First Midterm Study Guide
First Midterm Study Guide EBIO 1010-02
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ian Seaman on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
First Diversity of Life Midterm Study Guide 1 Introductory Concepts 10 A 3 Domains of Life 1 Eukarya 2 Bacteria 3 Archaea B Origin and Diversity of Life 1 Earth is 46 billion years old 2 Fossils preserved remains of a living thing a relative age level of fossil determines age b halflives age at which isotopes transform 3 Conditions on Early Earth a first organisms came about at high temperatures b atmosphere lacked oxygen gas 4 Primitive Organisms were probably autotrophic 5 Earth has been cooling since origin 11 Biology and Evolutionary Principles 65 A Eukaryotic Traits 1 compartmentalization a specialization of cell organs 2 multicellularity 3 sexual reproduction 4 nuclear membrane B Genetics 1 Evolution a change in gene frequency in a population over time 2 Chromosome coiled strand of DNA in nucleus a Allele alternative version of a trait hair color brown red b Haploid n of chromosomes needed to define an organism c Diploid 2n 2 copies of each chromosome from each parent 3 Mutation random alterations of genetic code C Sexual Reproduction 1 Process a Diploid 2n zygote gt b meiosis gt c Haploid n Gametes gt d Fertilization gt e Diploid 2n zygote 2 Mitosis a goal is to make 2 identical diploid daughter cells 1 chromosomes replicate 2 homologous chromosomes do not pair 3 line up at center 4 chromatids separate into daughter cells 3 Meiosis a object is to make 4 haploid cells from 1 diploid cell b Meiosis l Reduction Division 1 homologous chromosomes pair and crossing over occurs 2 line up at center c Meiosis 2 1 each daughter cell separates into a haploid cell 2 they each have a unique chromatid from each parent d Independent Assortment each chromosome randomly picks a haploid cell e number of gametes 2Anumber of chromosomes 1 4 chromosomes 16 gametes 2 Zygotes 2An2 D Darwin and Mendel 1 Before Darwin evolution was the unrolling of God s plan a Linnaeus published Systema Natura a tree of life that is still used today b Lamarck had theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics 2 Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859 thought adaptation was natural not divine 3 this was the mechanism of natural selection not evolution itself 4 3 Conditions for Natural Selection to Occur a must have variation in the population b variation must result in different numbers of offspring c variation must be inherited genetically 5 Mendel a discovered mechanism of heredity 1 Cross bred two truebreeding strains 2 variations of the same trait 2 Fl Generation first filial generation a all plants resembled one of the parents b referred to this trait as dominant c recessive trait reappeared in F2 generation 3 alternative traits in F2 were 3 1 Dominant to Recessive E Population Genetics 1 Homozygote identical alleles for any gene AA or aa Heterozygote different alleles for any gene Aa Genotype genetic info that makes a trait Phenotype outward appearance of the genotype 9599 HardyWeinberg Principle a let 2 alleles be P and Q b the frequency of such alleles are P 2 2PQ QAZ 1 c Proportions of Genotypes do not change if 1 no mutation 2 no immigration 3 random mating 4 population size is very large 5 no selection occurs 6 5 Agents of Evolution a Mutation l ultimate source of genetic variation b Gene Flow 1 movement of alleles from one population to another 2 mating of animals from different populations c Nonrandom Mating l assortative mating phenotypically similar increases homozygotes d Genetic Drift 1 Founder Effect a small portion of population drifts away b may not contain alleles from parent pop c alters allele frequency in small pop 2 Bottleneck Effect a pop is drastically reduced b results in loss of genetic variability e Selection 1 some organisms produce more offspring than others 7 Result of evolution by natural selection is that populations are more adapted to their environment 8 Fitness number of surviving offspring in the next generation 9 Different Types of Selection a Disruptive Selection 1 acts to eliminate intermediate types 2 favors two extreme distinctive traits b Directional Selection 1 acts to eliminate one extreme favors the other 2 often occurs when environment changes c Stabilizing Selection 1 acts to eliminate extremes 2 favors intermediate F Evidence for Evolution 1 Peter and Rosemary Grant a found differences in beak size were due to local food supply b following a drought 85 of adult finches died c survivors all had larger beaks d within one generation average beak size changed significantly 2 Arti cial Selection a changes made by man b operates by favoring certain phenotypes 3 Fossil Evidence a history of evolutionary change b documents evolutionary transitions intermediate forms split 1 ArchaeopteryX intermediate form between birds and dinosaurs 4 Comparative Anatomy a studies similarities in anatomy among diverse animals 1 Homologous Traits a common ancestor different function b vertebrate forelimb c Divergent Evolution common ancestor but diverged in function 2 Analogous Traits a functionally similar developmentally different b wings c Convergent Evolution different ancestry converged on one common shape or function 5 Embryology a strongest anatomical evidence b embryos are similar but diverge as they develop G Speciation l Sympatric Species occur together in one locality but are distinctive in phenotype and behavior 2 Allopatric Species occur separately geographically 3 The Biological Species Concept a populations members mate and produce fertile offspring b Reproductive Isolation populations Who do not have offspring 1 Barriers to Reproduction 2 Prezygotic Isolation Mechanisms a Ecological Isolation i 2 species in one area but in diff parts of the area b Behavioral Isolation i sympatric different mating signals c Temporal Isolation i timing is mismatched d Mechanical Isolation i sexual organs are incompatible e Prevention of Gamete Fusion i eggs and sperm don t fuse 3 Postzygotic Isolation Mechanism a hybrids may be weak b also may be sterile c does not apply to populations that are geographically separated asexual 4 Ecological Species Concept a distinction via natural selection b each species adapts to environment c hybrids are eliminated from gene pool 5 Speciation occurs most often in geographically isolated populations Allopatry 6 Polyploidy more than 2 sets of chromosomes III Prokaryotes and Protists 25 A Systematics and Phylogeny l we classify by similarities Taxonomy science of describing naming and classifying species Taxon any rank in classification Systematics hypothesis and discovery of relationships Phylogeny evolutionary history of organisms Clade branch of tree of life Synapomorphies shared derived characteristics shared by all in clade 8995 a Monophyletic Group natural groups of organisms clade b Paraphyletic Group contains common ancestor but only some descendants c Polyphyletic Group some descendants but no common ancestor 8 Derived Character inherited trait synapomorphy 9 Ancestral Character traits that arose to prior to ancestor 10 Phylogenetics analysis that helps nd homologousanalogous traits B Prokaryotes l Bacteria and Archaea one kingdom both contain prokaryotes 2 Prokaryotic Traits a unicellular b no nucleus c no organs bound by membranes d divide by binary ssion l 3 types of horizontal gene transfer a conjugation b transduction c transformation e most have 1 chromosome nucleoid region 3 Archaea a extremophiles b thermophilic heat loving bacteria c halophilic salt loving bacteria 4 Bacteria vs Archaea a plasma membranes b cell walls c DNA replication d Gene Expression 5 Bacteria a Cyanobacteria very important photosynthetic created earth s atmosphere 1 Nitrogen Fixation converts N2 to NH3 ammonium for plants b all are haploid most have 1 circular chromosome c most abundant organism on earth d reproduce by binary ssion or conjugation 6 Autotrophs self feeder produces their own energy 7 Heterotrophs fed by others eats other organism parasitic C Protista 1 Eukaryotes a b C d cytoskeleton compartmentalization nucleus and organelles taxonomic grab bag all protists are eukaryotic nearly all are aquatic Mixotrophs both fed by others and self feeding Diffusion passive movement from high concentration to low concentration Motile moving a 3 cilia agella pseudopodia NonMotile phylum apicomplexa parasitic Protozoa All are Heterotrophic 3 b d Phylum Euglenozoa l unicellular 2 among earliest to have a mitochondria 3 Euglena a two agella unequal Phylum Dino agellata l photosynthetic unicellular 2 2 agella 3 many are mixotrophic 4 Red Tide bloom that produces dangerous neurotoxin Phylum Apicomplexa 1 sporeforming parasites 2 apical compleX is unique organ arrangement at one end of the cell a enables cell to invade its host Phylum Ciliophora 1 8000 species 2 unicellular complex 2 nuclei 3 large numbers of cilia Phylum Amoebozoa 1 move by pseudopods puts it forward and ows into it 2 found in soil or freshwater Phylum Foraminifera 1 heterotrophic marine protists 2 formed most limestone marble and chalk 3 abundant in fossil record 7 Algae All are Autotrophic a Phylum Phaeophyta l brown algae mostly marine 2 helps marine ecosystem kelp b Phylum Bacillariophyta l diatoms goldenbrown pigment 2 photosynthetic unicellular double shells used in abrasives c Phylum Rhodophyta 1 red algae mostly marine closely related to green algae 2 carrageenan thickening agent from red algae used in ice cream d Phylum Chlorophyta 1 green algae sister taxon to land plants 2 colonial chlorophytes example of cell specialization
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