Notes and Reveiw for Chapter 5 CNS system
Notes and Reveiw for Chapter 5 CNS system PHYS 205
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Decker on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHYS 205 at Ball State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Human Physiology in Physiology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Review exercises Chapter 5 answered to the best of ability 1 2 3 Essay questions 1 The left CSFs function is to prevent the brain from bumping into interior wall of skull ln emergencies the brain can perform anaerobic metabolism Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere bring about paralysis and loss of sensation to the right side of the body The hands and with the mouth structures associated have a disproportionately large representation in both motor cortexes hemisphere of the brain logical analytical verbal tasks such as right hemisphere excels skills especially spatial Hand tomouth feeding tasting share of sensory and excels in sequential and math While the in nonlanguage perception and artistic and musical talents The process of transferring and xing shortterm memory traces into long term memory stores is known as consolidation Afferent bers enter through the dorsal root of the spinal cord and efferent bers leave through the ventral root A central nervous system consists of brain and spinal cord B peripheral nervous system consists of nerves carrying information between periphery and the CNS C efferent division division of PNS that transmits signals FROM the CNS e away D afferent division division of PNS that transmits signals TO the CNS a to E automatic nervous system supplies smooth muscle F somosamatic nervous system supplies skeletal muscle Discuss the function of each of the following astrocytes oligodendrocytes ependymal cells microglia cerebrospinal uid and bloodbrain barrier a Astrocytes type of glial cell in the brain major functions include holding the neurons together in a proper spatial relationship including the brain capillaries to form tight junctions important to the bloodbrain barrier and enhancing synaptic activity b Oligodendrocytes the myelinforming cells of the CNS Glial cell connective tissue of CNS that supports neurons both physically and metabolically c Ependymal cells the glial cells lining the ventricles of the brain which serves as neural stem cells d Microglia type of glial cells that serve as the immune defense cells of the CNS e Cerebrospinal uid a special cushioning uid that is produced by surrounds and ows through CNS f Bloodbrain barrier special structural and functional access of materials from blood into brain tissue 2 Compare composition of white and gray matter Gray matter consists mostly of densely packed neuronal cell bodies and their dendrites as well as most glial cells White matter is made of bundles or tracts of myelinated nerve bers 3 Draw and label the major functional areas of the cerebral cortex indicating the functions attributable to each area Primary motor cortex Supplementary motor area voluntary movement on inner surfaoenot visible programming of complex movements Sometosensory cortex somesthetic sensation I and proprioception Central sulcus Posterior parietal cortex integration of somato 39 sensory and visual input important for complex movements Wernicke39s area speech understanding Premotor cortex coordination quot 5 ol complex movements 39 Prefrontal association cortex planning for voluntary activity decision making personality traits Frontal lobe Parietal lobe Parietalatempermoccipital association cortex v integration of all sensory input important in language Broca s area speech formation Primary auditory cortex surrounded by higherorder auditory cortex hearing Ocoip ital lobe Primary visual cortex surrounded by higher Limbic association cortex e r f order Visual cortex Slgh 39 39 i ttom mostly on Inner and be surface of temporal lobe motivation and emotion memory Temporal lobe Cerebellum Spinal cord iBrain stem 1 a v Ible for various functions r r cerebral cortex responsr F a Regmns m the 0 FIGURE 58 Functional areas of the cerebral cor tex a Various regions of the cerebral cortex are rnchththP for variouseaspects of neural nrnm irl 4 Discuss the functions of each of the following parts of the brain thalamus hypothalamus basal nuclei imbic system cerebellum brain stem a Thalamus serves as sympatic integrating center for preliminary processing of all sensory input on its way to cerebral cortex b Hypothalamus regulates many aspects of the internal uid environment such as water and salt balance and food intake Serves as an important link between the automatic nervous system and endocrine system c Basal nuclei plays important inhibitory role in motor control d Limbic system functionally interconnected ring of the forebrain structures that surrounds the brain stem and is concerned with emotions basic survival and sociosexual behavior patterns motivation and learning e Cerebellum is concerned with maintain proper position of the body in space and subconscious coordination of motor activity f Brain stem serves as integrating link between spinal cord and higher brain levels and controls many lifesustaining processes such as breathing circulation and digestion 5 De ne somesthetic sensation and proprioception a Somesthetic sensations awareness of sensory input such as touch pressure temperature and pain from body s surface b Proprioception awareness of position of body parts in relation to one another and to surroundings 6 What is an electroencephalogram And EEG produces graphic record of extracellular current ow arising from electrical activity within the cerebral cortex 7 Discuss the role of Broca39s area and Wernicke39s area in language Wernicke39s area plays a role in understanding language wile Broca39s area plays a role in producing speech formation 8 Compare shortterm and longterm memory a Shortterm memory involves transient modi cations in the functioning of preexisting synapses such as temporary change in the amount of neurotransmitters released in response tp stimulation or temporary increased responsiveness of the postsynaptic cell to neurotransmitter within affected nerve pathways b Longterm memory requires the activation of speci c genes that control synthesis of proteins needed for lasting structural or functional changes at speci c synapses Permanent physical changes in the brain 9 What is the reticular activating system RAS controls the overall degree of cortical alertness and ability to direct attention 10Compare slowwave and paradoxical REM sleep a Slowwave occurs in four stages each displaying progressively slower Spinal cord Dorsal root ganglion Meninges protective 39 39nali Sp39 coverings nerve Vertebral 7 I L na39rj EEG waves of higher amplitude b Paradoxical sleeps is the end of slowwave the EEG pattern during this time abruptly becomes similar to that of being wideawake even though you are still asleep 11Draw and label cross section of spinal cord 12List ve components of basic re ex arc a Sensory receptor b Afferent pathway c Integrating center d Efferent pathway e Effector 13Distinguish between monosynaptic and polysynaptic re ex a Monosynaptic stretch re ex the only synapse in re ex arc is the one between afferent and efferent neuron b Poysynaptic interneurons are interpreted in re ex pathway withdrawal re ex
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