnam internal matter 0 Cold war frame lead to US involvement 39 Feeling of US social obligation for the sake of humanity to hinder expansion of Communism in southeast Asia 39 State of political elite opinion 0 members of congress question the war leads to shift in public opinion 0 Indexing hypothesis 39 associated with Lance Bennett 39 media indexed to state of political elite opinion when political elites are in agreement press coverage re ects that agreement 0 Example Post 911 agreement to invade Iraq when elites disagree media shows disagreement 46 Media in Free society 0 when we in a war for a long time their is a opportunity for criticism by opposing party 39 public tends to follow political opinion 0 Is that because of media coverage or just because of the political opinion Heuristic 0 short cuts 0 when parties start to disagree people associate with their party 39 Vietnam syndrome 0 Belif that after Vietnam American public has no tolerance toward war 0 Accompanied with watergate and release of pentagon papers and political protest 0 Scaring experience for the American people 0 When their is disagreement in political opinion the Presidents opinion in weighted more heavily in press coverage 1982 Falklands wat UK owns small islands outside of argentina Argentina invasion of islands UK goes to Argentia to invade their islands Reporters cant go to islands have to stay on boats 0 have to agree for all reporters not to cover the war 0 one can breaks the pact 0 no option but for the reporters to cover war given by the controlled info by the military no independent veri cation of war in media coverage Pre censorship model 0 Control information environment US administration inspire by falklands war Grenada Invasion US dust off monroe doctrine and invade small communist island reinstall capitalism government Reporters kept on the boats de es the 1st amendment 0 Very patriotic press coverage Believe Vietnam syndrome is over After Grenada Press brie ngs 0 more positive than realty 39 Justi cation for war because of US medical school on island med school has a campus on the other side of the island 39 didn39t really know what was going 0 Invasion stories broadcasted but not the mess ups 0 US precensorship Pursian Gulf war 1991 Sudan Hussain invades Kuwait US invasion Media in Free society American people told it was going to be a tough ght 39 reporters left in Saudi Arabia to cover the war via press conference 39 only take a pool of reporters for safety reasons to front line Pre censorship model on a huge scale Big parade hurrah after war But turns out lots of infer reported not accurate 0 98 launch accuracy rate 39 but that dosent mean it get where it needs to go just means its gets off the launch pad 0 Press management worked 0 Iraq and Afganistan Embedding system 0 take journalist offer them training and embed them in military units and let them cover the war as they see fit 0 Why switch from pre censorship to embedded modle 39 Different environment no international allies 39 Rest of the world thinks the invasion is wrong US has a credibility problem 0 1 US needs independent journalist to regain credabilt 0 2 Positive coverage 0 3 fast and leathal coverage 39 cant have journalist running a muck if a foreign car is approached with a journalist it will be blown up cause either don t know who they are 1 11314 39 Embedding system in Iraq 0 Benefits 39 Lead to writing about the experience of ordinary soldiers and being in war 39 promotes positive attitude toward invasion Practical need for imbedding dangerous terrain 0 impractical for journalist be on their own 0 Media Response 39 Unilateral 0 Not embedded journalist 0 some reporters not to be embedded 0 follow invasion trailing indexing hypothesis 0 Predict uncritical of the basic premise go administration even though the story could have been covered differently Tells us that administration sources are very privileged in the this process 0 Biggest elites 47 48 Media in Free society 39 White house 39 Congress 0 Other elites 39 experts ect 0 Outside of US coverage of war very skeptical corollary to indexing Frames re ect administration perspective 39 Liberation Frame Administration view 0 US in the right national security threat 0 we were the what the Iraqi s wanted 0 Administration said we would be welcome as liberators by Iraq s Sicily metaphor 39 when US came in after WWII Invasion of Iraq Embedding worked very well Bagdad Bob 0 Administrator for Iraqi government 0 Said very false claims about war 0 since journalist were there they could very easily debunk his claims 0 one reason why embedding is effective 39 April 9th vat official in bagdad don t show up for work regime is over Politically speaking the Iraqi regime is over that day at 5 o39clock in Bagdad time people gather in Feridos square trying to take down statue of Sudan Hussain Ef fect of story Shows the power of indexing becomes an iconic story 1100 in the morning in America narrative that the war is over Reminds us berlin wall 0 when the wall fell people took down statues Tells us that we are liberators and that we won the war Statue falling becomes wallpaper for newspaper Frame We won and we are liberators Privilege of TV tight shots 0 makes it look like their are more people at the square than their actually are 0 Advocate Victory frame Turns out their are only a little more then 100 people at the square 49 Media in Free society 39 Accurate portrait from interviewing Iraqi s 39 happy Hussein is gone but humiliating that it had to take American help Victory frame Premature 39 amount of battle coverage drops signi cantly a week after April 9th 39 but their wasn39t less ghting still had lots to deal with outside of Bagdad 39 but coverage switched to post war tone 39 victory frame Product of indexing President s approval rating goes way up 39 public accepts that we have Embedding changes No contract for embedding 39 When reporters embedded get to Bagdad leave and unilaterally report spring and summer in bagdad are low key Huge Tragic shift in war 39 important and tragic change in a way wars are covered since 911 39 Journalist became targets Now embedding is the only way to cover a story for safety 39 View of war becomes very one sided 39 Covering counter insurgency becomes very difficult Result of embedding for protection 39 war goes very badly very quickly 39 Support for war goes down democrats oppose war 0 party heuristics in effect Study Americans killed in action were underreported 39 back to post vietnam friction 0 Press and public v Administration Administration argument 0 press not covering good news in Iraq 0 what is the good news 39 Schools being built 39 Why missing the school 39 but cant see it because its so dangerous 39 but embedding allows administration to controls what you see soo wahh Casualty reporting 39 1st photo of dead American in Iraq was in 2005 39 New Military requirements for embedding system 39 take photo of wounded and dead soldiers manipulation of control make job much more hostile related to weather casualty coverage results in a negative view of war Media in Free society 0 Press censors itself 39 choose not cover casualties 0 Pre censorship 39 Grenada to desert storm 0 After desert storm Press says its not our fault 39 we wanted to show you the war but bc of embedding we couldn39t 39 but actually the press censors itself 0 relates to commercial needs 39 embedding becomes very complicated as war becomes more dangerous for journalist 1 11814 39 Media Censor itself rather then government censors 39 Idea that casualty coverage will lower morale Determinants of Public Support for War 0 Mueller Casualty Aversion Hypothesis 0 Feaver and Gelpi success and rightness Matter 0 Jentelson Principal Policy Objective PPO 0 Berenski Elite cues 0 Whats missing 39 Framing Framing windows 0 Iraq 0 Afganistan 0 Black hawk down in Semolina American Reaction someone hurt us Lets get em 39 No elite support 39 Casualties are contextualized by the public 0 Elite cues if all elites are in agreement i m going to be casualty tolerant 39 Victory speeches reminds partisans why they support war to begin with 0 Three types of Intervention Foreign Policy Restraint intervention 0 EX Peral harbor 911 0 Lots of support and more casualty tolerant 911 fighting against Al qaeda and weapons of mass destruction 39 Humanitarian intervention 0 EX Rwanda and Semolina 0 Far less public support 39 No weapons of mass destruction frame shifted to mass destruction and public becomes less casualty tolerant 50 Media in Free society 0 CNN effect Argues that a public will be more likely to oppose a war of they see casualty coverage Paradox is that only policy makers think that is true Does Casualty coverage actually matter 0 It is very hard to study and nd concrete evidence to understand 0 persuasion action 39 exposure 0 Peta example turn away don t want to see casualty images Appears to happen when people see casualty coverage of their own country 0 People Aday study in 2005 0 show casualty pic to people who lean to left and right people who lean to the left more likely to see Anger and disgust viewed as a waste 39 people who lean more to the right more prideful Partisanship effects the way people view these images 0 Media effects in War Media matters the most in the rallies phases leading up to a war Media is more likely to frame elites Events are likely to be frames 0 seen in coverage in the fall of Sudan Hussain Explanation Pride Media matters less in long wars 0 Elite opinion matters most Events matter 0 The events themselves shape an opinion of a war we can see journalist bias when they violate standard of journalism wars 0 Problematic bc as a society we treat war as if it something separate for agenda CLAUSEWITZ 1 12014 Social and Digital Media 39 1994 What is intemet anyway Today show video Arab spring protest 2011 0 famed around digital communication ability to bring down authoritarian regimes 2009 Green Revolution 0 Irani revolutionary mvmt in social media 0 catalyzed of twitter revolution 0 new medium is often assumed to be more powerful then it actually is is this true Does social media really have s such big effect on revolutions Neda video 51 Media in Free society women shot down from protesting results of iran election becomes an iconic image from green revolution protest goes viral because it represents 0 Ordinary women standing up to authorial Iran Regime being shot down by a belligerent faceless authority social media allows ordinary people to nd information with out the censorship of media more discussion outside of Iran Effects 0 pressure on authority regime because everyone is watching 1994 Rwanda Genocide bbc reporter captured a video of women in a street begging for their life and being killed argument for rwanda 0 TV cameras eXposure would have stopped the eXposure 0 if their was twitter in 1994 that would have exposed the gencide and would not have happened 0 Boomerang effect Information in a country get out out international community and strops a regime Digital ICT advantages Reb Decentralized No hierarchy reaches large number of people Grassroots organizing contrast to old media system TV NP they are twoway the revolutionary difference dialogic media that allows us to engage with each other gt fundamental shift ecca39s McKinnon Network Authoritarianism When an authoritarian regime embraces and adjust to the inevitable changes brought by digital communications the result is what I call networked authoritarianism Chinese gvmt and how it manages social media censor info about tactical protest but allow certain amour of expression more subtle more concerned about managing info in their country rather than outside Dictators Dilemmas T 39Cut 0B 52 heory by political activists Phil Howard dictators want power and before social media dictator can have a close info system but bc of social media economy you have to allow your country to progress digital technology have to do that in stay in power but when you let in digital technology you let in the mechanism to lead to a demise Cat Theory of digital activism y Ethan Zuckerman intemet used for trivialization of info cat videos and porn Media in Free society 39 technology misty used for tribal purposes but a small percentage is used to political mobilization Micheal Jackson and Irani Revolution Coverage mainstream more likely to cover jackson vs Iran coverage Blogs more likely to cover iran vs Jackson Back to argument about norms commercialization of media 39 Celebrity dies more important that major news on international security Clay Shirky 39 Cyber optimist 39 claims that the importance of Social media is providing access to each other forming groups becomes easier Problem gt Assumption just cause we have access to social media info everyone else does 39 Facebook revolution can only really occur in a developed country 39 Links shared during the Arab spring 53 MORE links shared outside of country than inside why are links shared in Bahrain regime very strong and has regional support 39 place that the US is not as willing to sell out regime 39 Strong portion of populous that supported the regime 39 US embassy fb page in bahrain tried to open fb page for commentary critical of US and comment on it 0 Division between domestic community Social Media interest in revolutionary instances comes from outside of the region 39 could lead to boomerang effect but didn39t work in this case because US had different interest of tweets in arabic english Syria 39 Syria goes from protest mvmt to civil war 39 little interaction between western journalist and everyone else Arabic tweet very different then English language twitters 0 Profound implication for how we understand syrian coverage 0 Lots of narratives and truths 0 what we see in western coverage is one side not the whole story 0 how it effects Boomerang effects 39 social media coverage pressures the international community What we don t see on the intemet is a redistribution of political interest 0 what we do see on the intemet 0 only handful of sites dominate audience Does more media more information Has not changed political knowledge as a society Does more media More accountability 39 tactically Media in Free society 1 12614 Ferguson protest in DC media response to protest 0 Frame that protesters are being violent vandalism not violence vast majority of protest were peaceful violence actually from the authorities gt overwhelming police presence gt tear gas reliance on authorities as sources 0 authoritative source bias Frame bias toward tight shots 0 Makes it seem like 1000s of violent protesters 0 When it facts its 100s of peaceful protest voicing their opinion about the ferguson decision 0 coverage makes it look like a war zone 39 What is the role of the press in a free society and to what degree do they fulfill that role 0 Question we have been answering all class liberal partison bias in media coverage 0 we should be able to find bias to what come naturally to reporters 0 Domke et al Political motive that explains motives of liberal bias Found empirical evidence that conservative charges of liberal bias are for strategic ends In Jan 88 12 though media has liberal bias by 96 that was 43 0 not more bias but 0 not a change in coverage but rise in conservatives and republicans us the claim of liberal bias 0 one sided argument 39 no counter liberal argument never hear the word conservative government Not because of change in coverage but because of increase in publication on lib bias charges esp by elites Niven If their is a liberal bias we should see democrats getting more credit when thing so right By lib bias if there are 2 gov l dem and 1 rep then den should get more credit 20 years of NO coverage of governors Finds no evidence if partisan bias Another study he expands and looked at mayors 0 Also finds no bias 0 but does find racial and gender bias more blame less credit 0 Grosenclose Says avg voter should be at 25 on RL contium D Alessio andAllen Meta analysis of 59 studies of partisan bias in presidential campaigns since 48 54 Media in Free society Looked at there types of potential bias 0 Gatekeeping selecting stories for one party 0 Coverage amount for each party 0 Statement favorable coverage for each party Findings 0 No newspaper bias some magazine only small insubstantial tv bias in coverage and statement Overwhelming nding that their doesn39t seem to be a liberal campaign coverage but that isn39t the extent of where we look for liberal bias credibility 0 when covering campaigns reporters are hyper sensitive to bias because they want to protect their credibility 0 political stories led themselves to two sided ness On bigger scale maybe bias exists on elsewhere 39 bias to two sidedness 39 bias toward soft news 39 enduring values that exist through out generations 0 ethnocenturism 0 small town pasturalism 39 makes rural american seem normal and typical real american 0 War biases 39 not just in the realm of policy but impact patriotism and other enduring values 39 war in relation to culture 1920 war movies in britain and france movies 0 German theme os betrayals from versatile explicitly and implicitly by jews 0 Britain dont show violence on screen reminder of the WWI reminder of lost of generation 39 Overwhelming bias is a mainstream bias 0 must be media literate and understand what is mainstream and what is not 0 value in two sidedness 39 Exam 39 MCQs same length as last time 55 0 balance of lecture and readings 39 dont need to numbers know argument Ex know basically what Niven found and what those findings mean
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